The art of constructing (in)security: probing rhetorical strategies of securitisation

Abstract

Scholars advocating a sociological view of securitisation have criticised the Copenhagen school for its overemphasis on the grammar of security and its neglect of the social situatedness of securitisation. Accordingly, these critics have also pointed to the relevance of rhetorical strategy, that is, how agents tailor their securitising moves to specific audiences and contexts. This article advances our knowledge of rhetorical strategies of securitisation in two ways. First, it introduces the four rhetorical appeals of authority, fidelity, presence, and emotionality as text-level factors that facilitate the success of securitising moves. Second, the article focuses on rhetorical assemblage and argues that narrative theory enables us to gain a nuanced understanding of how securitising actors seek to create the four rhetorical appeals by selecting and combining discursive resources. To illustrate the added value of this theoretical framework, I use the documentary movies Countdown to Zero and Nuclear Tipping Point. These documentaries are securitising moves that seek to persuade a public audience in the United States of the existential threat that nuclear weapons pose and to mobilise this audience to support the cause of disarmament.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Figure 1
Figure 2

Notes

  1. 1.

    The label of ‘rhetorical strategy’ is more accurate than the two alternative labels as it highlights the persuasive/argumentative and situated character of securitisation. As James Martin (2014: 9) notes, ‘[t]o explore rhetoric is to consider how, at specific moments and locations, ideas are fashioned into arguments with a certain force and direction in order to win the assent of an audience’. Buzan et al. also point to the rhetorical dimension of securitisation by referring to the ‘particular rhetoric and semiotic structure’ (Buzan et al. 1998: 25) of securitising moves.

  2. 2.

    These qualities of securitising actors are at the core of the so-called Paris school of security studies. See, for example, Bigo and Tsoukala (2008).

  3. 3.

    Although Aristotle argued in his writings that rhetors actively construct these characteristics (Amossy 2001), an audience may already attribute these characteristics as a consequence of past communicative encounters.

  4. 4.

    See also Balzacq, who emphasises the relevance of ‘objective developments’ (2005: 181) for successful securitisation, and Stritzel’s (2012) work on intertextual links.

  5. 5.

    Debra Hawhee (2011) argues for a more encompassing treatment of the visual in rhetorical studies. She notes that scholars of rhetoric should not only address visual rhetoric as the persuasive use of visual objects and perspectives but also what she labels ‘rhetorical vision’, that is, ‘rhetoric’s role in sense perception and the importance of developing a rhetorical style that infuses words with perceivable movement and life, with visualizable action’ (Hawhee 2011: 140).

  6. 6.

    See Nedeau et al. (1995: 560).

  7. 7.

    See also Bal (2009: pos. 4030) and Mayer (2014: 55–61).

  8. 8.

    The label of ‘actants’ denotes that, next to humans, also non-humans and objects can have agency in a fabula (Bal 2009: pos. 322; Lejano et al. 2013: 63). See also Pouliot (2010: 298).

  9. 9.

    See also van Veeren (2011).

  10. 10.

    Secondary locations that appear throughout the documentary include countries of the former Soviet Union, Pakistan, and Iran.

  11. 11.

    The label and concept of focalisation were originally developed by Gérard Genette (1983/1988).

  12. 12.

    As Sanford and Emmott (2012: 173) note, identification only follows from the use of the generic you if it ‘describes certain experiences that are sufficiently general to parallel any reader’s everyday experience’.

  13. 13.

    See also Binns and Ryder (2015).

  14. 14.

    Glenn Hook (1985: 67) labels these two perspectives as top-down and bottom-up, or perpetrator- and victim-perspectives on nuclear weapons.

  15. 15.

    This syllogism has been very powerful but not uncontested in the post-9/11 debate about nuclear proliferation. Brian Michel Jenkins (2008: 191), for example, argues that ‘[e]ven jihadists must calibrate their violence or risk isolation. While asserting that they are justified in killing millions, they argue among themselves about the application of violence’.

  16. 16.

    Countdown to Zero also includes clips that show soldiers and civilians cheering after China’s first nuclear test (0:25:10), people celebrating in the street after India’s nuclear test in 1974 (0:25:48) and a North Korean rally with imagery of a launching missile (0:27:52). The images of cheering crowds suggest that the handling of nuclear weapons by these states is guided by emotions and impulses rather than rational reflection. According to Hugh Gusterson, this image of new nuclear-weapon states is the heart of what he – drawing on the work of Edward Said – calls ‘nuclear orientalism’ (1999: 123–28).

