Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Indigeneity and subaltern subjectivity in decolonial discourses: a comparative study of Bolivia and Russia


The decolonial discourse of buen vivir in South America has declared the need to overcome Eurocentrism by tapping into indigenous knowledge. We compare the Bolivian version of this project with the conservative turn in Russian politics to demonstrate that they make a structurally analogous argument and they both end up with a false promise. The fullness of indigenous being that underlies such discourses is a Eurocentric, romanticist myth, which contributes to the silencing of the subaltern by imposing on them political categories not directly rooted in any genuine native experience. We reformulate postcolonial critique using Laclau’s theory of populism to suggest that subaltern subjectivity can only emerge in a bottom-up manner, through the aggregation and universalisation of local demands. While it might still be true that the subaltern cannot speak, there is no way for the subaltern to come into being other than through speaking politically.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. al-’Azm, Sadiq Jalal (2000) ‘Orientalism and Orientalism in Reverse’, in Alexander Lyon Macfie ed, Orientalism: A Reader, 212–38, New York: New York University Press.

  2. Annus, Epp (2016) ‘Introduction: Between Arts and Politics: A Postcolonial View on Baltic Cultures of the Soviet Era’, Journal of Baltic Studies, doi:10.1080/01629778.2015.1103509.

  3. Ashcroft, Bill (1996) ‘On the Hyphen in “Post-Colonial”’, New Literatures Review 32: 23–32.

  4. Bai, Eugene (2015) ‘The Real Reason Why a Resurgence of Conservatism in Russia Is Dangerous’, Russia Direct, 24 April, http://www.russia-direct.org/analysis/real-reason-why-resurgence-conservatism-russia-dangerous (accessed on 8 November, 2015).

  5. Bhabha, Homi (1994) The Location of Culture, London: Routledge.

  6. Bieler, Andreas and Adam David Morton (2008) ‘The Deficits of Discourse in IPE: Turning Base Metal into Gold?’, International Studies Quarterly 32(1): 103–28.

  7. Burman, Anders (2014) ‘“Now We Are Indígenas”: Hegemony and Indigeneity in the Bolivian Andes’, Latin American and Caribbean Ethnic Studies 9(3): 247–71.

  8. Cadena, Marisol de la (2010) ‘Indigenous Cosmopolitics in the Andes: Conceptual Reflections beyond “Politics”’, Cultural Anthropology 25(2): 334–70.

  9. Canessa, Andrew (2014) ‘Conflict, Claim and Contradiction in the New “Indigenous” State of Bolivia’, Critique of Anthropology 34(2): 153–73.

  10. Cannadine, D. (2001) Ornamentalism: How the British See Their Empire, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

  11. Carvajal, Rolando (2015) ‘Silvia Rivera: “Vivir bien”, palabra hueca que no se cumple para nada [Silvia Rivera: “Vivir bien”, a Hollow Word That Never Comes True]’, Erbol Digital, 29 September, http://www.erbol.com.bo/noticia/politica/29092015/silvia_rivera_vivir_bien_palabra_hueca_que_no_se_cumple_para_nada (accessed on 8 November, 2015).

  12. Chakrabarty, Dipesh (2000) Provincializing Europe: Postcolonial Thought and Historical Difference, Princeton and Oxford: Princeton University Press.

  13. Chattopadhyay, Swati and Bhaskar Sarkar (2006) ‘Introduction: The Subaltern and the Popular’, Postcolonial Studies 8(4): 357–63.

  14. Chivi Vargas, Idón Moisés, ed. (2010) Bolivia: Nueva constitución política del estado: Conceptos elementales para el desarrollo normativo [Bolivia: The New Political Constitution of the State: Elementary Concepts for Normative Development], La Paz: Vicepresidencia del Estado Plurinacional.

  15. Choquehuanca Céspedes, David (2011) ‘Bolivia: Hacia la reconstrucción del Vivir Bien [Bolivia: Towards a Reconstruction of Vivir Bien]’, Servindi, 23 March, http://servindi.org/actualidad/41823 (accessed on 7 November, 2015).

  16. Condee, Nancy (2009) The Imperial Trace: Recent Russian Cinema, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

  17. Cox, Robert W. (1987) Production, Power, and World Order: Social Forces and the Making of History, New York: Columbia University Press.

  18. Davidson, Neil (2005) ‘How Revolutionary Were the Bourgeois Revolutions?’, Historical Materialism 13(4): 3–54.

  19. Dragunsky, Denis (2015) ‘Krestyanin torzhestvuet [The Peasant is Triumphant]’, Gazeta.Ru, 7 November, http://www.gazeta.ru/comments/column/dragunsky/7874135.shtml (accessed on 8 November, 2015).

