Numerous studies of international student decision-making have confirmed the importance of host country and institution images, but these studies tend to run in parallel with country-of-origin research. In the context of regional student mobility, regional ethnocentrism may also play some role. Nevertheless, the interaction between country image and regional ethnocentrism remains untapped. This study aims to examine the relationship between country image and regional ethnocentrism in students interested in studying within a region. The samples of Indonesian middle- and upper-class high school students were selected using the purposive sampling technique. The 431 valid responses were analysed using PLS-SEM to answer the research questions. This study confirmed the interrelationship between the elements of country image. However, only the country’s cognitive image and personality positively affected the institution image, which determined student intention to study in a neighbouring country. Regional ethnocentrism has partially moderated the relationship between the elements of the country brand and institution image. This research gives practical insights to the host country’s government and institutions to effectively design their marketing strategies to target students from neighbouring countries.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Aghaz, Asal, Amin Hashemi, Maryam S. Sharifi, and Atashgah. 2015. Factors contributing to university image: the postgraduate students’ points of view. Journal of Marketing for Higher Education 25 (1): 104–126. https://doi.org/10.1080/08841241.2015.1031314.
Aktan, Murat, and Mahwish Anjam. 2022. A holistic approach to investigate consumer’s attitude toward foreign products: role of country personality, self-congruity, product image and ethnocentrism. Journal of International Consumer Marketing 34 (2): 151–167. https://doi.org/10.1080/08961530.2021.1937768.
Alexander, Michele G., Marrilyn B. Brewer, and Richard K. Hermann. 1999. Images and affect: a functional analysis of out-group stereotypes. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 77 (1): 78–93. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3522.214.171.124.
Alexander, Michele G., Shana Levin, and P.J. Henry. 2005. Image theory, social identity, and social dominance: structural characteristics and individual motives underlying international images. Political Psychology 26 (1): 27–45. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9221.2005.00408.x.
ASEAN Secretariat. 2020. Connectivity ASEAN. https://connectivity.asean.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/Study-on-Enhancing-Intra-ASEAN-University-Student-Mobility_Final.pdf. Accessed 10 Nov 2021.
Balabanis, George, and Adamantios Diamantopoulos. 2004. Domestic country bias, country-of-origin effects, and consumer ethnocentrism: a multidimensional unfolding approach. Academy of Marketing Science Journal 32 (1): 80–95. https://doi.org/10.1177/0092070303257644.
Bartsch, Fabian, Petra Riefler, and Adamantios Diamantopoulos. 2016. A taxonomy and review of positive consumer dispositions toward foreign countries and globalization. Journal of International Marketing 24 (1): 82–110. https://doi.org/10.1509/jim.15.0021.
Basha, Norazyln Kamal, Jillian C. Sweeney, and Geoff Soutar. 2015. Effects of country and delivery mode on perceived risk in international higher education. Journal of Marketing for Higher Education 25 (2): 171–203. https://doi.org/10.1080/08841241.2015.1031313.
Bodycott, Peter, and Ada Lai. 2012. The influence and implications of Chinese culture in the decision to undertake cross-border higher education. Journal of Studies in International Education 16 (3): 252–270. https://doi.org/10.1177/1028315311418517.
Buhmann, Alexander, and Diana Ingenhoff. 2015. The 4D Model of the country image: an integrative approach from the perspective of communication management. International Communication Gazette 77 (1): 102–124. https://doi.org/10.1177/1748048514556986.
Campo, Sara, and Maria D. Alvares. 2019. Animosity toward a country in the context of destinations as tourism products. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Research 43 (7): 1002–1024. https://doi.org/10.1177/1096348019840795.
Carvalho, Sergio W., David Luna, and Emily Goldsmith. 2019. The role of national identity in consumption: an integrative framework. Journal of Business Research 103: 310–318. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2019.01.056.
Charton-Vachet, Florence, Cindy Lombart, and Didier Louis. 2020. Impact of attitude towards a region on purchase intention of regional products: the mediating effects of perceived value and preference. International Journal of Retail and Distribution Management 48 (7): 707–725. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJRDM-09-2019-0315.
Chattalas, Michael, Thomas Kramer, and Hirokazu Takada. 2008. The impact of national stereotypes on the country of origin effect: a conceptual framework. International Marketing Review 25 (1): 54–74. https://doi.org/10.1108/02651330810851881.