  17. 17.

    Bal refers to this type of narrator as a character-bound narrator (2009: pos. 631).

  18. 18.

    Nuclear-disarmament initiatives have also used fiction films to support their cause. In the 1980s, for example, disarmament initiatives capitalised on The Day After (1983), a movie that depicts the consequences of nuclear detonations in Kansas (Overpeck 2012). See also Shapiro (2002).

References

  1. Åhäll, Linda and Thomas A. Gregory (2013) ‘Security, Emotions, Affect’, Critical Studies on Security 1(1): 117–20.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Amossy, Ruth (2001) ‘Ethos at the Crossroads of Disciplines: Rhetoric, Pragmatics, Sociology’, Poetics Today 22(1): 1–12.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Andersen, Rune S. and Frank Möller (2013) ‘Engaging the Limits of Visibility: Photography, Security and Surveillance’, Security Dialogue 44(3): 203–21.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Andersen, Rune S., Juha A. Vuori and Can E. Mutlu (2015) ‘Visuality’, in Claudia Aradau, Jef Huysmans, Andrew Neal and Nadine Voelkner eds, Critical Security Methods: New Frameworks for Analysis, 85–117, London and New York: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  5. Aristotle (2007) Rhetorik, Stuttgart: Reclam.

    Google Scholar 

  6. Austin, John L. (1962/2010) Zur Theorie der Sprechakte (How to Do Things with Words), Stuttgart: Reclam.

    Google Scholar 

  7. Bal, Mieke (2009) Narratology: Introduction to the Theory of Narrative, 3rd edn. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, [Kindle Edition].

    Google Scholar 

  8. Balzacq, Thierry (2005) ‘The Three Faces of Securitization: Political Agency, Audience and Context’, European Journal of International Relations 11(2): 171–201.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Balzacq, Thierry, ed. (2011a) Securitization Theory: How Security Problems Emerge and Dissolve, London and New York: Routledge [Kindle Edition].

    Google Scholar 

  10. Balzacq, Thierry, ed. (2011b) ‘A Theory of Securitization: Origins, Core Assumptions, and Variants’, in, Securitization Theory: How Security Problems Emerge and Resolve, 1–30, London and New York: Routledge [Kindle Edition].

    Google Scholar 

  11. Berenskoetter, Felix (2014) ‘Parameters of a National Biography’, European Journal of International Relations 20(1): 262–88.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Bigo, Didier and Anastassia Tsoukala, eds, (2008) ‘Understanding (in)Security’, in, Terror, Insecurity and Liberty. Illiberal Practices of Liberal Regimes after 9/11, 1–9, London and New York: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  13. Binns, Daniel and Paul Ryder (2015) ‘Re-viewing D-day: The Cinematography of the Normandy Landings from the Signal Corps to Saving Private Ryan’, Media, War & Conflict 8(1): 86–99.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Birdsell, David S. and Leo Groarke (2007) ‘Outlines of a Theory of Visual Rhetoric’, Argumentation & Advocacy 43(3–4): 103–13.

    Google Scholar 

  15. Bitzer, Lloyd F. (1968) ‘The Rhetorical Situation’, Philosophy & Rhetoric 1(1): 1–14.

    Google Scholar 

  16. Bleiker, Roland and Emma Hutchison (2014) ‘Introduction: Emotions and World Politics’, International Theory 6(3): 490–91.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Brahnam, Sheryl (2009) ‘Building Character for Artificial Conversational Agents: Ethos, Ethics, Believability, and Credibility’, PsychNology 7(1): 9–47.

    Google Scholar 

  18. Buzan, Barry and Lene Hansen (2009) The Evolution of International Security Studies, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  19. Buzan, Barry, Ole Wæver and Jaap de Wilde (1998) Security: A New Framework for Analysis, Boulder: Lynne Rienner Publishers.

    Google Scholar 

  20. Campbell, David (1992) Writing Security: United States Foreign Policy and the Politics of Identity, Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

    Google Scholar 

  21. Campbell, David and Michael J. Shapiro (2007) ‘‘Guest Editor’s Introduction: Special Issue on Securitization, Militarization and Visual Culture in the Worlds of Post-9/11’’, Security Dialogue 38(2): 131–37.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Clark, Gregory (2004) Rhetorical Landscapes in America: Variations on a Theme from Kenneth Burke, Columbia: University of South Carolina Press.

