Skip to main content

Factors impacting state branding communication success: a mediating and multigroup analysis

Abstract

State branding communication tends to be challenging for state authorities as it involves employing a comprehensive branding approach to make the state equally attractive to all target groups. This study attempts to unearth empirically established factors responsible for shaping positive perceptions about the state through state branding communication. Mediation analysis was undertaken to explore the real relationship between constructs. Multigroup analysis was conducted to estimate moderation effect of the residential status of respondents. The result shows that increasing awareness of state branding has a positive impact on framing attitudes towards branding initiatives and, in turn, inculcates a positive outlook towards the state as a favorable destination for residents, tourists, and investors. The result suggests that this is possible only if state brand communication ensures relevant and correct connection with the target groups. This finding is significant because such communication mediates the relationship between attitude and perception about the state. The result of the multigroup analysis reveals that respondents’ residential status moderates the relationship between predictors and outcome variables of the model. From the result, we may argue that one-size-fits-all approach is insufficient for state branding communication and that state authorities should plan customized brand communication for residents and non-residents.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2

References

  1. Aaker, D.A. 1991. Managing brand equity. New York: The Free Press.

    Google Scholar 

  2. Aguinis, H., J.R. Edwards, and K.J. Bradley. 2017. Improving our understanding of moderation and mediation in strategic management research. Organizational Research Methods. 20 (4): 665–685.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Anholt, S. 2009. Should place brands be simple? Place Branding and Public Diplomacy. 5 (2): 91–96.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Anholt, S. 2010. Definitions of place branding—working towards a resolution. Place Branding and Public Diplomacy. 6 (1): 1–10.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Balakrishnan, M.S. 2009. Strategic branding of destinations: A framework. European Journal of Marketing 43 (5/6): 611–629.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Baldauf, A., K.S. Cravens, and G. Binder. 2003. Performance consequences of brand equity management: Evidence from organizations in the value chain. Journal of Product and Brand Management. 12 (4): 220–236.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Balmer, J.M. 2006. Corporate brand cultures and communities. In Brand culture, ed. J.E. Chroeder and M. Salzer-Mörling, 45–58. London: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  8. Baron, R.M., and D.A. Kenny. 1986. The moderator–mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 51 (6): 1173.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Battaglia, M.P. 2008. Nonprobability sampling. Encyclopedia of Survey Research Methods 1: 523–526.

    Google Scholar 

  10. Bentler, P.M. 1992. On the fit of models to covariances and methodology to the bulletin. Psychological Bulletin 112 (3): 400–404.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Bijoor, S. 2012, Branding, a State of mind. Business Line, March 28. https://www.thehindubusinessline.com/catalyst/branding-a-state-of-mind/article23029049.ece. Accessed 23 Feb 2020.

  12. Blichfeldt, B.S. 2005. Unmanageable place brands? Place Branding. 1 (4): 388–401.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Bose, S., S.K. Roy, S.F.S. Alwi, and B. Nguyen. 2018. Measuring customer based place brand equity (CBPBE) from a public diplomacy perspective: Evidence from West Bengal. Journal of Business Research. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2018.01.059.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Bose, S., S. Pradhan, D. Siriguppi, and S.K. Alreddy. 2019. Customer-based place brand equity and investments: Study of West Bengal. Place Branding and Public Diplomacy. 15 (2): 67–77.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Braun, E. 2008. City marketing: Towards an integrated approach (No. EPS-2008-142-ORG).

  16. Braun, E. 2012. Putting city branding into practice. Journal of Brand Management. 19 (4): 257–267.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Braun, E., M. Kavaratzis, and S. Zenker. 2013. My city-My brand: The different roles of residents in place branding. Journal of Place Management and Development. 6 (1): 18–28.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Braun, E., J. Eshuis, and E.H. Klijn. 2014. The effectiveness of place brand communication. Cities 41: 64–70.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Browne, M.W., and R. Cudeck. 1993. Alternative ways of assessing model fit. Testing Structural Equation Models. 154: 134–136.

