Consumers’ responses to negative publicity: the influence of culture on information search and negative word-of-mouth

  • Mingzhou Yu
  • Fang Liu
  • Julie Anne Lee
Original Article


Negative publicity is believed to have detrimental impacts on a brand; however, consumers’ responses to negative publicity may not always be negative, and the responses may vary in different cultural contexts. The current study aims to understand the influence of internalised aspects of culture on Chinese consumers’ responses to negative publicity. Our results suggest that Chinese consumers with higher levels of collectivism and uncertainty avoidance are more likely to search for further information and to spread negative word-of-mouth when confronted with negative publicity, than those with lower levels. Further, consumers with higher levels of power distance are more likely to search for further information when the negative information is severe and to participate in negative word-of-mouth when the negative information is less severe, than those with lower levels of power distance. Finally, when exposed to negative publicity, further information search is positively related and negative word-of-mouth negatively related to brand attitudes and purchase intentions.


Negative publicity Culture Information search Negative word-of-mouth Brand attitude Purchasing intention 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.


  1. Adams, C. (2016). NZ-Made Karicare Milk Formula is Pulled from China. 30 March.
  2. Ahluwalia, R. 2002. How prevalent is the negativity effect in consumer environments? Journal of Consumer Research 9(2): 270–279.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ahluwalia, R., R.E. Burnkrant, and H.R. Unnava. 2000. Consumer response to negative publicity: The moderating role of commitment. Journal of Marketing Research 37(2): 203–214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Amos, C., G. Holmes, and D. Strutton. 2008. Exploring the relationship between celebrity endorser effects and advertising effectiveness. International Journal of Advertising 27(2): 209–234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Arndt, J. 1967. Word of mouth advertising: A review of the literature. London: Advertising Research Foundation.Google Scholar
  6. Ajzen, I., and M. Fishbein. 1980. Understanding Attitudes and Predicting Social Behaviour. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  7. Batra, R., and O.T. Ahtola. 1991. Measuring the hedonic and utilitarian sources of consumer attitudes. Marketing Letters 2(2): 159–170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bardi, A., and S.H. Schwartz. 1996. Relations among sociopolitical values in Eastern Europe: Effects of the communist experience? Political Psychology 17(3): 525–549.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Berger, J., A.T. Sorensen, and S.J. Rasmussen. 2010. Positive effects of negative publicity: When negative reviews increase sales. Marketing Science 29(5): 815–827.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bond, J., and R. Kirshenbaum. 1998. Under the Radar: Talking to Today’s Cynical Consumer. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  11. Brown, J.J., and P.H. Reingen. 1987. Social ties and word-of-mouth referral behavior. Journal of Consumer Research 14(3): 350–362.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Brown, S.P., and D.M. Stayman. 1992. Antecedents and consequences of attitude toward the ad: A meta-analysis. Journal of Consumer Research 19(1): 34–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Brown, J., A.J. Broderick, and N. Lee. 2007. Word of mouth communication within online communities: Conceptualizing the online social network. Journal of Interactive Marketing 21(3): 2–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Burrough, B. 2006. Sleeping with the fishes. Vanity Fair 13: 244–256.Google Scholar