Chattalas, Michael, Irawati T. Priyanti, and Adi Zakaria Afiff. 2019. National stereotype effects on high versus low-contact service expectations: branding Indonesia. Place Branding and Public Diplomacy 15: 238–243. https://doi.org/10.1057/s41254-019-00139-1.
Chen, Chun-Chu., Yueh-Hsiu. Lin, and James F. Petrick. 2012. Social biases of destination perceptions. Journal of Travel Research 52 (2): 240–252. https://doi.org/10.1177/0047287512459106.
Chen-Fu, and Sambath Phou, Ching. 2013. A closer look at destination: image, personality, relationship and loyalty. Tourism Management 36: 269–278. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2012.11.015.
Cheung, Alan, Xin Guo, Xiaorui Wang, and Zhuang Miao. 2019. Push and pull factors influencing Mainland Chinese MEd students in Hong Kong. International Journal of Educational Management 33 (7): 1539–1560. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJEM-06-2018-0179.
Chillakuri, Bharat. 2020. Understanding generation Z expectations for effective onboarding. Journal of Organizational Change Management 33 (7): 1277–1296. https://doi.org/10.1108/JOCM-02-2020-0058.
Cubillo, Jose Maria, Joaquin Sanchez, and Julio Cervino. 2006. International students’ decision making process. International Journal of Educational Management 20 (2): 101–115. https://doi.org/10.1108/09513540610646091.
Cuddy, Amy J.C.., Susan T. Fiske, and Peter Glick. 2008. Warmth and competence as universal dimensions of social perception: the stereotype content model and the BIAS map. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology 40: 61–149. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0065-2601(07)00002-0.
d’Astous, Alain, and Lilia Boujbel. 2007. Positioning countries on personality dimensions: scale development and implications for country marketing. Journal of Business Research 60 (3): 231–239. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2006.11.005.
De Nisco, Marta Massi Alessandro, and Nicolas Papadopoulos. 2020. Partners or foes? Cross-country consumer animosity, ethnocentrism, and nationalism in times of international crisis. Journal of Global Marketing 33 (3): 207–222. https://doi.org/10.1080/08911762.2020.1744209.
Diamantopoulos, Adamantios, Arnd Florack, Georgios Halkias, and Johanna Palcu. 2017. Explicit vs. implicit country stereotypes as predictors of product preferences: insights from the stereotype content model. Journal of International Business Studies 48: 1023–1036. https://doi.org/10.1057/s41267-017-0085-9.
Djafarova, Elmira, and Tamar Bowes. 2021. ‘Instagram made Me buy it’: generation Z impulse purchases in fashion industry. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services 59: 102345. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jretconser.2020.102345.
Durante, Federica, Dora Capozza, and Susan T. Fiske. 2010. The stereotype content model: the role played by competence in inferring group status. TPM Testing, Psychometrics, Methodology in Applied Psychology 17 (4): 187–199.
Elliot, Statia, and Nicolas Papadopoulos. 2016. Of products and tourism destinations: an integrative, cross-national study of place image. Journal of Business Research 69 (3): 1157–1165. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2015.08.031.
Fernandez-Ferrin, Pilar, and Belen Bande-Vilela. 2013. Regional ethnocentrism: antecedents, consequences, and moderating effects. Food Quality and Preference 30 (2): 299–308. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodqual.2013.06.011.
Garcia-De los Salmones, Maria del Mar, Angel Herrero, and Hector San Martin. 2022. The effects of macro and micro country image on consumer brand preferences. Journal of International Consumer Marketing 34 (2): 137–150. https://doi.org/10.1080/08961530.2021.1922962.
Gatfield, Terry, and Ching- Huei. Chen. 2006. Measuring student choice criteria using the theory of planned behaviour: the case of Taiwan, Australia, UK, and USA. Journal of Marketing for Higher Education 16 (1): 77–95. https://doi.org/10.1300/J050v16n01_04.
Gbollie, Charles, and Shaoying Gong. 2020. Emerging destination mobility: exploring African and Asian international students’ push-pull factors and motivations to study in China. International Journal of Educational Management 34 (1): 18–34. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJEM-02-2019-0041.
Gray, Brendan J., Kim Shyan Fam, and Violeta A. Llanes. 2003. Branding universities in Asian markets. Journal of Product and Brand Management 12 (2): 108–120. https://doi.org/10.1108/10610420310469797.
Hailat, Khaled Qassem, Sami Alsmadi, Mona Nassar, and Sean B. Chung. 2021. An investigation of the push–pull factors influencing student selection of higher education: the case of Arabian Gulf students in the UK. Journal of Public Affairs An International Journal. Epub ahead of print. https://doi.org/10.1002/pa.2657.
