This article provides an over-view of Nordic contributions to the field of public diplomacy, examining the historical appearance of such constituent practices as listening, advocacy, cultural diplomacy, exchange, international broadcasting and an awareness of soft power. The Nordic approach is contrasted with that of the United States. The piece ends with a consideration of the Nordic experience of the so-called New Public Diplomacy approaches including use of on-line media and memes.
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Cull, N.J. A region speaks: Nordic public diplomacy in historical context. Place Brand Public Dipl 12, 152–159 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1057/s41254-016-0011-0