  15. CCPB. (2015). China Consumer Protection Overview. 20 April.
  16. Cantallops, A.S., and F. Salvi. 2014. New consumer behavior: A review of research on eWOM and hotels. International Journal of Hospitality Management 36: 41–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Charlett, D., R. Garland, and N. Marr. 1995. How damaging is negative word of mouth. Marketing Bulletin 6(1): 42–50.Google Scholar
  18. Chen, X.P. 2008. Independent thinking: A path to outstanding scholarship. Management and Organization Review 4(3): 337–348.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Chin, W.W. 2001. PLS-Graph User’s Guide. Houston: CT Bauer College of Business, University of Houston.Google Scholar
  20. Chiou, J.S., A.C.F. Hsu, and C.H. Hsieh. 2013. How negative online information affects consumers’ brand evaluation: The moderating effects of brand attachment and source credibility. Online Information Review 37(6): 910–926.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Chow, C.W., G.L. Harrison, J.L. McKinnon, and A. Wu. 1999. Cultural influences on informal information sharing in Chinese and Anglo-American organizations: An exploratory study. Accounting, Organizations and Society 24(7): 561–582.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Clugston, M., J.P. Howell, and P.W. Dorfman. 2000. Does cultural socialization predict multiple bases and foci of commitment? Journal of Management 26(1): 5–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Crotts, J. 1999. Consumer decision making and prepurchase information search. In Consumer Behavior in Travel and Tourism, ed. A. Pizam and Y. Mansfeld, 149–168. Hove: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
  24. Dawar, N., and M.M. Pillutla. 2000. Impact of product-harm crises on brand equity: The moderating role of consumer expectations. Journal of Marketing Research 37(2): 215–226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Dawar, N., P.M. Parker, and L.J. Price. 1996. A cross-cultural study of interpersonal information exchange. Journal of International Business Studies 27(3): 497–516.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. de Maya, S.R., M.S. Piñero, I.L. López, and M.L. Pérez. 2012. The role of e-WOM in international communication. Research on International Advertising 3: 325–350.Google Scholar
  27. de Mooij, M. 2010. Consumer Behavior and Culture: Consequences for Global Marketing and Advertising. Thousand Oaks: Sage.Google Scholar
  28. de Mooij, M., and G. Hofstede. 2002. Convergence and divergence in consumer behavior: Implications for international retailing. Journal of Retailing 78(1): 61–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Dean, D.H. 2004. Consumer reaction to negative publicity. Journal of Business Communication 41(2): 192–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Dellarocas, C., X.M. Zhang, and N.F. Awad. 2007. Exploring the value of online product reviews in forecasting sales: The case of motion pictures. Journal of Interactive Marketing 21(4): 23–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Dentoni, D., G. Tonsor, R. Calantone, and H.C. Peterson. 2011. “Animal welfare” practices along the food chain: How does negative and positive information affect consumers? Journal of Food Products Marketing 17(2–3): 279–302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Deschepper, R., L. Grigoryan, C. Lundborg, G. Hofstede, J. Cohen, V.G. Kelen, and F.M. Haaijer-Ruskamp. 2008. Are cultural dimensions relevant for explaining cross-national differences in antibiotic use in Europe? BMC Health Services Research 8(1): 1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Donthu, N., and B. Yoo. 1998. Cultural influences on service quality expectations. Journal of Service Research 1(2): 178–186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Doran, K. 2002. Lessons learned in cross-cultural research of Chinese and North American consumers. Journal of Business Research 55(10): 823–829.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Dubois, S. (2012). Why McDonald’s Should have Known Better. 31 January.