Halkias, Georgios, Vasileios Davvetas, and Adamantios Diamantopoulos. 2016. The interplay between country stereotypes and perceived brand globalness/localness as drivers of brand preference. Journal of Business Research 69 (9): 3621–3628. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2016.03.022.
Han, C. Min. 2017. Individualism, collectivism, and consumer animosity in emerging Asia: evidence from Korea. Journal of Consumer Marketing 34 (4): 359–370. https://doi.org/10.1108/JCM-09-2016-1937.
Han, C. Min., and Hyojin Nam. 2020. How inter-country similarities moderate the effects of consumer ethnocentrism and cosmopolitanism in out-group country perceptions: an Asian perspective. International Marketing Review 37 (1): 130–155. https://doi.org/10.1108/IMR-05-2019-0140.
Hao, Andy W., Justin Paul, Sangeeta Trott, Chiquan Guo, and Heng -Hui Wu. 2021. Two decades of research on nation branding: a review and future research agenda. International Marketing Review 38 (1): 46–69. https://doi.org/10.1108/IMR-01-2019-0028.
Hemsley-Brown, Jane, and Izhar Oplatka. 2015. University choice: what do we know, what don’t we know and what do we still need to find out? International Journal of Educational Management 29 (3): 254–274. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJEM-10-2013-0150.
Hendriana, Evelyn, Khairil Wahidin Awang, and Raja Nerina Raja. Yusof. 2021. The roles of the country’s cognitive, affective, and personality aspects in international students’ decision-making. Journal of Marketing for Higher Education. https://doi.org/10.1080/08841241.2021.1900486.
Herrero-Crespo, Angel, Hector San Martin Gutierrez, and Maria del Mar Garcia-Salmones. 2016. Influence of country image on country brand equity: application to higher education services. International Marketing Review 33 (5): 691–714. https://doi.org/10.1108/IMR-02-2015-0028.
Herrero-Crespo, Ángel, Héctor San Martín, María del Mar García de los Salmones, and Andrea del Río Peña. 2015. Influence of country and city images on students’ perception of host universities and their satisfaction with the assigned destination for their exchange programmes. Place Branding and Public Diplomacy 11 (3): 190–203. https://doi.org/10.1057/pb.2015.4.
Hosany, Sameer, Yuksel Ekinci, and Muzafeer Uysal. 2007. Destination image and destination personality. International Journal of Culture, Tourism, and Hospitality Research 1 (1): 62–81. https://doi.org/10.1108/17506180710729619.
Hosany, Sameer, Yuksel Ekinci, and Muzafeer Uysal. 2006. Destination image and destination personality: an application of branding theories to tourism places. Journal of Business Research 59 (5): 638–642. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2006.01.001.
ICEF Monitor. 2019. Indonesian outbound continues to grow with emphasis on regional destinations. ICEF Monitor. https://monitor.icef.com/2019/02/indonesian-outbound-continues-to-grow-with-emphasis-on-regional-destinations/. Accessed 25 June 2020.
Jalilvand, Mohammad Reza, Neda Samiei, Behrooz Dini, and Parisa Yaghoubi Manzari. 2012. Examining the structural relationships of electronic word of mouth, destination image, tourist attitude toward destination and travel intention: an integrated approach. Journal of Destination Marketing and Management 1 (1–2): 134–143. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jdmm.2012.10.001.
Jon, Jae- Eun., Jenny J. Lee, and Kiyong Byun. 2014. The emergence of a regional hub: comparing international student choices and experiences in South Korea. Higher Education 67: 691–710. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10734-013-9674-0.
Laad, Sudeep, and Anip Sharma. 2021. Global student mobility trends - 2021 and beyond. Prod. L.E.K. Consulting. L.E.K. Consulting. https://www.lek.com/insights/global-student-mobility-trends-2021-and-beyond. Accessed 10 Sept 2021.
Lazarus, Richard S. 1991. Progress on a cognitive-motivational-relational theory of emotion. American Psychologist 46 (8): 819–834. https://doi.org/10.1037//0003-066x.46.8.819.
Lee, Se Woong. 2017. Circulating East to East: understanding the push–pull factors of Chinese students studying in Korea. Journal of Studies in International Education 21 (2): 170–190. https://doi.org/10.1177/1028315317697540.
