Advertisement

Latino Studies

, Volume 11, Issue 3, pp 271–292 | Cite as

Latino immigrant men and the deportation crisis: A gendered racial removal program

  • Tanya Golash-Boza
  • Pierrette Hondagneu-Sotelo
Original Article

Abstract

This article reviews how US deportations ballooned between 1997 and 2012, and underscores how these deportations disproportionately targeted Latino working class men. Building on Mae Ngai’s (2004) concept of racial removal, we describe this recent mass deportation as a gendered racial removal program. Drawing from secondary sources, surveys conducted in Mexico, the U.S. Department of Homeland Security published statistics, and interviews with deportees conducted by the first author in Guatemala, the Dominican Republic, Brazil and Jamaica, we argue that: (1) deportations have taken on a new course in the aftermath of 9/11 and in the wake of the global economic crisis – involving a shift towards interior enforcement; (2) deportation has become a gendered and racial removal project of the state; and (3) deportations will have lasting consequences with gendered and raced effects here in the United States. We begin by examining the mechanisms of the new deportation regime, showing how it functions, and then examine the legislation and administrative decisions that make it possible. Next, we show the concentration of deportations by nation and gender. Finally, we discuss the causes of this gendered racial removal program, which include the male joblessness crisis since the Great Recession, the War on Terror, and the continued criminalization of Black and Latino men by police authorities.

Keywords

deportation gender immigration great recession war on terror criminalized masculinity 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors thank the anonymous reviewers, legal scholars Bill Ong Hing and Niels Frenzen, the Latino Studies editors Suzanne Oboler and Lourdes Torres, Helen Marrow for the Census data on non-citizens, and Sybil Adams for creating the map.