  36. Eagly, A.H., and S. Chaiken. 1993. The Psychology of Attitudes: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich College Publishers. Texas: Fort Worth.Google Scholar
  37. East, R., K. Hammond, and M. Wright. 2007. The relative incidence of positive and negative word of mouth: A multi-category study. International Journal of Research in Marketing 24(2): 175–184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Farh, J.L., R.D. Hackett, and J. Liang. 2007. Individual-level cultural values as moderators of perceived organizational support-employee outcome relationships in China: Comparing the effects of power distance and traditionality. Academy of Management Journal 50(3): 715–729.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. File, K.M., B.B. Judd, and R.A. Prince. 1992. Interactive marketing: The influence of participation on positive word-of-mouth and referrals. Journal of Services Marketing 6(4): 5–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Fischer, R., and S. Schwartz. 2011. When differences in value priorities? Individual, cultural, or artifactual sources. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 42(7): 1127–1144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Fong, J., and S. Burton. 2006. Online word-of-mouth: A comparison of American and Chinese discussion boards. Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics 18(2): 146–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Fornell, C., and D.F. Larcker. 1981. Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of Marketing Research 18(1): 39–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Fukukawa, K. 2002. Developing a framework for ethically questionable behavior in consumption. Journal of Business Ethics 41(1): 99–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Goodrich, K., and M. de Mooij. 2014. How ‘social’ are social media? A cross-cultural comparison of online and offline purchase decision influences. Journal of Marketing Communications 20(1/2): 103–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Goldenberg, J., B. Libai, S. Moldovan, and E. Muller. 2007. The NPV of bad news. International Journal of Research in Marketing 24(3): 186–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Greer, C.R., and G.K. Stephens. 2001. Escalation of commitment: A comparison of differences between Mexican and US decision-makers. Journal of Management 27(1): 51–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Grilo, I., O. Shy, and J.F. Thisse. 2001. Price competition when consumer behavior is characterized by conformity or vanity. Journal of Public Economics 80(3): 385–408.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Hair, J.F., W.C. Black, B.J. Babin, R.E. Anderson, and R.L. Tatham. 2010. Multivariate Data Analysis. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  49. Herr, P.M., F.R. Kardes, and J. Kim. 1991. Effects of word-of-mouth and product-attribute information on persuasion: An accessibility-diagnosticity perspective. Journal of Consumer Research 17(4): 454–462.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Hickman, T.M., and J.C. Ward. 2013. Implications of brand communities for rival brands: Negative brand ratings, negative stereotyping of their consumers and negative word-of-mouth. Journal of Brand Management 20(6): 501–517.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Hsieh, M.H., S.L. Pan, and R. Setiono. 2004. Product-, corporate-, and country-image dimensions and purchase behavior: A multicountry analysis. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science 32(3): 251–270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Hofstede, G.H. 1984. Culture’s Consequences: International Differences in Work-Related Values. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications Inc.Google Scholar
  53. Hofstede, G.H. 2001. Culture’s Consequences: Comparing Values, Behaviors, Institutions, and Organizations Across Nations. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications Inc.Google Scholar
  54. Hofstede, G., and M.H. Bond. 1988. The confucius connection: from cultural roots to economic growth. Organizational Dynamics 16(4): 5–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Hwang, Y., and K.C. Lee. 2012. Investigating the moderating role of uncertainty avoidance cultural values on multidimensional online trust. Information & Management 49(3): 171–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Ito, T.A., J.T. Larsen, N.K. Smith, and J.T. Cacioppo. 1998. Negative information weighs more heavily on the brain: the negativity bias in evaluative categorizations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 75(4): 887.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Kang, J., and G. Hustvedt. 