  20. Dussel, Enrique (1995) The Invention of the Americas: Eclipse of ‘the Other’ and the Myth of Modernity, New York: Continuum.

  21. Edgerton, Robert B. (1992) Sick Societies: Challenging the Myth of Primitive Harmony, New York: Free Press.

  22. Ellingson, Ter (2001) The Myth of the Noble Savage, Berkeley: University of California Press.

  23. Ellner, Steve (2012) ‘The Distinguishing Features of Latin America’s New Left in Power: The Chávez, Morales, and Correa Governments’, Latin American Perspectives 39(1): 96–114.

  24. Epstein, Charlotte (2014) ‘The Postcolonial Perspective: An Introduction’, International Theory 6(2): 294–311.

  25. Escobar, Arturo (2007) ‘Worlds and Knowledges Otherwise’, Cultural Studies 21(2–3): 179–210.

  26. Escobar, Arturo (2010) Una minga para el postdesarrollo: lugar, medio ambiente y movimientos sociales en las transformaciones globales [A Minga for Post-Development: Space, the Environment and Social Movements in the Global Transformations], Lima: Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos.

  27. Etkind, Alexander (1998) Khlyst: sekty, literatura i revolutsiya [Klhyst: Sects, Literature and the Revolution], Moscow: Novoe literaturnoe obozrenie.

  28. Etkind, Alexander (2002) ‘Bremia britogo cheloveka: vturenniaya kolonizatsiya Rossii [The Shaven Man’s Burden: Internal Colonisation of Russia]’, Ab Imperio 1: 265–98.

  29. Etkind, Alexander (2011) Internal Colonization: Russia’s Imperial Experience, Cambridge: Polity.

  30. Farah H., Ivonne and Luciano Vasapollo, eds (2011) Vivir bien: ¿Paradigma no capitalista? [Vivir Bien: A Non-Capitalist Paradigm?], La Paz: CIDES–UMSA.

  31. Fernández, Blanca S., Liliana Pardo and Katherine Salamanca (2014) ‘El buen vivir en Ecuador: ¿marketing político o proyecto en disputa? Un diálogo con Alberto Acosta [Buen Vivir in Ecuador: Political Marketing or a Disputed Project? A Dialogue with Alberto Acosta]’, Iconos: Revista de Ciencias Sociales 48: 101–17.

  32. Ferreira, Javo (2014) Comunidad, indigenismo y marxismo. Un debate sobre la cuestión agraria y nacional-indígena en los Andes [Community, Indigeneity and Marxism. A Debate on the Agrarian and National-Indigenous Question in the Andes], La Paz: Ediciones Palabra Obrera.

  33. Gamboa Rocabado, Franco (2010) ‘Bolivia frente a su espejo: el indianismo, sus orígenes y limitaciones en el siglo XXI [Bolivia in front of a Mirror: Indianism, Its Origins and Limitations in the Twenty-First Century]’, Estudios Sociológicos 28(83): 529–60.

  34. Gandhi, Leela (1998) Postcolonial Theory. A Critical Introduction, New York: Columbia University Press.

  35. Gascó, Emma and Martín Cúneo (2011) ‘Alejandro Almaraz: “El proceso de cambio en Bolivia está corriendo el grave riesgo de agotarse” [Alejandro Almaraz: “The Process of Change in Bolivia Runs a Serious Risk of Exhaustion]’, Los movimientos contraatacan, 23 July, https://losmovimientoscontraatacan.wordpress.com/2011/07/23/alejandro-almaraz-%E2%80%9Cel-proceso-de-cambio-en-bolivia-esta-corriendo-el-grave-riesgo-de-agotarse%E2%80%9D/ (accessed on 8 November, 2015).

  36. González Casanova, Pablo (1969) Sociología de la explotación [Sociology of Exploitation], México: Siglo XXI Editores.

  37. Greene, Samuel A. (2014) Moscow in Movement: Power and Opposition in Putin’s Russia, Stanford: Stanford University Press.

  38. Gudynas, Eduardo (2011) ‘Buen Vivir: Today’s Tomorrow’, Development 54(4): 441–47.

  39. Gudynas, Eduardo (2015) ‘La necesidad de romper con un colonialismo “simpático” [The Need to Break with “Nice” Colonialism]’, Plan V, 28 September, http://www.planv.com.ec/historias/sociedad/la-necesidad-romper-con-un-colonialismo-simpatico (accessed on 7 November, 2015).

