Journal of International Business Studies

, Volume 48, Issue 8, pp 1023–1036 | Cite as

Explicit versus implicit country stereotypes as predictors of product preferences: Insights from the stereotype content model

  • Adamantios Diamantopoulos
  • Arnd Florack
  • Georgios Halkias
  • Johanna Palcu
Research Note


Drawing on the stereotype content model (SCM), we investigate the impact of both explicit and implicit country stereotypes on consumer preferences. In Study 1, we show that the competence dimension of the SCM (measured both explicitly and implicitly) drives purchase intention by positively influencing brand affect. In Study 2, we disentangle further the role of explicit and implicit stereotypes and show that explicit judgments of country competence are better predictors of deliberate consumer choices, whereas implicit judgments of country warmth dominate spontaneous choice. Managerially our findings indicate that sole reliance on explicit stereotypes may result in an incomplete picture of consumers’ responses to country-of-origin cues.


country of origin Stereotype content model implicit stereotypes spontaneous and deliberate choice IAT 


S’appuyant sur le modèle du contenu des stéréotypes (MCS), nous étudions l’impact des stéréotypes de pays, à la fois implicites et explicites, sur les préférences des consommateurs. Dans une première étude, nous montrons que la dimension compétence du MCS (mesurée à la fois explicitement et implicitement) impacte l’intention d’achat en influençant positivement l’affect par rapport à la marque. Dans une deuxième étude, nous démêlons davantage le rôle des stéréotypes explicites et implicites, et nous montrons que les jugements explicites sur la compétence d’un pays sont de meilleurs prédicteurs des choix délibérés des consommateurs, alors que les jugements implicites sur la convivialité d’un pays dominent le choix spontané. Sur le plan managérial, nos résultats indiquent que le seul recours aux stéréotypes explicites peut entraîner une image incomplète des réactions des consommateurs aux signaux du pays d’origine.


Basándonos en el Modelo de Contenido de Estereotipos (SCM por sus iniciales en inglés), investigamos el impacto tanto de los estereotipos explícitos como implícitos de los países sobre las preferencias de consumo. En el Estudio 1, encontramos que la dimensión de competencia del SCM (medida tanto explícitamente como implícitamente) motiva la intención de compra influyendo positivamente en el afecto a la marca. En el Estudio 2, esclarecemos el rol explícito e implícito de los estereotipos y mostramos que los juicios explícitos de la competencia de los países son mejores predictores elecciones deliberadas del consumidor, mientras que los juicios implícitos de la calidez de un país dominan la elección espontanea. Gerencialmente nuestros hallazgos indican que la dependencia única de los estereotipos explícitos puede resultar en una imagen incompleta de las respuestas de los consumidores a las señales del país de origen.


Com base no modelo de conteúdo de estereótipos (SCM), investigamos o impacto de estereótipos explícitos e implícitos de países sobre as preferências dos consumidores.No Estudo 1, mostramos que a dimensão de competência do SCM (mensurada tanto explícita como implicitamente) impulsiona a intenção de compra ao influenciar positivamente o efeito da marca. No Estudo 2, desmembramos ainda mais o papel dos estereótipos explícitos e implícitos e mostramos que julgamentos explícitos da competência do país são melhores preditores de escolhas deliberadas dos consumidores, enquanto os julgamentos implícitos do calor do país dominam a escolha espontânea. Gerencialmente, nossas descobertas indicam que confiar somente em estereótipos explícitos pode resultar em uma imagem incompleta das respostas dos consumidores aos sinais do país de origem.


借鉴刻板印象内容模型(SCM), 我们调查显性和隐性国家成见对消费者偏好的影响。在研究1 中, 我 们显示SCM 的能力维度(显性地和隐性地测量)通过积极地影响品牌感情驱动购买意向。在研究2 中, 我们解析显性和隐性成见的作用, 并显示对国家能力显性的判断是刻意的消费者选择更好的预测 指标而对国家热情隐性的判断则主导自发选择。管理上我们的研究结果表明, 对显性成见的完全依 赖可能会导致消费者对原产国提示回应的不完整画面。



The authors acknowledge the Austrian Science Fund (FWF) for supporting this study (Research Grant: P26740). In addition, the authors would like to thank Professor Daniel Bello (JIBS editor) and three anonymous reviewers for their constructive comments and suggestions on previous versions of this manuscript.

Supplementary material

41267_2017_85_MOESM1_ESM.docx (458 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 457 kb)


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Copyright information

© Academy of International Business 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Adamantios Diamantopoulos
    • 1
  • Arnd Florack
    • 2
  • Georgios Halkias
    • 1
  • Johanna Palcu
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of International Marketing, Faculty of Business, Economics and StatisticsUniversity of ViennaViennaAustria
  2. 2.Department of Applied Psychology, Faculty of PsychologyUniversity of ViennaViennaAustria

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