2014. Building trust between consumers and corporations: The role of consumer perceptions of transparency and social responsibility. Journal of Business Ethics 125(2): 253–265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Keller, K.L. 1993. Conceptualizing, measuring, and managing customer-based brand equity. Journal of Marketing 57(1): 1–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Keller, P.A., and L.G. Block. 1996. Increasing the persuasiveness of fear appeals: The effect of arousal and elaboration. Journal of Consumer Research 22(4): 448–459.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Kim, J. (2010). Korean Americans’ Online Health Information Seeking and the Role of Online Communities: In the Context of Diabetes-Related Information Search. Unpublished PhD Thesis. University of Minnesota.Google Scholar
  61. Kim, H., and J. Song. 2010. The quality of word-of-mouth in the online shopping mall. Journal of Research in Interactive Marketing 4(4): 376–390.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Kim, S.H., J.P. Carvalho, and C.E. Cooksey. 2007. Exploring the effects of negative publicity: News coverage and public perceptions of a university. Public Relations Review 33(2): 233–235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Kim, D.Y., L. Wen, and K. Doh. 2010. Does cultural difference affect customer’s response in a crowded restaurant environment? A comparison of American versus chinese customers. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Research 34(1): 103–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Kim, J.Y., J. Shim, and K.M. Ahn. 2011. Social networking service: Motivation, pleasure, and behavioural intention to use. Journal of Computer Information Systems 51(4): 92–101.Google Scholar
  65. Kirkman, B.L., K.B. Lowe, and C.B. Gibson. 2006. A quarter century of culture’s consequences: A review of empirical research incorporating Hofstede’s cultural values framework. Journal of International Business Studies 37(3): 285–320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Kock, N. 2014. Advanced mediating effects tests, multi-group analyses, and measurement model assessments in PLS-based SEM. International Journal of e-Collaboration 10(1): 1–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Kock, N. 2015. WarpPLS 5.0 User Manual. Laredo: ScriptWarp Systems.Google Scholar
  68. Lam, D., A. Lee, and R. Mizerski. 2009. The effects of cultural values in word-of-mouth communication. Journal of International Marketing 17(3): 55–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Lau, G.T., and S. Ng. 2001. Individual and situational factors influencing negative word-of-mouth behaviour. Canadian Journal of Administrative Sciences/Revue Canadienne des Sciences de l’Administration 18(3): 163–178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Lee, J., D.H. Park, and I. Han. 2008. The effect of negative online consumer reviews on product attitude: An information processing view. Electronic Commerce Research and Applications 7(3): 341–352.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Liang, T.P., and J.S. Huang. 1998. An empirical study on consumer acceptance of products in electronic markets: A transaction cost model. Decision Support Systems 24(1): 29–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Liu, R., and P. McClure. 2001. Recognizing cross-cultural differences in consumer complaint behaviour and intentions: an empirical examination. Journal of Consumer Marketing 18(1): 54–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Liu, F. and Kanso, A. (2011) The effect of negative publicity in brand and product evaluation: An empirical study. In Proceedings of American Academy of Advertising Asia-Pacific Conference. Brisbane, Australia.Google Scholar
  74. Liu, F. and Yu, M. (2013). Chinese consumer response to negative information. In Proceedings of Australian & New Zealand Marketing Academy Conference. Auckland, New Zealand.Google Scholar
  75. Loureiro, S.M.C., K.H. Ruediger, and V. Demetris. 2012. Brand emotional connection and loyalty. Journal of Brand Management 20(1): 13–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. MacKenzie, S.B., and R.J. Lutz. 1989. An empirical examination of the structural antecedents of attitude toward the ad in an advertising pretesting context. The Journal of Marketing 53(2): 48–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Mahajan, V., E. Muller, and R.A. Kerin. 1984. Introduction strategy for new products with positive and negative word-of-mouth. Management Science 30(12): 1389–1404.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Maheswaran, D., and J. Meyers-Levy. 1990. The influence of message framing and issue involvement. Journal of Marketing Research 27(3): 361–367.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Maistre, R. (2004). Nortel Leaves All Doors Open. 2 June. Accessed 1 December 2004.