Lee, Richard, Kyung Tae Lee, and Jianyao Li. 2017. A memory theory perspective of consumer ethnocentrism and animosity. European Journal of Marketing 51 (7/8): 1266–1285. https://doi.org/10.1108/EJM-03-2014-0188.
Li, Jianyao, Fang Liu, and Jose I. Rojas-Mendez. 2012. How international students select offshore programs: the influence of image, attitude, subject norm, and perceived behavioral control. Asia Pacific Education Review 14: 381–390. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12564-013-9265-x.
Lu, Irene R. R., Louise A. Heslop, D. Roland Thomas, and Ernest Kwan. 2016. An examination of the status and evolution of country image research. International Marketing Review 33 (6): 825–850. https://doi.org/10.1108/IMR-03-2015-0036.
Ma, Jun, Sijun Wang, and Wei Hao. 2012. Does cultural similarity matter? Extending the animosity model from a new perspective. Journal of Consumer Marketing 29 (5): 319–332. https://doi.org/10.1108/07363761211247442.
Magnusson, Peter, Stanford A. Westjohn, and Nancy J. Sirianni. 2019. Beyond country image favorability: how brand positioning via country personality stereotypes enhances brand evaluations. Journal of International Business Studies 50 (3): 318–338. https://doi.org/10.1057/s41267-018-0175-3.
Maher, Amro A., and Larry L. Carter. 2011. The affective and cognitive components of country image: perceptions of American products in Kuwait. International Marketing Review 28 (6): 559–580. https://doi.org/10.1108/02651331111181411.
Mariutti, Fabiana Gondim, Janaina de Moura, and Engracia Giraldi. 2020. Country brand personality of Brazil: a hindsight of Aaker’s theory. Place Branding and Public Diplomacy 16 (3): 251–264. https://doi.org/10.1057/s41254-019-00153-3.
Mazzarol, Tim, and Geoffrey N. Soutar. 2002. “Push-pull” factors influencing international student destination choice. International Journal of Educational Management 16 (2): 82–90. https://doi.org/10.1108/09513540210418403.
Micevski, Milena, Adamantios Diamantopoulos, and Jennifer Erdbrügger. 2021. From country stereotypes to country emotions to intentions to visit a country: implications for a country as a destination brand. Journal of Product and Brand Management 30 (1): 118–131. https://doi.org/10.1108/JPBM-09-2019-2563.
Motsi, Terence. 2016. The influence of national stereotypes on country image and product country image: A social identity and consumer culture theory approach. Cleveland, OH: Cleveland State University. https://engagedsholarship.csuohio.edu/etdarchive/933.
Motsi, Terence, and Ji Eun Park. 2020. National stereotypes as antecedents of country-of-origin image: the role of the stereotype content model. Journal of International Consumer Marketing 32 (2): 115–127. https://doi.org/10.1080/08961530.2019.1653241.
Nghiem-Phu, Binh, and Thanh Hung Nguyen. 2020. Impacts of perceived country image, institution image and self-image on students’ intention to study abroad: a study in Hanoi, Vietnam. Journal of Marketing for Higher Education 30 (1): 26–44. https://doi.org/10.1080/08841241.2019.1658146.
Phau, Ian, Tekle Shanka, and Neema Dhayan. 2010. Destination image and choice intention of university student travellers to Mauritius. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management 22 (5): 758–764. https://doi.org/10.1108/09596111011053846.
Podsakoff, Philip M., Scott B. MacKenzie, Jeong-Yeon. Lee, and Nathan P. Podsakoff. 2003. Common method biases in behavioral research: a critical review of the literature and recommended remedies. Journal of Applied Psychology 88 (5): 879–903.
Prince, Melvin, Atilla N. Yaprak, and Dayananda Palihawadana. 2019. The moral bases of consumer ethnocentrism and consumer cosmopolitanism as purchase dispositions. Journal of Consumer Marketing 36 (3): 429–438. https://doi.org/10.1108/JCM-11-2017-2432.
QS Quacquarelli Symonds Limited. 2021. QS World University Ranking. QS World University Ranking. https://www.topuniversities.com/university-rankings/world-university-rankings/2021. Accessed 21 Oct 2021.
Roth, Katharina P., and Adamantios Diamantopoulos. 2009. Advancing the country image construct. Journal of Business Research 62 (7): 726–740. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2008.05.014.
Roth, Martin S., and Jean B. Romeo. 1992. Matching product category and country image perceptions: a framework for managing country-of-origin effects. Journal of International Business Studies 23 (3): 477–497. https://doi.org/10.1057/palgrave.jibs.8490276.