    Google Scholar 

  20. Calder, B.J., L.W. Philips, and A.M. Tybout. 1982. The concept of external validity. Journal of Consumer Research. 9 (3): 240–244.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Campelo, A., R. Aitken, J. Gnoth, and M. Thyne. 2009. Place branding: representing sense of place. Proceedings of the Australian and New Zealand Marketing Academy Conference 30 November–2 December, Canning Bridge, Australia: Australian and New Zealand Marketing Academy.

  22. Capaldi, D.M., L. Crosby, and S. Clark. 1996. The prediction of aggression in young adult intimate relationships from aggression in the family of origin: A mediational model. In Sixth annual meetings of the Society for Research on Adolescence, Boston.

  23. Chen, F.F. 2007. Sensitivity of goodness of fit indexes to lack of measurement invariance. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal. 14 (3): 464–504.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Cheung, G.W., and R.B. Rensvold. 2002. Evaluating goodness-of-fit indexes for testing measurement invariance. Structural Equation Modeling 9 (2): 233–255.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Chow, W.S. 2002. Multivariate statistical analysis: With application of SAS/STAT. Taipei: Published by Best Wise Co. Ltd.

    Google Scholar 

  26. Churchill Jr., G.A., and J.P. Peter. 1984. Research design effects on the reliability of rating scales: A meta-analysis. Journal of Marketing Research 21 (4): 360–375.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. Cleave, E., G. Arku, R. Sadler, and J. Gilliland. 2016. The role of place branding in local and regional economic development: Bridging the gap between policy and practicality. Regional Studies, Regional Science 3 (1): 207–228.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. Cleave, E., G. Arku, R. Sadler, and J. Gilliland. 2017. Is it sound policy or fast policy? Practitioners’ perspectives on the role of place branding in local economic development. Urban Geography 38 (8): 1133–1157.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. Cronbach, L.J. 1971. Test validation. In Educational measurement, 2nd ed, ed. R.L. Thorndike. Washington: American Council of Education.

    Google Scholar 

  30. Curtis, J. 2001. Branding a state: The evolution of Brand Oregon. Journal of Vacation Marketing. 7 (1): 75–81.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  31. Davidson, R., and J.G. MacKinnon. 2000. Bootstrap tests: How many bootstraps? Econometric Reviews. 19 (1): 55–68.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  32. Dedeoğlu, B.B., M. van Niekerk, K.G. Küçükergin, M. De Martino, and F. Okumuş. 2020. Effect of social media sharing on destination brand awareness and destination quality. Journal of Vacation Marketing. 26 (1): 33–56.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  33. Edelenbos, J., B. Steijn, and E.H. Klijn. 2010. Does democratic anchorage matter? An inquiry into the relation between democratic anchorage and outcome of Dutch environmental projects. The American Review of Public Administration. 40 (1): 46–63.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  34. Eichhorn, B.R. 2014. Common method variance techniques. Cleveland State University, Department of Operations and Supply Chain Management. Cleveland: SAS Institute Inc.

  35. Eshuis, J., and J. Edelenbos. 2009. Branding in urban regeneration. Journal of Urban Regeneration and Renewal. 2 (3): 272–282.

    Google Scholar 

  36. Florek, M. 2015. Rethinking brand equity—possibilities and challenges of application to places. In Rethinking place branding, 225–239. Cham: Springer.

  37. Fornell, C., and D.F. Larcker. 1981. Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of Marketing Research 18 (1): 39–50.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  38. Gnoth, J. 2007. The structure of destination brands: Leveraging values. Tourism Analysis 12 (5–6): 345–358.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  39. Gonzalez, A.M., and L. Bello. 2002. The construct “lifestyle” in market segmentation: The behaviour of tourist consumers. European Journal of Marketing 36 (1/2): 51–85.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  40. Gould, M., and H. Skinner. 2007. Branding on ambiguity? Place branding without a national identity: Marketing Northern Ireland as a post-conflict society in the USA. Place Branding and Public Diplomacy. 3 (1): 100–113.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  41. Greenberg, M. 2009. Branding New York: How a city in crisis was sold to the world. New York: Routledge.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  42. Greider, T., and L. Garkovich. 1994. Landscapes: The social construction of nature and the environment. Rural Sociology. 59 (1): 1–24.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  43. Hair, J., R.E. Anderson, R.L. Tatham, and W.C. Black. 1998. Multivariate data analysis. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall.