  80. Marcos, M. C., García-Gavilanes, R. O., Bataineh, E., and Pasarin, L. (2013). Using eye tracking to identify cultural differences in information seeking behavior. In Proceedings of Workshop Many People, Many Eyes; 28 Apr–2 May, Paris, France.Google Scholar
  81. Mason, M.J., and D.L. Scammon. 2011. Unintended consequences of health supplement information regulations: The importance of recognizing consumer motivations. Journal of Consumer Affairs 45(2): 201–223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Meeuwesen, L., A. Van Den Brink-Muinen, and G. Hofstede. 2009. Can dimensions of national culture predict cross-national differences in medical communication? Patient Education and Counseling 75(1): 58–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Mizerski, R.W. 1982. An attribution explanation of the disproportionate influence of unfavourable information. Journal of Consumer Research 9(3): 301–310.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Money, R.B. 2000. Word-of-mouth referral sources for buyers of international corporate financial services. Journal of World Business 35(3): 314–329.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Mort, G.S., and T. Rose. 2004. The effect of product type on value linkages in the means-end chain: implications for theory and method. Journal of Consumer Behaviour 3(3): 221–234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Nyer, P.U., and M. Gopinath. 2005. Effects of complaining versus negative word of mouth on subsequent changes in satisfaction: The role of public commitment. Psychology and Marketing 22(12): 937–953.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. O’Cass, A., and D. Grace. 2003. An exploratory perspective of service brand associations. Journal of Services Marketing 17(5): 452–475.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. O’Connell, V. 2006. Ripe for change: Wine sales thrive as old barriers start to crumble. The Wall Street Journal 25 (Augest 25): A1.Google Scholar
  89. Pan, Z. P. (2011). Research advances and prospects on the effects of negative online review dissemination. In Proceedings of the Information Management, Innovation Management and Industrial Engineering (ICIII); 26–27 November, Shenzheng, China, pp. 218–220.Google Scholar
  90. Pan, L.Y., and J.S. Chiou. 2011. How much can you trust online information? Cues for perceived trustworthiness of consumer-generated online information. Journal of Interactive Marketing 25(2): 67–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Park, C., and T.M. Lee. 2009. Information direction, website reputation and eWOM effect: A moderating role of product type. Journal of Business Research 62(1): 61–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Peterson, R.A., and M.C. Merino. 2003. Consumer information search behaviour and the internet. Psychology and Marketing 20(2): 99–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Petty, R.E., J.T. Cacioppo, and D. Schumann. 1983. Central and peripheral routes to advertising effectiveness: The moderating role of involvement. Journal of Consumer Research 10(2): 135–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Phau, I., and R. Puspita Sari. 2004. Engaging in complaint behaviour: An Indonesian perspective. Marketing Intelligence & Planning 22(4): 407–426.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Pullig, C., R.G. Netemeyer, and A. Biswas. 2006. Attitude basis, certainty, and challenge alignment: A case of negative brand publicity. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science 34(4): 528–542.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Rivard, S., G. Poirier, L. Raymond, and F. Bergeron. 1997. Development of a measure to assess the quality of user-developed applications. ACM SIGMIS Database 28(3): 44–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Rugman, A.M., and A. Verbeke. 2004. A perspective on regional and global strategies of multinational enterprises. Journal of International Business Studies 35(1): 3–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Satterthwaite, F.E. 1946. An approximate distribution of estimates of variance components. Biometrics Bulletin 2(6): 110–114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Schulz, A.K.D., S.B. Salter, J.C. Lopez, and P.A. Lewis. 2009. Revaluating face: A note on differences in private information sharing between two communitarian societies. Journal of International Accounting Research 8(1): 57–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Schwartz, S.H. 2014. Rethinking the concept and measurement of societal culture in light of empirical findings. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 45(1): 5–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Senecal, S., and J. Nantel. 2004. The influence of online product recommendations on consumers’ online choices. Journal of Retailing 80(2): 159–169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Shah, S.S.H., J. Aziz, A. Jaffari, S. Waris, W. Ejaz, M. Fatima, and S.K. Sherazi. 2012. The impact of brands on consumer purchase intentions. Asian Journal of Business Management 4(2): 105–110.Google Scholar
  103. Shaw, J., and W. Steers. 2000. Negativity and polarity effects in gathering information to form an impression. Journal of Social Behaviour and Personality 15(3): 399–412.Google Scholar
  104. Sherrell, D.L., and R.E. Reidenbach. 1986. A consumer response framework for negative publicity: Suggestions for response strategies. AkronBusiness and Economic Review 17(2): 37–43.Google Scholar
  105. Shim, S., M.A. Eastlick, S.L. Lotz, and P. Warrington. 2001. An online prepurchase intentions model: The role of intention to search. Journal of Retailing 77(3): 397–416.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Sina. (2018). How to Protect Financial Safety. Accessed on January 10, 2018.