Seidenfuss, Kai, and -Uwe, Yunus Kathawala, and Keith Dinnie. 2013. Regional and country ethnocentrism: broadening ASEAN origin perspectives. Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics 25 (2): 298–320. https://doi.org/10.1108/13555851311314077.
Sharma, Piyush. 2015. Consumer ethnocentrism: reconceptualization and cross-cultural validation. Journal of International Business Studies 46: 381–389. https://doi.org/10.1057/jibs.2014.42.
Siemieniako, Dariusz, Krzysztof Kubacki, Ewa Glinska, and Katarzyna Krot. 2011. National and regional ethnocentrism: a case study of beer consumers in Poland. British Food Journal 113 (3): 404–418. https://doi.org/10.1108/00070701111116464.
Song, Young- A., and Yongjun Sung. 2013. Antecedents of nation brand personality. Corporate Reputation Review 16 (1): 80–94. https://doi.org/10.1057/crr.2012.24.
Souiden, Nizar, Riadh Ladhari, and Nour Eddine Chiadmi. 2017. Destination personality and destination image. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management 32: 54–70. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhtm.2017.04.003.
Srikatanyoo, N., and J. Gnoth. 2002. Country image and international tertiary education. Journal of Brand Management 10: 139–146. https://doi.org/10.1057/palgrave.bm.2540111.
Su, Ching-Hui., Chin-Hsun. Tsai, Ming-Hsiang. Chen, and Wan Qing Lv. 2019. US sustainable food market generation Z consumer segments. Sustainability 11 (13): 3607. https://doi.org/10.3390/su11133607.
Sutter, Mariana Bassi, Surender Munjal, Felipe Mendes Borini, and Dinora Floriani. 2021. Conceptualizing country-of-origin image as a country-specific advantage: an insider perspective. Journal of Business Research 134: 415–427. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2021.05.034.
Tajfel, Henri, and John C. Turner. 1986. The social identity theory of inter-group behavior. In Psychology of Intergroup Relations, by S. Worchel and L. W. Austin, edited by S. Worchel and L. W. Austin, 7–24. Chicago, IL: Nelson-Hall.
Thangavel, Packiaraj, Pramod Pathak, and Bibhas Chandra. 2019. Consumer decision-making style of gen Z: a generational cohort analysis. Global Business Review. https://doi.org/10.1177/0972150919880128.
UNESCO Institute for Statistics. 2021. Global flow of tertiary-level students. http://uis.unesco.org/en/uis-student-flow. Accessed 17 September 2021.
Waehning, Nadine, and Raffaele Filieri. 2022. Consumer motives for buying regional products: the REGIOSCALE. Marketing Letters 33: 215–236. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11002-021-09572-w.
Wang, Cheng Lu, Dongjin Li, Bradley R. Barnes, and Jongseok Ahn. 2012. Country image, product image, and consumer purchase intention evidence from an emerging economies. International Business Review 21 (6): 1041–1051. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ibusrev.2011.11.010.
Wei, Hao. 2013. An empirical study on the determinants of international student mobility: a global perspective. Higher Education 66: 105–122. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10734-012-9593-5.
Wen, Wen, and Hu Die. 2019. The emergence of a regional education hub: rationales of international students’ choice of China as the study destination. Journal of Studies in International Education 23 (3): 303–325. https://doi.org/10.1177/1028315318797154.
Zeugner-Roth, Katharina Petra, and Vesna Zabkar. 2015. Bridging the gap between country and destination image: assessing common facets and their predictive validity. Journal of Business Research 68 (9): 1844–1853. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2015.01.012.
Zeugner-Roth, Katharina Petra, Vesna Zabkar, and Adamantios Diamantopoulos. 2015. Consumer ethnocentrism, national identity, and consumer cosmopolitanism as drivers of consumer behavior: a social identity theory perspective. Journal of International Marketing 23 (2): 25–54. https://doi.org/10.1509/jim.14.0038.
Zhang, You, Michael O’Shea, and Leping Mou. 2021. International students’ motivations and decisions to do a PhD in Canada: proposing a three-layer push-pull framework. Canadian Journal of Higher Education 51 (2): 61–73.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
Hendriana, E., Awang, K.W. & Yusof, R.N.R. The interplay between country image and regional ethnocentrism to motivate students considering neighbouring countries. Place Brand Public Dipl 19, 426–441 (2023). https://doi.org/10.1057/s41254-023-00295-5