    Google Scholar 

  44. Hair, J.F., W.C. Black, B.J. Babin, R.E. Anderson, and R.L. Tatham. 2006. SEM: confirmatory factor analysis. Multivariate data analysis, 770–842. Upper Saddle River: Pearson Prentice Hall.

    Google Scholar 

  45. Hall, R. 1999. National collective identity. New York: Columbia University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  46. Ham, V.P. 2001. The rise of the brand state: The postmodern politics of image and reputation. Foreign Affairs. 2–6.

  47. Hankinson, G. 2001. Location branding: A study of the branding practices of 12 English cities. Journal of Brand Management. 9 (2): 127–142.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  48. Hankinson, G. 2004. Relational network brands: Towards a conceptual model of place brands. Journal of Vacation Marketing. 10 (2): 109–121.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  49. Hankinson, G. 2007. The management of destination brands: Five guiding principles based on recent developments in corporate branding theory. Journal of Brand Management. 14 (3): 240–254.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  50. Hanna, S., and J. Rowley. 2013. A practitioner-led strategic place brand-management model. Journal of Marketing Management. 29 (15–16): 1782–1815.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  51. Hanna, S., and J. Rowley. 2015. Towards a model of the place brand web. Tourism Management. 48: 100–112.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  52. Hannigan, J. 2003. Symposium on branding, the entertainment economy and urban place building: Introduction. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 27: 352–360.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  53. Henseler, J., C.M. Ringle, and M. Sarstedt. 2016. Testing measurement invariance of composites using partial least squares. International Marketing Review. 33 (3): 405–431.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  54. Hill, R. 1998. What sample size is “enough” in internet survey research? Interpersonal Computing and Technology: An Electronic Journal for the 21st Century 6 (3–4): 1–12.

    Google Scholar 

  55. Hoelter, J.W. 1983. The analysis of covariance structures: Goodness-of-fit indices. Sociological Methods and Research. 11 (3): 325–344.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  56. Holmbeck, G.N. 1997. Toward terminological, conceptual, and statistical clarity in the study of mediators and moderators: Examples from the child-clinical and pediatric psychology literatures. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 65 (4): 599–610.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  57. Hu, L., and P. Bentler. 1995. Evaluating model fit. In Structural equation modeling: Concepts, issues, and applications, ed. R.H. Hoyle, 76–99. Thousand Oaks: Sage.

    Google Scholar 

  58. Hulland, J. 1999. Use of partial least squares (PLS) in strategic management research: A review of four recent studies. Strategic Management Journal 20 (2): 195–204.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  59. Isaac, S., and W.B. Michael. 1995. Handbook in research and evaluation. San Diego: Educational and Industrial Testing Services.

    Google Scholar 

  60. Just, T. 2015. Public diplomacy and domestic engagement: The Jewish revival in Poland. Place Branding and Public Diplomacy. 11 (4): 263–275.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  61. Källström, L., and J. Hultman. 2019. Place satisfaction revisited: Residents’ perceptions of “a good place to live.”. Journal of Place Management and Development. 12 (3): 274–290.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  62. Kaltenborn, B.P., and D.R. Williams. 2002. The meaning of place: Attachments to Femundsmarka National Park, Norway, among tourists and locals. Norsk Geografisk Tidsskrift 56 (3): 189–198.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  63. Kavaratzis, M. 2004. From city marketing to city branding: Towards a theoretical framework for developing city brands. Place Branding. 1 (1): 58–73.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  64. Kavaratzis, M. 2008. From city marketing to city branding. An interdisciplinary analysis with reference to Amsterdam, Budapest and Athens. Ph.D. dissertation, Groningen University.