    Google Scholar 

  23. Cohen, Jonathan (2001) ‘Defining Identification: A Theoretical Look at the Identification of Audiences with Media Characters’, Mass Communication & Society 4(4): 245–64.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Coles, Robert (1989) The Call of Stories: Teaching and the Moral Imagination, Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

    Google Scholar 

  25. Consigny, Scott (1974) ‘Rhetoric and Its Situations’, Philosophy & Rhetoric 7(3): 175–86.

    Google Scholar 

  26. Copland, Amy (2006) ‘‘Catching Characters’ Emotions: Emotional Contagion Responses to Narrative Fiction Film’’, Film Studies 8(1): 26–38.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. Crawford, Neta C. (2000) ‘The Passion of World Politics: Propositions on Emotions and Emotional Relationships’, International Security 24(4): 116–56.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. Cuddy, Amy J. C., Peter Glick and Susan T. Fiske (2007) ‘The BIAS Map: Behaviors from Intergroup Affect and Stereotypes’, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 92(4): 631–48.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. Dalaqua, Renata H. (2013) ‘‘Securing our Survival (SOS)’: Non-state Actors and the Campaign for a Nuclear Weapons Convention through the Prism of Securitisation Theory’, Brazilian Political Science Review 7(3): 90–117.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  30. De Graaf, Anneke, Hans Hoeken, José Sanders and Johannes W. J. Beentjes (2012) ‘Identification as a Mechanism of Narrative Persuasion’, Communication Research 39(6): 802–23.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  31. Fisher, Walter (1985) ‘The Narrative Paradigm: An Elaboration’, Communication Monographs 52(4): 347–67.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  32. Foss, Sonja K. (1994) ‘A Rhetorical Schema for the Evaluation of Visual Imagery’, Communication Studies 45(3–4): 213–24.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  33. Freedman, Lawrence (2013) Strategy: A History, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  34. Geiger, Jeffrey (2011) American Documentary Film: Projecting the Nation, Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  35. Genette, Gérard (1983/1988) Narrative Discourse Revisited, Ithaca: Cornell University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  36. Gottweis, Herbert (2007) ‘Rhetoric in Policy Making: Between Logos, Ethos, and Pathos’, in Frank Fischer, Gerald J. Miller and Mara S. Sidney, eds, Handbook of Public Policy Analysis: Theory, Politics, and Methods, 237–50, Boca Raton: CRC Press.

    Google Scholar 

  37. Gottweis, Herbert (2012) ‘Political Rhetoric and Stem Cell Policy in the United States’, in Frank Fischer and Herbert Gottweis, eds, The Argumentative Turn Revisited: Public Policy as Communicative Practice, 211–35, Durham: Duke University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  38. Gusterson, Hugh (1999) ‘Nuclear Weapons and the Other in the Western Imagination’, Cultural Anthropolgy 14(1): 111–43.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  39. Hansen, Lene (2011) ‘Theorizing the Image for Security Studies: Visual Securitization and the Muhammad Cartoon Crisis’, European Journal of International Relations 17(1): 51–74.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  40. Hansen, Lene (2015) ‘How Images Make World Politics: International Icons and the Case of Abu Ghraib’, Review of International Studies 41(2): 263–88.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  41. Hawhee, Debra (2011) ‘Looking into Aristotle’s Eyes: Toward a Theory of Rhetorical Vision’, Advances in the History of Rhetoric 14(2): 139–65.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  42. Hecht, Gabriel (2012) Being Nuclear: Africans and the Global Uranium Trade, Cambridge, MA, and London: MIT Press.

    Google Scholar 

  43. Heck, Axel and Gabi Schlag (2013) ‘Securitizing Images: The Female Body and the War in Afghanistan’, European Journal of International Relations 19(4): 891–913.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  44. Hill, Charles A. and Marguerit Helmers, eds, (2004) Defining Visual Rhetoric, Mahwah, NJ, and London: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

    Google Scholar 

  45. Hook, Glen D. (1985) ‘Making Nuclear Weapons Easier to Live With: The Political Role of Language in Nuclearization’, Bulletin of Peace Proposals 16(1): 67–77.