  107. Singh, N., H. Zhao, and X. Hu. 2005. Analyzing the cultural content of web sites: A cross-national comparison of China, India, Japan, and US. International Marketing Review 22(2): 129–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Skowronski, J.J., and D.E. Carlston. 1989. Negativity and extremity biases in impression formation: A review of explanations. Psychological Bulletin 105(1): 131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Skowronski, J.J., D.E. Carlston, L. Mae, and M.T. Crawford. 1998. Spontaneous trait transference: Communicators take on the qualities they describe in others. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 74(4): 837.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Steenkamp, J.B.E.M. 2001. The role of national culture in international marketing research. International Marketing Review 18(1): 30–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Sweeney, J., G. Soutar, and T. Mazzarol. 2014. Factors enhancing word-of-mouth influence: Positive and negative service-related messages. European Journal of Marketing 48(1/2): 336–359.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Tax, S.S., S.W. Brown, and M. Chandrashekaran. 1998. Customer evaluations of service complaint experiences: Implications for relationship marketing. Journal of Marketing 62: 60–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Thomson, M., D.J. MacInnis, and C.W. Park. 2005. The ties that bind: Measuring the strength of consumers’ emotional attachments to brands. Journal of Consumer Psychology 15(1): 77–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Till, B.D., and T.A. Shimp. 1998. Endorsers in advertising: The case of negative celebrity information. Journal of Advertising 27(1): 67–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Triandis, H.C. 1995. Individualism & Collectivism. Boulder: Westview Press.Google Scholar
  116. Turnbull, P.W., S. Leek, and G. Ying. 2000. Customer confusion: The mobile phone market. Journal of Marketing Management 16(1–3): 143–163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Van Rijnsoever, F., J. Farla, and M.J. Dijst. 2009. Consumer car preferences and information search channels. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment 14(5): 334–342.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Verhagen, T., A. Nauta, and F. Feldberg. 2013. Negative online word-of-mouth: Behavioral indicator or emotional release? Computers in Human Behavior 29(4): 1430–1440.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Verplanken, B. 1993. Need for cognition and external information search: Responses to time pressure during decision-making. Journal of Research in Personality 27(3): 238–252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Wallace, E., I. Buil, L. de Chernatony, and M. Hogan. 2014. Who “likes” you… and why? A typology of Facebook fans. Journal of Advertising Research 54(1): 92–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Wangenheim, F.V. 2005. Postswitching negative word of mouth. Journal of Service Research 8(1): 67–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Weinberger, M.C., C.T. Allen, and W.R. Dillon. 1981. Negative information: Perspectives and research directions. In Advances in Consumer Research, ed. K.B. Monroe, 398–404. Ann Abor, MI: Association for Consumer Research.Google Scholar
  123. Winchester, M., and J. Romaniuk. 2008. Negative brand beliefs and brand usage. International Journal of Market Research 50(3): 355–375.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Wu, S.I., and C.L. Lo. 2009. The influence of core-brand attitude and consumer perception on purchase intention towards extended product. Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics 21(1): 174–194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Yin, E., and C.J. Choi. 2005. The globalization myth: The case of China. MIR: Management International Review 45(1): 103–120.Google Scholar
  126. Yoo, C., and D. MacInnis. 2005. The brand attitude formation process of emotional and informational ads. Journal of Business Research 58(10): 1397–1406.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Zhang, L., and R.D. Taylor. 2009. Exploring the reciprocal effect of negative information of brand extensions on parent brand. Marketing Management Journal 19(1): 1–15.Google Scholar
  128. Zhao, W.Y., B.L. Massey, J. Murphy, and F. Liu. 2003. Cultural dimensions of website design and content. Prometheus 21(1): 76–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Macmillan Publishers Ltd., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.M263, Business SchoolUniversity of Western AustraliaCrawleyAustralia

Personalised recommendations