  65. Kavaratzis, M. 2012. From necessary evil to necessity: Stakeholders involvement in place branding. Journal of Place Management and Development 5 (1): 7–19.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  66. Kavaratzis, M., and G.J. Ashworth. 2005. City branding: An effective assertion of identity or a transitory marketing trick? Tijdschrift voor economische en sociale geografie. 96 (5): 506–514.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  67. Kayat, K., and M. Abdul Hai. 2014. Perceived service quality and tourists’ cognitive image of a destination. Anatolia. 25 (1): 1–12.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  68. Kerr, G. 2006. From destination brand to location brand. Journal of Brand Management. 13 (4–5): 276–283.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  69. Klijn, E.H., B. Steijn, and J. Edelenbos. 2010. The impact of network management on outcomes in governance networks. Public Administration. 88 (4): 1063–1082.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  70. Klijn, E.H., J. Eshuis, and E. Braun. 2012. The influence of stakeholder involvement on the effectiveness of place branding. Public Management Review. 14 (4): 499–519.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  71. Kotler, P., and D. Gertner. 2002. Country as brand, product, and beyond: A place marketing and brand management perspective. Journal of Brand Management. 9 (4): 249–261.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  72. Landis, R.S., D.J. Beal, and P.E. Tesluk. 2000. A comparison of approaches to forming composite measures in structural equation models. Organizational Research Methods. 3 (2): 186–207.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  73. Lees-Marshment, J. 2004. The political marketing revolution: Transforming the government of the UK. Manchester: Manchester University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  74. MacKinnon, D.P. 2011. Integrating mediators and moderators in research design. Research on Social Work Practice. 21 (6): 675–681.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  75. Massey, D. 1993. Power, geometry and a progressive sense of place. In Mapping the futures: Local cultures, global change, ed. B. Curtis, J. Bird, T. Putnam, G. Robertson, and L. Tickner, 59–69. London: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  76. Matthews, L., J. Hair, and R. Matthews. 2018. PLS-SEM: The holy grail for advanced analysis. Marketing Management Journal. 28 (1): 1–13.

    Google Scholar 

  77. Merrilees, B., D. Miller, and C. Herington. 2012. Multiple stakeholders and multiple city brand meanings. European Journal of Marketing 46 (7/8): 1032–1047.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  78. Morgan, N., A. Pritchard, and R. Piggott. 2002. New Zealand, 100% pure. The creation of a powerful niche destination brand. Journal of Brand Management. 9 (4): 335–354.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  79. Nikabadi, M.S., M.A. Safui, and H. Agheshlouei. 2015. Role of advertising and promotion in brand equity creation. Journal of Promotion Management. 21 (1): 13–32.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  80. Oppenheim, A.N. 2000. Questionnaire design, interviewing and attitude measurement. London: Bloomsbury Publishing.

    Google Scholar 

  81. Park, C.W., B.J. Jaworski, and D.J. MacInnis. 1986. Strategic brand concept-image management. Journal of Marketing. 50 (4): 135–145.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  82. Planning Commission. 2010. West Bengal development report. Academic Foundation 1: 64–65.

    Google Scholar 

  83. Podsakoff, P.M., S.B. MacKenzie, J.Y. Lee, and N.P. Podsakoff. 2003. Common method biases in behavioral research: A critical review of the literature and recommended remedies. Journal of Applied Psychology 88 (5): 879–903.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  84. Preacher, K.J., and A.F. Hayes. 2004. SPSS and SAS procedures for estimating indirect effects in simple mediation models. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, and Computers. 36 (4): 717–731.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  85. Preacher, K.J., and A.F. Hayes. 2008. Asymptotic and resampling strategies for assessing and comparing indirect effects in multiple mediator models. Behavior Research Methods 40 (3): 879–891.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  86. Provan, K.G., K. Huang, and H.B. Milward. 2009. The evolution of structural embeddedness and organizational social outcomes in a centrally governed health and human services network. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory. 19 (4): 873–893.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  87. Qu, H., L.H. Kim, and H.H. Im. 2011. A model of destination branding: Integrating the concepts of the branding and destination image. Tourism Management. 32 (3): 465–476.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  88. Quester, P., and A.L. Lim. 2003. Product involvement/brand loyalty: is there a link? Journal of Product and Brand Management. 12 (1): 22–38.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  89. Rainisto, S.K. 2003. Success factors of place marketing: A study of place marketing practices in Northern Europe and the United States. Helsinki: Helsinki University of Technology.