  40. Hall, Stuart (1986) ‘The Problem of Ideology – Marxism Without Guarantees’, Journal of Communication Inquiry 10(2): 28–44.

  41. Hardt, Michael and Antonio Negri (2000) Empire, Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

  42. Hidalgo-Capitán, Antonio Luis and Ana Patricia Cubillo-Guevara (2014) ‘Seis debates abiertos sobre el sumak kawsay [Six Open Debates on Sumak Kawsay]’, Íconos: Revista de Ciencias Sociales 48: 25–40.

  43. Hoare, Quentin, and Geoffrey Nowell Smith (1999) ‘The Intellectuals: Introduction’, in Antonio Gramsci ed., Selections from the Prison Notebooks, edited and translated by Quentin Hoare and Geoffrey Nowell Smith, 131–33, London: ElecBook.

  44. Hosking, Geoffrey (2001) Russia: People and Empire 15521917, Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

  45. Howard, Rosaleen (2009) ‘Education Reform, Indigenous Politics, and Decolonisation in the Bolivia of Evo Morales’, International Journal of Educational Development 29(6): 583–93.

  46. Izvestia (2014) ‘Minkultury izlozhilo “Osnovy gosudarstvennoi kulturnoi politiki” [The Ministry of Culture Has Laid Out the “Foundations of State Cultural Policy”]’, Izvestia, 10 April, http://izvestia.ru/news/569016 (accessed on 13 February, 2016).

  47. Jessop, Bob (2002) The Future of the Capitalist State, Cambridge: Polity.

  48. Kagarlitsky, Boris (2008) Empire of the Periphery: Russia and the World System, London: Pluto Press.

  49. Kapoor, Ilan (2005) ‘Participatory Development, Complicity and Desire’, Third World Quarterly 26(8): 1203–20.

  50. Kapoor, Ilan (2008) The Postcolonial Politics of Development, London: Routledge.

  51. Kibirov, Timur (2015) ‘“V strane zhe deistvitelno fashizm” [“The Country Is Indeed under Fascist Rule”]’, Colta.Ru, 4 September, http://www.colta.ru/articles/literature/8414 (accessed on 7 November, 2015).

  52. Kołodziejczhyk, Dorota and Cristina Şandru (2012) ‘Introduction: On Colonialism, Communist and East-Central Europe – Some Reflections’, Journal of Postcolonial Writing 48(2): 113–16.

  53. Krastev, Ivan (2011) ‘Paradoxes of New Authoritarianism’, Journal of Democracy 22(2): 5–16.

  54. Laclau, Ernesto (2005) On Populist Reason, London: Verso.

  55. Laclau, Ernesto and Chantal Mouffe (1985) Hegemony and Socialist Strategy, London: Verso.

  56. Lao-Montes, Augustin (2011) ‘Crisis de la civilización occidental capitalista y movimientos antisistémicos [The Crisis of the Western Capitalist Civilisation and Anti-Systemic Movements]’, Nexus Comunicación 9: 140–83.

  57. Laruelle, Marlene (2015) ‘Russia as a “Divided Nation,” from Compatriots to Crimea: A Contribution to the Discussion on Nationalism and Foreign Policy’, Problems of Post-Communism 62(2): 88–97.

  58. Laserna, Roberto (2010) ‘Mire, la democracia boliviana, en los hechos… [Look, the Bolivian Democracy, in Fact…]’, Latin American Research Review 45(Special Issue): 27–58.

  59. Lieven, Dominique (2000) Empire: The Russian Empire and Its Rivals, London: John Murray.

  60. Macusaya, Carlos (2015) ‘¿Cuándo se jodió la “descolonización a la boliviana”? [When Did “Decolonisation the Bolivian Way” Get Busted?]’, Pukara 9(110): 4–6.

  61. Maldonado-Torres, Nelson (2011) ‘Thinking through the Decolonial Turn: Post-Continental Interventions in Theory, Philosophy, and Critique – An Introduction’, Transmodernity 1(2): 1–15.

  62. Martin, Terry (2001) The Affirmative Action Empire: Nations and Nationalism in the Soviet Union, 19231939, Ithaca: Cornell University Press.

