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Becoming a multinational enterprise: Using industry recipes to achieve rapid multinationalization

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Abstract

We aim to build a greater understanding of how young entrepreneurial firms internationalize fast through foreign subsidiaries to become a multinational enterprise (MNE). Despite the prevalence of fast-paced international expansion, theory development on how it is achieved through high-commitment entry modes has been scarce. Our work substantially addresses this gap by conceptualizing how rapid multinationalization occurs. Using qualitative case studies, we explore eight young entrepreneurial firms operating in the software-as-a-service industry aspiring to achieve early market dominance internationally through rapid multinationalization. Drawing on the concept of industry recipes, we explain how recipe heuristics and recipe augmentation enable rapid multinationalization and showcase the economic and knowledge acquisition logics which underpin these endeavors. This study introduces internationalization via industry recipe, explains the micro-level regulation of internationalization speed, and contributes to aligning international entrepreneurship and MNE perspectives on internationalization.

Résumé

Nous cherchons à mieux comprendre comment les jeunes entreprises entrepreneuriales s'internationalisent rapidement par l'intermédiaire de filiales étrangères pour devenir des entreprises multinationales (EMN). En dépit de la prévalence de l'expansion internationale rapide, les développements de la théorie sur la façon dont elle est atteinte par des modes d'entrée à fort engagement ont été rares. Notre travail aborde de façon substantielle cette lacune en conceptualisant comment la multinationalisation rapide se produit. En utilisant des études de cas qualitatives, nous explorons huit jeunes entreprises entrepreneuriales opérant dans l'industrie du logiciel en tant que service (LetqS) visant à atteindre la domination du marché au niveau international par la multinationalisation rapide. S'inspirant du concept des recettes de l'industrie, nous expliquons comment l'heuristique de ces recettes et l'augmentation des recettes permettent une multinationalisation rapide et mettent en valeur les logiques d'acquisition économique et de connaissances qui sous-tendent ces efforts. Cette étude introduit l'internationalisation par le biais des recettes de l'industrie, explique la réglementation micro-niveau de la vitesse d'internationalisation et contribue à aligner l'entrepreneuriat international et les perspectives des EMN sur l'internationalisation.

Resumen

Nuestro objetivo es entender mejor cómo las empresas jóvenes emprendedoras se internacionalizan rápido mediante subsidiarias extranjeras para convertirse en empresas multinacionales (EMN). A pesar de la prevalencia de la expansión internacional acelerada, el desarrollo de teoría sobre cómo esta se consigue a través modos de entrada de alto compromiso ha sido escaso. Nuestro trabajo aborda sustancialmente esta brecha mediante la conceptualización sobre qué tan rápido ocurre la internacionalización. Usando estudios de caso cualitativos, exploramos ocho empresas jóvenes emprendedoras que operan en la industria de software como servicio (SaaS) aspirando a conseguir una dominación del mercado internacional tempranamente mediante multinacionalización rápida. Basándose en el concepto de recetas de industria, explicamos cómo la heurística de las recetas y el aumento de las recetas permite una rápida multinacionalización y muestran lógicas económicas y de adquisición de conocimiento las cuales sustentan estos esfuerzos. Este estudio introduce la internacionalización a través de la receta de industria, explicando la regulación a nivel micro de la velocidad de internacionalización, y contribuye a alinear el emprendimiento internacional con las perspectivas de las EMN sobre internacionalización.

Resumo

Pretendemos ampliar a compreensão de como jovens empresas empreendedoras se internacionalizam rapidamente por meio de subsidiárias estrangeiras para se tornarem uma empresa multinacional (MNE). Apesar da prevalência da expansão internacional em ritmo acelerado, o desenvolvimento teórico sobre como isso é alcançado por meio de modos de entrada de alto comprometimento tem sido escasso. Nosso trabalho aborda substancialmente essa lacuna ao conceituar a velocidade com que a multinacionalização ocorre. Usando estudos de caso qualitativos, exploramos oito jovens empresas empreendedoras que operam no setor de software-como-serviço (SaaS) que aspiram alcançar a dominância do mercado internacional prematuramente por meio de uma rápida multinacionalização. Com base no conceito de práticas da indústria, explicamos como heurísticas de práticas e o aumento de receita permitem a multiinflacionalização rápida e mostram as lógicas econômicas e de aquisição de conhecimento que sustentam esses empreendimentos. Este estudo introduz a internacionalização por meio da prática da indústria, explica a regulação no nível micro da velocidade de internacionalização e contribui para alinhar o empreendedorismo internacional e as perspectivas na internacionalização de MNE.

概要

我们的目标是通过外国子公司更加深入地了解年轻的创业企业如何快速国际化而成为一家跨国企业(MNE)。尽管快节奏的国际扩张盛行,但关于它是如何通过高承诺进入模式而实现的理论开发十分匮乏。我们的研究通过对跨国化如何快速发生概念化在本质上弥补了这个差距。通过定性案例研究,我们探索了八家年轻的在 “软件即服务(SaaS)” 行业中运营的希望通过快速跨国化在国际上取得早期的市场支配地位的创业公司。借鉴行业配方的概念,我们解释了配方启发和配方增强如何实现快速跨国化,并展示了支撑这些努力的经济和知识获取逻辑。本研究通过行业配方介绍了国际化,解释了国际化速度的微观调控,对国际创业与跨国企业的国际化视野的对接做出了贡献。

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Acknowledgements

The authors wish to acknowledge the financial support of the Technology Management Research Center (TMRC), Rutgers University and College of Business, University College Dublin. We thank the special issue editors and anonymous reviewers for their guidance. We are also grateful for comments from Ram Mudambi, Brett Gilbert, Patrick Gunnigle, Roger Smeets, and seminar attendants at WU Vienna. Furthermore, we thank all participating organizations.

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Correspondence to Sinéad Monaghan.

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Accepted by Peter Liesch, Area Editor, 4 December 2017. This article has been with the authors for six revisions.

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Monaghan, S., Tippmann, E. Becoming a multinational enterprise: Using industry recipes to achieve rapid multinationalization. J Int Bus Stud 49, 473–495 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1057/s41267-017-0137-1

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