    Google Scholar 

  46. Jasper, James M. (1998) ‘The Emotion of Protest: Affective and Reactive Emotions in and Around Social Movements’, Sociological Forum 13(3): 397–424.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  47. Jasper, James M. (2011) ‘Emotions and Social Movements: Twenty Years of Theory and Research’, Annual Review of Sociology 37: 14.1–14.19.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  48. Jasper, James M. (2012) ‘Choice Points, Emotional Batteries, and Other Ways to Find Strategic Agency at the Microlevel’, in Gregory M. Maney, Rachel V. Kutz-Flamenbaum, Deana A. Rohlinger and Jeff Goodwin, eds, Strategy in Action: Movements and Social Change, 13–42, Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

    Google Scholar 

  49. Jenkins, Brian Michael (2008) Will Terrorists Go Nuclear? Amherst: Prometheus Books, [Kindle Edition].

    Google Scholar 

  50. Johnson, Nan (1996) ‘Ethos’, in Theresa Enos, ed. Encyclopedia of Rhetoric and Composition: Communication from Ancient Times to the Information Age, 243–45, New York: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  51. Jowett, Garth S. and Victoria O’Donnell (2015) Propaganda & Persuasion, 6th edn. London: SAGE.

    Google Scholar 

  52. Kauffmann, Charles and Donn W. Parson (1990) ‘Metaphor and Presence in Argument’, in David C. Williams and Michael D. Hazen, eds, Argumentation Theory and the Rhetoric of Assent, 91–102, Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press.

    Google Scholar 

  53. Kennerly, Michele (2010) ‘Getting Carried Away: How Rhetorical Transport Gets Judgment Going’, Rhetoric Society Quarterly 40(3): 269–91.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  54. Klimmt, Christoph and Peter Vorderer (2010) ‘Media Entertainmant’, in Charles R. Berger, Michael E. Roloff and David R. Ewoldsen, eds, The Handbook of Communication Science, 345–62, Los Angeles: SAGE.

    Google Scholar 

  55. Krebs, Ronald R (2015) ‘Tell Me a Story: FDR, Narrative, and the Making of the Second World War’, Security Studies 24(1): 131–70.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  56. Krebs, Ronald R. and Patrick Thaddeus Jackson (2007) ‘Twisting Tongues and Twisting Arms: The Power of Political Rhetoric’, European Journal of International Relations 13(1): 35–66.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  57. Kuusisto, Rika (2009) ‘Comic Plots as Conflict Resolution Strategy’, European Journal of International Relations 15(4): 601–26.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  58. Lejano, Raul, Mrill Ingram and Helen Ingram (2013) The Power of Narrative in Environmental Networks, Cambridge, MA, and London: MIT Press.

    Google Scholar 

  59. Lombard, Matthew and Theresa Ditton (1997) ‘At the Heart of it All: The Concept of Presence’, Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication 3(2), doi: 10.1111/j.1083–6101.1997.tb00072.x.

  60. Martin, James (2014) Politics and Rhetoric: A Critical Introduction, London and New York: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  61. Martin, James (2016) ‘Capturing Desire: Rhetorical Strategies and the Affectivity of Discourse’, British Journal of Politics and International Relations 18(1): 143–160.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  62. Mayer, Frederick (2014) Narrative Politics: Stories and Collective Action, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  63. McLeod, Laura (2013) ‘Back to the Future: Temporality and Gender Security Narratives in Serbia’, Security Dialogue 44(2): 165–81.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  64. Miskimmon, Alister, Ben O’Loghlin and Laura Roselle (2013) Strategic Narratives: Communication Power and the New World Order, London and New York: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  65. Nedeau, Richard, Richard G. Niemi and Timothy Amato (1995) ‘Emotions, Issue Importanceand Political Learning’, American Journal of Political Science 39(3): 558–74.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  66. Nye, Joseph S. (2012) The Future of Power, New York: Public Affairs.

    Google Scholar 

  67. Olson, Lester C. (2007) ‘Intellectual and Conceptual Resources for Visual Rhetoric: A Re-examination of Scholarship since 1950’, Review of Communication 7(1): 1–20.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  68. Overpeck, Deron (2012) ‘‘Remember! It’s Only a Movie!’ Expectations and Receptions of The Day After (1983)’, Historical Journal of Film, Radio and Television 32(2): 267–92.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  69. Perelman, Chaïm and Lucie Olbrechts-Tyteca (1969) The New Rhetoric: A Treatise on Argumentation, Notre Dame and London: University of Notre Dame Press.