  63. Martínez, Estefanía et al. (2015) ‘Ni colonialistas, ni simpáticos: una respuesta a Eduardo Gudynas [Neither Colonialists, Nor Nice: A Reply to Eduardo Gudynas]’, La Línea de Fuego, 13 October, http://lalineadefuego.info/2015/10/13/ni-colonialistas-ni-simpaticos-una-respuesta-a-eduardo-gudynas/ (accessed on 7 November, 2015).

  64. Mbembe, Achilles (2001) On the Postcolony, Berkeley: University of California Press.

  65. Medina, Javier (2011) ‘Acerca del Suma Qamaña [On Suma Qamaña]’, in Ivonne Farah H. and Luciano Vasapollo, eds, Vivir bien: ¿Paradigma no capitalista?, 39–64, La Paz: CIDES–UMSA.

  66. Mignolo, Walter (2000) Local Histories/Global Designs: Coloniality, Subaltern Knowledges, and Border Thinking, Princeton: Princeton University Press.

  67. Mignolo, Walter (2007) ‘Delinking’, Cultural Studies 21(2–3): 449–514.

  68. Mignolo, Walter (2009) ‘Epistemic Disobedience, Independent Thought and Decolonial Freedom’, Theory, Culture and Society 26(7–8): 159–81.

  69. Mignolo, Walter and Madina Tlostanova (2012) Learning to Unlearn: Decolonial Reflections from Eurasia and the Americas, Columbus: Ohio State University Press.

  70. Morozov, Viatcheslav (2015) Russia’s Postcolonial Identity: A Subaltern Empire in a Eurocentric World, Basingstoke: Palgrave.

  71. Morris, Rosalind C. (2010) ‘Introduction’, in Rosalind C. Morris, ed., Can the Subaltern Speak? Reflections on the History of an Idea, 1–20, New York: Columbia University Press.

  72. Morton, Adam David (2007) Unravelling Gramsci: Hegemony and Passive Revolution in the Global Political Economy, London: Pluto Press.

  73. Motyl, Alexander J. (2001) Imperial Ends: The Decay, Collapse, and Revival of Empires, New York: Columbia University Press.

  74. Münkler, Herfried (2007) Empires: The Logic of World Domination from Ancient Rome to the United States, Cambridge: Polity.

  75. Ndlovu-Gatsheni, Sabelo J. (2013) Empire, Global Coloniality and African Subjectivity, New York and Oxford: Berghahn Books.

  76. Neumann, Iver B. (1996) Russia and the Idea of Europe. A Study in Identity and International Relations, London and New York: Routledge.

  77. Neumann, Iver B. (2008) ‘Russia as a Great Power, 1815–2007’, Journal of International Relations and Development 11(2): 128–51.

  78. Pallares, Amalia (2002) From Peasant Struggles to Indian Resistance: The Ecuadorean Andes in the Late Twentieth Century, Norman: University of Oklahoma Press.

  79. Pavlova, Elena (2013) ‘The Regional and the Universal: The New Democratic Discourses in the Russian Federation and Latin America’, in Viatcheslav Morozov, ed., Decentring the West: The Idea of Democracy and the Struggle for Hegemony, 85–99, Aldershot: Ashgate.

  80. Portugal Mollinedo, Pedro (2010) ‘Perspectivas indianistas-kataristas [Indianist-Katarsist Perspectives]’, Le monde diplomatiqueEdición Boliviana, June.

  81. Portugal Mollinedo, Pedro (2011) ‘Descolonización: Bolivia y el Tawantinsuyu [Decolonisation: Bolivia and Tawantinsuyu]’, in Gonzálo Gosálvez and Jorge Dulon, eds, Descolonización en Bolivia. Cuatro ejes para comprender el cambio, 63–98, La Paz: Vicepresidencia del Estado Plurinacional.

  82. Postero, Nancy (2007) ‘Andean Utopias in Evo Morales’s Bolivia’, Latin American and Caribbean Ethnic Studies 2(1): 1–28.

  83. Prozorov, Sergei (2008) ‘Belonging and Inclusion in European–Russian relations: Alain Badiou and the Truth of Europe’, Journal of International Relations and Development 11(2): 181–207.

  84. Prozorov, Sergei (2011) ‘The Other as Past and Present: Beyond the Logic of “Temporal Othering” in IR Theory’, Review of International Studies 37(3): 1273–93.

  85. Putin, Vladimir (2012) Address to the Federal Assembly, 12 December, http://kremlin.ru/transcripts/17118 (accessed on 8 November, 2015).

  86. Putin, Vladimir (2014) Address by President of the Russian Federation, 18 March, http://eng.kremlin.ru/transcripts/6889 (accessed on 9 November, 2015).