    Google Scholar 

  90. Real, J.C., J.L. Roldán, and A. Leal. 2014. From entrepreneurial orientation and learning orientation to business performance: Analyzing the mediating role of organizational learning and the moderating effects of organizational size. British Journal of Management 25 (2): 186–208.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  91. Ribeiro, B.S.D.M.Á. 2017. Measurement of a country brand: the Country Brand Strength Index (Doctoral dissertation).

  92. Rose, J. 2010. The branding of states: The uneasy marriage of marketing to politics. Journal of Political Marketing. 9 (4): 254–275.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  93. Schultz, M., M.J. Hatch, and M.H. Larsen. 2000. The expressive organization: Linking identity, reputation, and the corporate brand: Linking identity, reputation, and the corporate brand. Oxford: OUP.

    Google Scholar 

  94. Steenkamp, J.B.E., and H. Baumgartner. 1998. Assessing measurement invariance in cross-national consumer research. Journal of Consumer Research. 25 (1): 78–90.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  95. Streiner, D.L. 2003. Being inconsistent about consistency: When coefficient alpha does and doesn’t matter. Journal of Personality Assessment 80 (3): 217–222.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  96. Ting, H., K.S. Fam, J.C.J. Hwa, J.E. Richard, and N. Xing. 2019. Ethnic food consumption intention at the touring destination: The national and regional perspectives using multi-group analysis. Tourism Management. 71: 518–529.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  97. Tosun, C., B.B. Dedeoğlu, and A. Fyall. 2015. Destination service quality, affective image and revisit intention: The moderating role of past experience. Journal of Destination Marketing and Management. 4 (4): 222–234.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  98. Tyler, M.C., A. Abbasov, N. Gibson, and F. Teo. 2012. Domestic public diplomacy. Australian Institute of International Affairs Discussion Paper, 5.

  99. Urde, M. 1999. Brand orientation: A mindset for building brands into strategic resources. Journal of Marketing Management. 15 (1–3): 117–134.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  100. Wang, J. 2006. Localising public diplomacy: The role of sub-national actors in nation branding. Place Branding. 2 (1): 32–42.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  101. Wæraas, A., H. Bjørnå, and T. Moldenæs. 2015. Place, organization, democracy: Three strategies for municipal branding. Public Management Review 17 (9): 1282–1304.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  102. Williams, D.R., and S.I. Stewart. 1998. Sense of place: An elusive concept that is finding a home in ecosystem management. Journal of Forestry 96 (5): 18–23.

    Google Scholar 

  103. Yoo, B., and N. Donthu. 2001. Developing and validating a multidimensional consumer-based brand equity scale. Journal of Business Research. 52 (1): 1–14.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  104. Youde, J. 2009. Selling the state: State branding as a political resource in South Africa. Place Branding and Public Diplomacy. 5 (2): 126–140.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  105. Yung, L., W.A. Freimund, and J.M. Belsky. 2003. The politics of place: Understanding meaning, common ground, and political difference on the Rocky Mountain Front. Forest Science. 49 (6): 855–866.

    Google Scholar 

  106. Zenker, S., and N. Martin. 2011. Measuring success in place marketing and branding. Place Branding and Public Diplomacy. 7 (1): 32–41.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  107. Zenker, S., and S. Petersen. 2014. An integrative theoretical model for improving resident-city identification. Environment and Planning A. 46 (3): 715–729.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  108. Zenker, S., E. Braun, and S. Petersen. 2017. Branding the destination versus the place: The effects of brand complexity and identification for residents and visitors. Tourism Management. 58: 15–27.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Saikat Banerjee.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Appendix 1

Appendix 1

See Fig. 3.

Fig. 3
figure3

Source Compiled by the Author from Google Image Non-copyright Stock Photos

West Bengal state branding initiatives: a snapshot

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Banerjee, S. Factors impacting state branding communication success: a mediating and multigroup analysis. Place Brand Public Dipl 17, 317–335 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1057/s41254-020-00175-2

Download citation

Keywords

  • Branding
  • State branding
  • Brand awareness
  • Attitude
  • Target group
  • State perception