From the publication of its first study in 1993 up to the present day, place branding theory is relatively new and still developing. The research in English is abundant, but there is very little review of China’s research. Although there are a large number of Chinese place branding research published, most of these studies are published in Chinese, and it is difficult to form communication among scholars worldwide. The value of these literatures is that they provide scholars, students, and practitioners with a different angle and a critical assessment of existing research on the topic of place branding. By summarizing the existing Chinese place branding literature, this literature review not only describes the main themes and issues of Chinese research in this field, but also clarifies the future directions. Three main periods are identified in the development of Chinese place branding research, and the conceptual characteristics are summarized.
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The horizontal project refers to the funding projects of the enterprises, and the contractual relationship between the company and the researcher are equal so this kind of projects are called the horizontal projects. Therefore, the horizontal projects refer to the tasks entrusted by governments functional departments at all levels, enterprises, institutions, and social organizations (exclude those are recognized as national-level projects, provincial-level projects, and school-level topics), including scientific research, technical research, decision-making, design planning, software development, etc. Horizontal projects are an important way for schools to expand external ties, to serve local economic construction, and to improve scientific research and visibility.
The vertical project refers to the subject of the scientific research administrative institutions designated by the governments at all levels. Such as: the Ministry of Science and Technology, the Provincial Department of Science and Technology, the Municipal Science and Technology Bureau, the National Social Science Association, the Provincial Social Science Association, the Municipal Social Science Association, and the Ministry of Education.
Original in English
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Wu, Y., Zhang, B. & Wang, D. Bridging the language barrier: a Chinese place branding literature review from 1996 to 2018. Place Brand Public Dipl 17, 140–154 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1057/s41254-020-00160-9