  87. Putin, Vladimir (2015) World Congress of Compatriots, 5 November, http://en.kremlin.ru/events/president/news/50639 (accessed on 13 February, 2016).

  88. Quijano, Aníbal (2000) ‘Coloniality of Power, Eurocentrism, and Latin America’, Nepantla: Views from South 1(3): 533–80.

  89. Radcliffe, Sarah A. (2015) ‘Development Alternatives’, Development and Change 46(4): 855–74.

  90. Ramírez Gallegos, René (2010) Socialismo del sumak kawsay: o biosocialismo republicano [The Socialism of Sumak Kawsay: Or, Republican Biosocialism], Quito: SENPLADES.

  91. Rancière, Jacques (1999) Dis-Agreement: Politics and Philosophy, Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

  92. Rapoport, Anatoli (2015) ‘Education Reforms and Civic Identity Construction in Russia’, Russian-American Education Forum 7(3), http://www.rus-ameeduforum.com/content/en/?task=art&article=1001154&iid=23 (accessed on 13 February, 2016).

  93. RG (2015) ‘Ukaz Prezidenta Rossiiskoi Federatsii ot 31 dekabria 2015 goda N 683 “O Strategii natsionalnoi bezopasnosti Rossiiskoi Federatsii” [Decree of the President of the Russian Federation of 31 December 2015 no. 683 “On the Strategy of National Security of the Russian Federation”]’, Rossiiskaya gazeta, 31 December, http://www.rg.ru/2015/12/31/nac-bezopasnost-site-dok.html (accessed on 13 February, 2016).

  94. Riasanovsky, Nicholas V. (1959) Nicholas I and Official Nationality in Russia, 1825–1855, Berkeley: University of California Press.

  95. Ringmar, Erik (2002) ‘The Recognition Game: Soviet Russia Against the West’, Cooperation and Conflict 37(2): 115–36.

  96. Rivera Cusicanqui, Silvia (2010) ‘Oprimidos pero no vencidos’: luchas del campesinado aymara y qhechwa 19001980 [Oppressed but not Defeated: The Struggle of the Aymara and Quechua Peasants, 1900–1980], La Paz: La Mirada Salvaje.

  97. Rosengarten, Frank (2009) ‘The Contemporary Relevance of Gramsci’s Views on Italy’s “Southern Question”’, in Joseph Francese, ed., Perspectives on Gramsci: Politics, Culture and Social Theory, 134–44, London and New York: Routledge.

  98. Sánchez Parga, José (2011) ‘Discursos retrorevolucionarios: sumak kawsay, derechos de la naturaleza y otros pachamamismos [Retrorevolutionary Discourses: Sumak Kawsay, the Rights of Nature and Other Pachamamisms]’, Ecuador Debate 84: 51–56.

  99. Sharafutdinova, Gulnaz (2014) ‘The Pussy Riot Affair and Putin’s Démarche from Sovereign Democracy to Sovereign Morality’, Nationalities Papers 42(4): 615–21.

  100. Snetkov, Aglaya (2015) Russia’s Security Policy under Putin: A Critical Perspective, London, New York: Routledge.

  101. Spivak, Gayatri Chakravorty (1988) ‘Can the Subaltern Speak?’, in Cary Nelson and Lawrence Grossberg, eds, Marxism and the Interpretation of Culture, 271–313, Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press.

  102. Spivak, Gayatri Chakravorty (1999) A Critique of Postcolonial Reason: Toward a History of the Vanishing Present, Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

  103. Starn, Orin (1991) ‘Missing the Revolution: Anthropologists and the War in Peru’, Cultural Anthropology 6(1): 63–91.

  104. Stella, Francesca and Nadya Nartova (2016) ‘Sexual Citizenship, Nationalism and Biopolitics in Putin’s Russia’, in Francesca Stella, Yvette Taylor, Tracey Reynolds and Antoine Rogers, eds, Sexuality, Citizenship and Belonging: Trans-National and Intersectional Perspectives, 17–36, New York, Abingdon: Routledge.

  105. Swampa, Maristella (2015) ‘Termina la era de las promesas andinas [The Era of Andean Promises Is Ending]’, Clarin, 25 August, http://www.revistaenie.clarin.com/ideas/Termina-promesas-andinas_0_1417058291.html (accessed on 7 November, 2015).

  106. Tlostanova, Madina (2008) ‘The Janus-Faced Empire Distorting Orientalist Discourses: Gender, Race and Religion in the Russian/(post)Soviet Constructions of the “Orient”’, Worlds and Knowledges Otherwise 2(2): 1–11.