References

  1. Applied Research Center. 2011. Shattered Families: The Perilous Intersection of Immigration Enforcement and the Child Welfare System, http://www.arc.org/shatteredfamilies, accessed 24 July 2013.
  2. Armenta, A . 2012. From Sheriff’s Deputies to Immigration Officers: Screening Immigrant Status in a Tennessee Jail. Law & Policy 34 (2): 191–210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Arnold, C . 2007. Racial Profiling in Immigration Enforcement: State and Local Agreements to Enforce Federal Immigration Law. Arizona Law Review 49 (1): 113–142.Google Scholar
  4. Balderamma, F . 1982. In Defense of La Raza: The Los Angeles Mexican Consulate and the Mexican Community 1929–1936. Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona Press.Google Scholar
  5. Brotherton, D.C. and L. Barrios . 2011. Banished to the Homeland: Dominican Deportees and Their Stories of Exile. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  6. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2010-11 Edition. http://www.bls.gov/oco/oco2003.htm, accessed 20 February 2012.
  7. Chan, S., ed. 1991. Entry Denied: Exclusion and the Chinese Community in America 1882–1943. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press.Google Scholar
  8. Chavez, L . 2004. A Glass Half Empty: Latina Reproduction and Public Discourse. Human Organization 63 (2): 173–188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chavez, L . 2008. The Latino Threat: Constructing Immigrants, Citizens and the Nation. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  10. Coleman, M . 2012. The “Local” Migration State: The Site-specific Devolution of Immigration Enforcement in the U.S. South. Law & Policy 34 (2): 159–190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Coutin, S . 2000. Legalizing Moves: Salvadoran Immigrants Struggling for U.S. Residency. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan.Google Scholar
  12. De Genova, N . 2002. Migrant “Illegality” and Deportability in Everyday Life. Annual Review of Anthropology 31: 419–447.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Donato, K.M. and A. Armenta . 2011. What We Know About Unauthorized Migration. Annual Review of Sociology 37 (1): 529–543.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Dowling, J.A. and J.X. Inda . 2012. Governing Immigration through Crime: A Reader. Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  15. Dreby, J . 2012. The Burden of Deportation on Children in Mexican Immigrant Families. Journal of Marriage and Family 74 (4): 829–845.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Fix, M. and J.S. Passel . 1994. Immigration and Immigrants: Setting the Record Straight. The Urban Institute Online at: http://www.urban.org/UploadedPDF/305184_immigration_immigrants.pdf, accessed 20 January 2012.
  17. Fujiwara, L . 2008. Mothers without Citizenship: Asian Immigrant Families and the Consequences of Welfare Reform. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  18. Glenn, E.N . 1986. Issie, Nisei, Warbride. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press.Google Scholar
  19. Golash-Boza, T . 2012. Immigration Nation: Raids, Detentions, and Deportations in Post-9/11 America. Boulder, CO: Paradigm Publishers.Google Scholar
  20. Gonzalez, R.M . 1983. Chicanas and Mexican Immigrant Families 1920–1940: Women’s Subordination and Family Exploitation. In Decades of Discontent: The Women’s Movement 1920–1940, eds. L. Scharf and J.M. Jensen, 59–83. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.Google Scholar
  21. Gutierrez, E.R . 2008. Fertile Matters: The Politics of Mexican Origin Women’s Reproduction. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press.Google Scholar
  22. Hagan, J., K. Eschbach and N. Rodriguez . 2008. U.S. Deportation Policy, Family Separation, and Circular Migration. International Migration Review 42 (1): 64–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hagan, J.M., N. Rodriguez and B. Castro . 2011. Social Effects of Mass Deportations by the United States Government, 2000–2010. Ethnic and Racial Studies 34 (8): 1374–1391.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Headley, B., M.D. Gordon and A. MacIntosh . 2005. Deported: Entry and Exit Findings. Jamaicans Returned Home from the U.S. between 1997 and 2003. Kingston, Jamaica: Stephenson Litho Press.Google Scholar
  25. Hernandez, D . 2008. Pursuant to Deportation: Latinas/os and Immigrant Detention. Latino Studies 6 (1–2): 35–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hernandez, K.L . 2010. Migra! A History of the U.S. Border Patrol. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  27. Hing, B.O . 2003. Defining America Through Immigration Policy. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press.Google Scholar
  28. Hoffman, A . 1974. Unwanted Mexican Americans in the Great Depression: Repatriation Pressures 1929–1939. Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona Press.Google Scholar
  29. Hondagneu-Sotelo, P . 1994. Gendered Transitions: Mexican Experiences of Immigration. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  30. Hondagneu-Sotelo, P . 1995. Women and Children First: New Directions in Anti-immigrant Politics. Socialist Review 25 (1): 169–190.Google Scholar
  31. Immigration Enforcement Actions. 2010. Department of Homeland Security. Office of Immigration Statistics. Online at: http://www.dhs.gov/xlibrary/assets/statistics/publications/enforcement-ar-2010.pdf, accessed 6 February 2012.
  32. Immigration Policy Center. 2011. Secure Communities: A Fact Sheet. www.immigrationpolicy.org/just-facts/secure-communities-fact-sheet, accessed 6 January 2012.
  33. Johnson, K . 2003. The Case for African American and Latina/o Cooperation in Racial Profiling in Law Enforcement. Florida Law Review 55: 343–365.Google Scholar