    Google Scholar 

  70. Perlmutter, David D. (1998) Photojournalism and Foreign Policy: Icons of Outrage in International Crises, Westport: Praeger.

    Google Scholar 

  71. Plantinga, Carl (1999) ‘The Scene of Empathy and the Human Face in Film’, in Carl Plantinga and Greg M. Smith eds, Passionate Views: Film, Cognition, and Emotion, 239–56, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  72. Pouliot, Vincent (2010) ‘The Materials of Practice: Nuclear Warheads, Rhetorical Commonplaces and Committee Meetings in Russian-Ameican Relations’, Cooperation and Conflict 45(3): 294–311.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  73. Ricciardelli, Lucia (2010) ‘Documentary Filmmaking in the Postmodern Age: Errol Morris & The Fog of Truth’, Studies in Documentary Film 4(1): 35–50.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  74. Ringmar, Erik (2006) ‘Inter-texual Relations: The Quarrel over the Iraq War as a Conflict between Narrative Types’, Cooperation and Conflict 41(4): 403–21.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  75. Roe, Paul (2008) ‘Actor, Audience(s) and Emergency Measures: Securitization and the UK’s Decision to Invade Iraq’, Security Dialogue 39(6): 615–35.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  76. Ross, Andrew G. (2014) Mixed Emotions: Beyond Fear & Hatred in International Conflict, Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press.

    Google Scholar 

  77. Salter, Mark B. (2008) ‘Securitization and Desecuritization: A Dramaturgical Analysis of the Canadian Air Transport Security Authority’, Journal of International Relations and Development 11(4): 321–49.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  78. Sanford, Anthony J. and Catherine Emmott (2012) Mind, Brain, and Narrative, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  79. Saunders, David (2010) Documentary, London and New York: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  80. Schwartz, Stephen I. ed. (1998) ‘Strengthening Atomc Accountability’, in, Atomic Audit: The Costs and Consequences of U.S. Nuclear Weapons since 1940, 545–57, Washington: Brookings Institution Press.

    Google Scholar 

  81. Senn, Martin (2009) Wolves in the Woods: The Rogue State Concept from a Constructivist Perspective, Baden-Baden: Nomos.

    Google Scholar 

  82. Senn, Martin and Christoph Elhardt (2014) ‘Bourdieu and the Bomb: Power, Language, and the Doxic Battle over the Value of Nuclear Weapons’, European Journal of International Relations 20(2): 316–40.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  83. Shapiro, Jerome F. (2002) Atomic Bomb Cinema: The Apocalyptic Imagination on Film, London and New York: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  84. Smith, Craig R. (2004) ‘Ethos Dwell Pervasively: A Hermeneutic Reading of Aristotle on Credibility’, in Michael J. Hyde ed., The Ethos of Rhetoric, 1–19, Columbia: University of South California Press.

    Google Scholar 

  85. Snee, Brian J. (2006) ‘Free Guns and Speech Control: The Structural and Thematic Rhetoric of Bowling for Columbine’, in Diane S. Hope, ed., Visual Communication: Perception, Rhetoric, and Technology, 193–208, Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press.

    Google Scholar 

  86. Snyder, Jack (2015) ‘Duelling Security Stories: Wilson and Lodge Talk Strategy’, Security Studies 24(1): 171–97.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  87. Stone, Deborah (2012) Policy Paradox: The Art of Political Decision Making, 3rd edn. London and New York: W. W. Norton.

    Google Scholar 

  88. Stritzel, Holger (2007) ‘Towards a Theory of Securitization: Copenhagen and Beyond’, European Journal of International Relations 13(3): 357–83.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  89. Stritzel, Holger (2012) ‘Securitization, Power, Intertextuality: Discourse Theory and the Translations of Organized Crime’, Security Dialogue 43(6): 549–67.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  90. Stritzel, Holger (2014) Security in Translation: Securitization Theory and the Localization of Threat, Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan.

