Journal of Marketing Analytics

, Volume 2, Issue 2, pp 98–119 | Cite as

Top soccer teams in cyberspace: Online channels for services, communications, research, and sales

  • Hans Jochen SchollEmail author
  • Kai Wang
  • Yuan Wang
  • Grant Woods
  • Donghe Xu
  • Yaxing Yao
  • Marlen C Jurisch
  • Helmut Krcmar
Original Article


For more than a decade, professional sports teams have mainly used their own websites as online vehicles in support of marketing efforts in services, communications, research and sales. Meanwhile, social media and mobile computing have been added to the mix of online as a response to raised service expectations and changing functional requirements for digital online presence and interaction, which has important implications for the marketing success of any professional team. We studied the cyberspace presence and appearance of four leading soccer teams in Europe and particularly looked at the mix of official team websites, social media and mobile applications. Following the methodology of previous studies on the subject, we used the TEDS framework for information artifact evaluation from a ‘human agent-centric’ perspective and extended this analytical approach to also include social media and mobile channels. Our results suggest that the new channels of social and mobile media have seemingly gained in importance putting the traditional websites to the backseat in the mix. However, in all four cases the integration of cyberspace channels appears to be in its infancy leaving much room for improvement from both a marketing perspective and an information artifact standpoint.


social media mobile computing sport 



Reprinted with permission, from IEEE January 2014, 47th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, ‘Digital and Social Media in Pro Sports: Analysis of the 2013 UEFA Top Four,’ by M. Jurisch, H. Krcmar, H.J. Scholl, K. Wang, Y. Wang, G. Woods, D. Xu, and Y. Yao.


  1. Apple Store (2013), accessed 31 October 2013.
  2. Gibson, O. (2012) Manchester United ‘most popular team in the world’ with 659 million fans. The Guardian, 29 May,
  3. Hambrick, M.E. (2012) Six degrees of information: Using social network analysis to explore the spread of information within sport social networks. International Journal of Sport Communication 5 (1): 16–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Hambrick, M.E., Simmons, J.M., Greenhalgh, G.P. and Greenwell, T.C. (2010) Understanding professional athletes’ use of twitter: A content analysis of athlete tweets. International Journal of Sport Communication 3 (4): 454–471.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Hur, Y., Ko, Y.J. and Valacich, J. (2011) A structural model of the relationships between sport website quality, e-satisfaction, and e-loyalty. Journal of Sport Management 25 (5): 458–473.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Hutchins, B. and Rowe, D. (2012) Sport Beyond Television: The Internet, Digital Media and the Rise of Networked Media Sport. Vol. 40. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  7. James, J.D. and Ross, S.D. (2004) Comparing sport consumer motivations across multiple sports. Sport Marketing Quarterly 13 (1): 17–25.Google Scholar
  8. Jones, D., Rawnsley, P. and Switzer, A. (2013) Annual Review of Football Finance – Highlights. Deloitte Annual Review of Football Finance 2013. London: Deloitte LLP, pp. 1–16.Google Scholar
  9. List of European Cup and UEFA Champions League finals (2014) Wikipedia. Available at:, accessed 23 June 2014.
  10. Miranda, F.J., Chamorro, A., Valero, V. and Maestre, J. (2010) Quantitative assessment of football web sites: An empirical study of the best European football club. Journal of Service Science and Management 3 (1): 110–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Net Market Share (2014) Mobile/Tablet Operating System Market Share (as of January 2014)., accessed 27 February 2014.
  12. Pedersen, P.M. (2013) Reflections on communication and sport: On strategic communication and management. Communication & Sport 1 (1–2): 55–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Pegoraro, A. (2010) Look who’s talking-athletes on twitter: A Case study. International Journal of Sport Communication 3 (4): 501–514.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Ritchie, J., Lewis, J. and Gillian, E. (2003) Designing and selecting samples. In: J. Ritchie and J. Lewis (eds.) Qualitative Research Practice: A Guide for Social Science Students and Researchers, London; Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, pp. 77–108.Google Scholar
  15. Sanderson, J. (2010) Framing Tiger’s troubles: Comparing traditional and social media. International Journal of Sport Communication 3 (4): 438–453.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Scholl, H.J. (2013) Evaluating sports websites from an information management perspective. In: P.M. Pedersen (ed.) Routledge Handbook of Sport Communication. New York: Routledge, pp. 289–299.Google Scholar
  17. Scholl, H.J. and Carlson, T.S. (2012) Professional sports teams on the web: A comparative study employing the information management perspective. European Sport Management Quarterly 12 (2): 37–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Scholl, H.J., Eisenberg, M.B., Dirks, L. and Carlson, T.S. (2011) The TEDS framework for assessing information systems from a human actors’ perspective: Extending and repurposing Taylor’s value-added model. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 64 (4): 789–804.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Scholl, M., Ehrlich, P., Wiesner-Steiner, A. and Edich, D. (2014) The Project TEDS@wildau: TEDS Framework Integration into the Moodle Platform for User-Specific Quality Assurance of Learning Scenarios. Paper presented at the 47th Hawaii International Conference on System Science (HICSS 2014), Waikoloa Village, Hawaii.Google Scholar
  20. Seo, W. and Green, B. (2008) Development of the motivation scale for sport online consumption. Journal of Sport Management 22 (1): 82–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Waters, R.D., Burnett, E., Lamm, A. and Lucas, J. (2009) Engaging stakeholders through social networking: How nonprofit organizations are using Facebook. Public Relations Review 35 (2): 102–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Waters, R.D., Burke, K.A., Jackson, Z.J. and Buning, J.D. (2011) Using stewardship to cultivate fandom online: Comparing how National Football League teams use their web sites and Facebook to engage their fans. International Journal of Sport Communication 4 (2): 163–177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Wolfradt, U. and Doll, J. (2001) Motives of adolescents to use the Internet as a function of personality traits, personal and social factors. Journal of Educational Computing Research 24 (1): 13–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Palgrave Macmillan, a division of Macmillan Publishers Ltd 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hans Jochen Scholl
    • 1
    Email author
  • Kai Wang
  • Yuan Wang
  • Grant Woods
  • Donghe Xu
  • Yaxing Yao
  • Marlen C Jurisch
  • Helmut Krcmar
  1. 1.The Information School, University of WashingtonSeattleUSA

Personalised recommendations