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Journal of International Business Studies

, Volume 50, Issue 3, pp 318–338 | Cite as

Beyond country image favorability: How brand positioning via country personality stereotypes enhances brand evaluations

  • Peter MagnussonEmail author
  • Stanford A. Westjohn
  • Nancy J. Sirianni
Article

Abstract

Across four lab experiments and a field study, we find that brands are evaluated more favorably when the brand is positioned in a manner that is congruent with the brand’s home country personality stereotype than when brand positioning is incongruent. Results demonstrate that cultural authenticity mediates this effect. We also uncover a moderating effect whereby brands are viewed more favorably when brand positioning and country personality stereotypes are incongruent, rather than congruent, under conditions of consumer animosity toward the firm’s home country. This study is the first to demonstrate how international firms can leverage country-of-origin personality stereotypes as a brand-building advantage.

Keywords

country personality country of origin international consumer behavior cultural authenticity consumer animosity 

Résumé

A partir de quatre expériences de laboratoire et d’une étude de terrain, nous constatons que les marques sont évaluées plus favorablement lorsque la marque est positionnée de manière conforme au stéréotype de personnalité du pays d’origine de la marque que lorsque le positionnement de la marque est non conforme. Les résultats montrent que l’authenticité culturelle a un effet médiateur sur cette relation. Nous découvrons également un effet modérateur par lequel les marques sont perçues plus favorablement lorsque le positionnement de la marque et les stéréotypes de la personnalité du pays sont non conformes, plutôt que conformes, dans les cas d’animosité du consommateur envers le pays d’origine de la firme. Cette étude est la première à démontrer comment les firmes internationales peuvent tirer parti des stéréotypes de personnalité du pays d’origine comme avantage de développement de la marque.

Resumen

En cuatro experimentos de laboratorio y un estudio de campo, encontramos que las marcas se evalúan más favorablemente cuando se posiciona la marca de una manera que es congruente con el estereotipo de la personalidad de la marca del país de origen, que cuando el posicionamiento de marca es incongruente. Los resultados demuestran que la autenticidad cultural media este efecto. También descubrimos un efecto moderador por el cual las marcas son vistas de manera más favorable cuando el posicionamiento de marca y los estereotipos de la personalidad del país son incongruentes, en lugar de congruentes, en condiciones de animosidad del consumidor hacia el país de origen de la empresa. Este estudio es el primero en demostrar como las empresas internacionales pueden aprovechar los estereotipos de la personalidad del país de origen como una ventaja de creación de marca.

Resumo

Por meio de quatro experimentos de laboratório e um estudo de campo, descobrimos que marcas são avaliadas mais favoravelmente quando a marca é posicionada de forma congruente com o estereótipo de personalidade do país de origem do que quando o posicionamento da marca é incongruente. Os resultados demonstram que a autenticidade cultural medeia esse efeito. Também descobrimos um efeito moderador pelo qual as marcas são vistas mais favoravelmente quando o posicionamento da marca e os estereótipos de personalidade do país são incongruentes, e não congruentes, sob condições de animosidade do consumidor em relação ao país de origem da empresa. Este estudo é o primeiro a demonstrar como empresas internacionais podem alavancar os estereótipos de personalidade do país de origem como uma vantagem de construção de marca.

摘要

在四个实验室实验和实地研究中, 我们发现, 当品牌定位的方式与品牌的母国国家刻板印象一致时,品牌的评估较品牌定位不一致时更有利。结果表明, 文化真实性可以调节这种效应。我们还发现了一种调节效应, 即当品牌定位和国家个性刻板印象在消费者对公司母国的敌意情况下不一致(而不是一致)时, 品牌被更有利地看待。本研究首次揭示了国际公司如何利用原籍国个性刻板印象获得品牌建设优势。

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors gratefully acknowledge Nicolas Papadopoulos, Colleen Harmeling, and participants at the AMA Global Marketing Conference in Havana, Cuba for feedback on early versions of this manuscript and the valuable guidance provided by Editor Costas Katsikeas and the three anonymous JIBS reviewers.

Supplementary material

41267_2018_175_MOESM1_ESM.docx (663 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 662 kb)

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Copyright information

© Academy of International Business 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Peter Magnusson
    • 1
    Email author
  • Stanford A. Westjohn
    • 1
  • Nancy J. Sirianni
    • 1
  1. 1.Culverhouse College of BusinessUniversity of AlabamaTuscaloosaUSA

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