    Google Scholar 

  91. Subotic, Elena (2015) ‘Narrative, Ontological Security, and Foreign Policy Change’, Foreign Policy Analysis (forthcoming) advanced online publication 10.1111/fpa.12089.

  92. Sylvest, Casper (2015) ‘Shots of Ambivalence: Nuclear Weapons in Documentary Film’, in Rens van Munster and Casper Sylvest, eds, Documenting World Politics: A Critical Companion to IR and Non-fiction Film, 95–113, London and New York: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  93. Tal-Or, Nurit and Jonathan Cohen (2010) ‘Understanding Audience Involvement: Conceptualizing and Manipulating Identification and Transportation’, Poetics 38(4): 402–18.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  94. Taurek, Rita (2006) ‘Securitization Theory and Securitization Studies’, Journal of International Relations and Development 9(1): 53–61.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  95. Ulbert, Cornelia and Thomas Risse (2005) ‘Deliberately Changing the Discourse: What Does Make Arguing Effective?’ Acta Poltica 40(3): 351–67.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  96. Van Munster, Rens and Casper Sylvest (2013) ‘Documenting International Relations: Documentary Film and the Creative Arrangement of Perceptibility’, International Studies Perspectives 16(3): 229–245.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  97. Van Munster, Rens and Casper Sylvest, eds, (2015a) Documenting World Politics: A Critical Companion to IR and Non-fiction Film, London and New York: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  98. Van Munster, Rens and Casper Sylvest, eds, (2015b) ‘Introduction’, in, Documenting World Politics: A Critical Companion to IR and Non-fiction Film, 3–22, London and New York: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  99. Van Veeren, Elspeth (2011) ‘Captured by the Camera’s Eye: Guantanamo and the Shifting Frame of the Global War on Terror’, Review of International Studies 37(4): 1721–49.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  100. Vuori, Juha A. (2010) ‘A Timely Prophet? The Doomsday Clock as a Visualization of Securitization Moves with a Global Referent Object’, Security Dialogue 41(3): 255–77.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  101. Vuori, Juha A. (2013) ‘Pictoral Texts’, in Mark B. Salter and Can E. Multu eds, Research Methods in Critical Security Studies: An Introduction, 199–202, London and New York: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  102. Wæver, Ole (1995) ‘Securitization and Desecuritization’, in Ronnie D. Lipschutz ed., On Security, 46–86, New York: Columbia University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  103. Wæver, Ole (2000) ‘The EU as a Security Actor: Reflections from a Pessimistic Constructivist on Post-sovereign Security Orders’, in Morten Kelstrup and Michael C. Williams, eds, International Relations Theory and the Politics of European Integration, 250–94, London and New York: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  104. Weber, Max (1922/1972) Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft, 5th edn. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck.

    Google Scholar 

  105. Wibben, Annick T. (2011) Feminist Security Studies: A Narrative Approach, London and New York: Routledge [Kindle Edition].

    Google Scholar 

  106. Williams, Michael C. (2003) ‘Words, Images, Enemies: Securitization and International Politics’, International Studies Quarterly 47(4): 511–31.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  107. Williams, Michael C. (2011) ‘Securitization and the Liberalism of Fear’, Security Dialogue 42(4–5): 453–63.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  108. Zarefsky, David (2004) ‘Presidential Rhetoric and the Power of Definition’, Presidential Studies Quarterly 34(3): 607–19.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Filmography

  1. Countdown to Zero (2010, dir. Lucy Walker, produced by Global Zero).

  2. Nuclear Tipping Point (2010, dir. Ben Goddard, produced by the Nuclear Security Initiative).

Download references

Acknowledgements

This article received valuable input from presentations at the 2012 ISSS/ISAC Annual Conference in Chapel Hill, NC, and the 2014 Annual Convention of the ISA in Toronto. I also thank Ulla Jasper, Rens van Munster, Juha Vuori, three anonymous reviewers, and the editors of JIRD for their very helpful comments on earlier versions of the article, as well as Participant Media and the Nuclear Threat Initiative for granting me the permission to use still images of Countdown to Zero and Nuclear Tipping Point.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Martin Senn.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Senn, M. The art of constructing (in)security: probing rhetorical strategies of securitisation. J Int Relat Dev 20, 605–630 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1057/jird.2016.7

Download citation

Keywords

  • narrative theory
  • nuclear disarmament
  • rhetorical strategy
  • securitisation