  34. Kandel, W . 2012. “Interior Immigration Enforcement: Programs Targeting Criminal Aliens” 20 December 2012 Congressional Research Service, http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/homesec/R42057.pdf, accessed 1 January 2013.
  35. Kanstroom, D . 2012. Aftermath: Deportation Law and the New American Diaspora. New York: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Kasinitz, P., J.H. Mollenkopf, M.C. Waters and J. Holdaway . 2008. Inheriting the City: The Children of Immigrants Come of Age. Boston, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  37. Kerwin, D. and S.Y.-Y. Lin . 2009. Immigrant Detention: Can ICE Meet Its Legal Imperatives and Case Management Responsibilities? Migration Policy Institute. September. Online at: http://www.migrationpolicy.org/pubs/detentionreportSept1009.pdf, accessed 28 September 2012.
  38. King, R.D., M. Massoglia and C. Uggen . 2012. Employment and Exile: U.S. Criminal Deportations, 1908–2005. American Journal of Sociology 117 (6): 1786–1825.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Kretsedemas, P . 2012. The Immigration Crucible: Transforming Race, Nation, and the Limits of the Law. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  40. Lacayo, A.E . 2010. The Impact of Section 287(g) of the Immigration and Nationality Act on the Latino Community. National Council of La Raza. Online at: http://www.nclr.org/images/uploads/publications/287gReportFinal.pdf.
  41. Lundman, R.J. and R.L. Kaufman . 2003. Driving while Black: Effects of Race, Ethnicity, and Gender on Citizen’s Self-reports of Traffic Stops and Police Actions. Criminology 41 (1): 195–220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Marchevsky, A. and J. Theoharis . 2006. Not Working: Latina Immigrants, Low-wage Jobs, and the Future of Welfare Reform. New York: New York University Press.Google Scholar
  43. Menjivar, C. and L.J. Abrego . 2012. Legal Violence: Immigration Law and the Lives of Central American Immigrants. American Journal of Sociology 115 (5): 1380–1421.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Moloney, D . 2012. National Insecurities: Immigrants and U.S. Deportation Policy since 1882. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press.Google Scholar
  45. Ngai, M . 2004. Impossible Subjects: Illegal Aliens and the Making of Modern America. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  46. Park, L.S . 2011. Entitled to Nothing: The Struggle for Immigrant Health Care in the Age of Welfare Reform. New York: New York University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Quereshi, A . 2010. 287(g) and Women: The Family Values of Local Enforcement. Wisconsin Journal of Law Gender and Society 25 (2): 261–300.Google Scholar
  48. Ramirez, H. and E. Flores . 2011. Latino Masculinities in the Post-9/11 Era. In Gender through the Prism of Difference, eds. M. Baca Zinn, P. Hondagneu-Sotelo and M.A. Messner, 4th edn., 259–270. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  49. Rios, V . 2011. Punished: Policing the Lives of Black and Latino Boys. New York: University Press.Google Scholar
  50. Rosas, A.E . 2011. Breaking the Silence: Mexican Children and Women’s Confrontation of Bracero Family Separation, 1942–1964. Gender & History 23 (2): 382–400.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Rosas, G . 2006. The Managed Violences of the Borderlands: Treacherous Geographies, Policeability, and the Politics of Race. Latino Studies 4 (4): 401–418.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Rosenblum, M. and W. Kandel . 2012. “Interior Immigration Enforcement: Programs Targeting Criminal Aliens” 20 December 2012 Congressional Research Service, http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/homesec/R42057.pdf, accessed 1 January 2013.
  53. Siulc, N . 2009. Unwelcome Citizens, Criminalized Migrants, and the Quest for Freedom: Deportees in the Dominican Republic. Unpublished Dissertation. Anthropology. New York University.Google Scholar
  54. Stumpf, J . 2006. The Crimmigration Crisis: Immigrants, Crime, and Sovereign Power. American University Law Review 56 (2): 367–419.Google Scholar
  55. U.S. Department of Homeland Security. 2009. Office of Immigration Statistics Policy Directorate Immigration Enforcement Actions: 2008. Online at: http://www.dhs.gov/xlibrary/assets/statistics/publications/enforcement_ar_08.pdf, accessed 28 September 2012.
  56. U.S. Department of Homeland Security. 2012. U.S. ICE Deportation of Parents of U.S.-born Citizens: Fiscal Year 2011 Report to Congress. 26 March. Online at: http://www.lirs.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/07/ICE-DEPORT-OF-PARENTS-OF-US-CIT-FY-2011.pdf, accessed 28 September 2012.
  57. U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS). 2012. FY 2011 Budget in Brief. Online at: http://www.dhs.gov/xlibrary/assets/budget_bib_fy2011.pdf, accessed 16 February 2012.
  58. Wacquant, L . 2009. Punishing the Poor: The Neoliberal Government of Social Insecurity. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. WFMY News. 2012. DOJ: Alamance Sheriff Shows Pattern Of Discrimination Against Latinos. 18 September, http://www.digtriad.com/news/local/article/246062/57/DOJ-Alamance-Sheriff-Shows-Pattern-Of-Bias-Against-Latinos, accessed 1 January 2013.
  60. Young, J . 1999. The Exclusive Society: Social Exclusion, Crime and Difference in Late Modernity. London: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  61. Zilberg, E . 2004. Fools Banished from the Kingdom: Remapping Geographies of Gang Violence between the Americas (Los Angeles and San Salvador). American Quarterly 56 (3): 759–779.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Palgrave Macmillan, a division of Macmillan Publishers Ltd 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tanya Golash-Boza
    • 1
  • Pierrette Hondagneu-Sotelo
    • 2
  1. 1.University of California
  2. 2.University of Southern California

Personalised recommendations