  107. Tlostanova, Madina (2010) Gender Epistemologies and Eurasian Borderlands, New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

  108. Uffelmann, Dirk (2012) ‘Podvodnye kamni vnutrennei (de)kolonizatsii Rossii [The Pitfalls of Russia’s Internal (De)colonisation]’, in Alexander Etkind, Dirk Uffelmann and Ilya Kukulin, eds, Tam, vnutri: praktiki vnutrennei kolonizatsii v kulturnoi istorii Rossii, 53–104, Moscow: Novoe literaturnoe obozrenie.

  109. Vargas Mendes, Fernando (2015) ‘La moribunda moda de descolonización [The Moribund Fashion for Decolonisation]’, Movimiento Indianista Katarista, http://movimientoindianistakatarista.blogspot.com.ee/2015/10/la-moribunda-moda-de-la-descolonizacion.html (accessed on 31 October, 2015).

  110. Villalba, Unai (2013) ‘Buen Vivir vs Development: A Paradigm Shift in the Andes?’, Third World Quarterly 34(8): 1427–42.

  111. Walsh, Catherine (2010) ‘Development as Bien Vivir: Institutional Arrangements and (De)colonial entanglements’, Development 53(1): 15–21.

  112. Yampara, Simon (2010) ‘Debate del Buen Vivir, una solución a la crisis de civilización moderna [The Debate on Buen Vivir, a Solution to the Crisis of the Modern Civilisation]’, Rebelión, 7 April, http://www.rebelion.org/noticia.php?id=103616 (accessed on 8 November, 2015).

  113. Yavlinsky, Grigory (2014) ‘Novyi kurs Putina: “Rossia – ne Evropa” [Putin’s New Course: “Russia Is Not Europe”]’, Radio Liberty, 27 September, http://www.svoboda.org/content/article/26608863.html (accessed on 13 February, 2016).

  114. Yeliseev, Stanislav (2013) ‘Kadyrov: “U evropeitsev net po bolshomu schetu ni kultury, ni nravstvennosti” [Kadyrov: The Europeans, Largely Speaking, Have Neither Culture Nor Morals”]’, Slon.ru, 13 September, http://slon.ru/fast/russia/kadyrov-u-evropeytsev-net-po-bolshomu-schetu-ni-kultury-ni-nravstvennosti-991660.xhtml (accessed on 13 February, 2016).

  115. Young, Robert J. C. (2004) White Mythologies, second edition, London and New York: Routledge.

  116. Zarakol, Ayşe (2011) After Defeat: How the East Learned to Live with the West, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Interviews conducted by Elena Pavlova in La Paz and Cochabamba in December 2014

  1. 1. Orlando Alandia, artist, 16 December

  2. 2. Rocio Bustamante, environmental NGO activist,16 December

  3. 3. Pablo Ezedin Alarcon Prado, diplomat, 11 December

  4. 4. Marcelo Fernandez Osco, sociologist, 20 December

  5. 5. Javo Ferreira, leader of the Workers League for the Fourth International, 9 and 11 December

  6. 6. Carlos Macusaya, anthropologist, 11 December

  7. 7. Fernando Mayorga, political scientist, 15 December

  8. 8. Nicolas Melendres, Master student in political science, 12 December

  9. 9. Pedro Portugal Mollinedo, historian, 9 December

  10. 10. Oscar Oliveira, public figure, 17 December

  11. 11. Lorgio Orellana, political scientist, 12 December

  12. 12. Jorje Paida, former public servant, PhD student, 10 December

  13. 13. Carlos Deric Salazar, professor of law, 18 December

  14. 14. Ximena Soruco Sologuren, sociologist, 10 December

  15. 15. Vivian Schwarz, sociologist, 15 December

Download references


This work was supported by the Estonian Ministry of Education and Research personal research Grant PUT260 and institutional research funding IUT20–39. The authors would like to thank Eduardo Gudynas, Rickard Lalander and JIRD’s anonymous reviewers for helpful comments and suggestions, as well as all our interviewees for their time and insight.

Author information

Correspondence to Viatcheslav Morozov.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Morozov, V., Pavlova, E. Indigeneity and subaltern subjectivity in decolonial discourses: a comparative study of Bolivia and Russia. J Int Relat Dev 21, 689–716 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1057/s41268-016-0076-7

Download citation


  • Bolivia
  • indigeneity
  • postcolonial theory
  • Russia
  • subalternity
  • subjectivity