Advertisement

Rethinking energy, climate and security: a critical analysis of energy security in the US

  • Jonna Nyman
Original Article

Abstract

Understanding the complicated relationship between energy, climate and security is vital both to the study of international relations and to ensure the continued survival of a world increasingly threatened by environmental change. Climate change is largely caused by burning fossil fuels for energy, but while discussions on the climate consider the role of energy, energy security debates largely overlook climate concerns. This article traces the separation between energy and climate through an analysis of US energy security discourse and policy. It shows that energy security is continually constructed as national security, which enables very particular policy choices and prioritises it above climate concerns. Thus, in many cases, policies undertaken in the name of energy security contribute directly to climate insecurity. The article argues that the failure to consider securing the climate as inherently linked to energy security is not just problematic, but, given global warming, potentially harmful. Consequently, any approach to dealing with climate change has to begin by rethinking energy security and security more broadly, as national (energy) security politics no longer provides security in any meaningful sense.

Keywords

climate change critical security studies energy security environmental security United States 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The article was supported by the ESRC, research grant ES/I901825/1. Thanks to Adam Quinn, Rita Floyd, Michael Hulme, Simon Dalby, Liam Stanley and David Norman for providing comments and advice on an earlier draft of this article.

References

  1. Aalto, Pami, David Dusseault, Michael D. Kennedy and Markku Kivinen (2014) ‘Russia’s Energy Relations in Europe and the Far East: Towards a Social Structurationist Approach to Energy Policy Formation’, Journal of International Relations and Development 17(1): 1–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ahmed, Nafeez (2013) ‘Obama’s fracked-up climate strategy will guarantee global warming disaster’, The Guardian, http://www.theguardian.com/environment/earth-insight/2013/jun/25/obama-speech-climate-action-plan-disaster1, (accessed 18 November 2013).
  3. Bamberger, Robert (2003) ‘Energy Policy: Historical Overview, Conceptual Framework, and Continuing Issues’, Congressional Research Service, http://www.nationalaglawcenter.org/assets/crs/RL31720.pdf (accessed 26 September, 2012).
  4. Bang, Guri (2010) ‘Energy Security and Climate Change Concerns: Triggers for Energy Policy Change in the United States?’ Energy Policy 38(4): 1645–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Barringer, Felicity (2008) ‘Decisions Shut door on Bush Clean-Air Steps’, New York Times, http://www.nytimes.com/2008/07/12/washington/12enviro.html?pagewanted=all&_moc.semityn.www (accessed 23 September, 2012).
  6. Bielecki, Janusz (2002) ‘Energy Security: Is the Wolf at the Door?’ Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance 42(2): 235–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Boekestein, Brent and Jeffrey Henderson (2005) ‘‘Thirsty Dragon, Hungry Eagle’: Oil Security in Sino-US Relations’, IPEG Papers in Global Political Economy 21, Working Paper, 1–96.Google Scholar
  8. Bollen, Johannes, Sebastian Hers and Bob Van der Zwaan (2010) ‘An Integrated Assessment of Climate Change, Air Pollution, and Energy Security Policy’, Energy Policy 38(8): 4021–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bush, George W. (2001a) ‘2001.05.16 Bush on NEP’, Office of the Press Secretary, http://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/news/releases/2001/05/20010516-7.html (accessed 20 September, 2012).
  10. Bush, George W. (2001b) ‘Text of Letter from George W Bush’, White House, http://www.gcrio.org/OnLnDoc/pdf/bush_letter010313.pdf (accessed 2 September, 2011).
  11. Bush, George W. (2006) ‘2006.04.25 Bush Discusses Energy’, Office of the Press Secretary, http://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/news/releases/2006/04/20060425.html (accessed 21 September, 2012).
  12. Bush, George W. (2007) ‘2007.01.23 Twenty in Ten’, George W Bush White House Archives, http://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/stateoftheunion/2007/initiatives/energy.html (accessed 21 September, 2012).
  13. Bush, George W. (2008) ‘2008.07.29 Bush Energy Fact Sheet’, Office of the Press Secretary, http://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/news/releases/2008/07/20080729-6.html (accessed 21 September, 2012).
  14. Buzan, Barry, Ole Wæver and Jaap de Wilde (1998) Security: A New Framework for Analysis, Boulder, London: Lynne Rienner Publishers.Google Scholar
  15. Chester, Lynne (2010) ‘Conceptualising Energy Security and Making Explicit its Polysemic Nature’, Energy Policy 38(2): 887–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cienkia, Alan and Dvora Yanow (2013) ‘Why Metaphor and Other Tropes? Linguistic Approaches to Analysing Policies and the Political’, Journal of International Relations and Development 16(2): 167–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Ciută, Felix (2010) ‘Conceptual Notes on Energy Security: Total or Banal Security?’ Security Dialogue 41(2): 123–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Dalby, Simon (1997) ‘Contesting an Essential Concept: Reading the Dilemmas in Contemporary Security Discourse’, in Keith Krause and Michael C. Williams eds, Critical Security Studies: Concepts and Cases, 3–31, London and New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  19. Dalby, Simon (2009) Security and Environmental Change, Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  20. Dannreuther, Roland (2010) ‘Energy Security’, in J. Peter Burgess ed., The Routledge Handbook of New Security Studies, 144–53, Abingdon: Routledge.Google Scholar
  21. Deudney, Daniel H. (1999) ‘Environmental Security: A Critique’, in Daniel H. Deudney and Richard A. Matthew eds, Contested Grounds: Security and Conflict in the New Environmental Politics, 187–219, New York: SUNY Press.Google Scholar
  22. Doty, Roxanne Lynn (1993) ‘Foreign Policy as Social Construction: A Post-Positivist Analysis of U.S. Counterinsurgency Policy in the Philippines’, International Studies Quarterly 37(3): 297–320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Doty, Roxanne Lynn (1996) Imperial Encounters: The Politics of Representation in North-South Relations, Minnesota: University Of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  24. Economist (2014) ‘Curbing Climate Change: The Deepest Cuts’, Economist, http://www.economist.com/news/briefing/21618680-our-guide-actions-have-done-most-slow-global-warming-deepest-cuts?zid=313&ah=fe2aac0b11adef572d67aed9273b6e55 (accessed 1 October, 2014).
  25. EIA (2014a) ‘US Primary Energy Consumption 1995–2013’, Energy Information Administration, http://www.eia.gov/beta/MER/?tbl=T01.03-/?f=A&start=1995&end=2013&charted=12-5-4 (accessed 2 October, 2014).
  26. EIA (2014b) ‘US Primary Energy Production 1995–2013’, Energy Information Administration, http://www.eia.gov/beta/MER/?tbl=T01.02-/?f=A&start=1995&end=2013&charted=1-2-3-4-13-6 (accessed 2 October, 2014).
  27. Energy Independence and Security Act (2007) Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, Washington, DC: US Congress.Google Scholar
  28. Energy Policy Act (2005) Energy Policy Act of 2005, Washington, DC: US Congress.Google Scholar
  29. Environmental Law Institute (2009a) ‘Estimating US Government Subsidies to Energy Sources: 2002–2008’, Environmental Law Institite, http://www.eli.org/Program_Areas/innovation_governance_energy.cfm (accessed 23 September, 2012).
  30. Environmental Law Institute (2009b) ‘US Tax Breaks’, Environmental Law Institute, http://www.eli.org/pressdetail.cfm?id=205 (accessed 23 September, 2012).
  31. EPA (2012) ‘Climate change: regulatory initiatives’, Environmental Protection Agency, http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/EPAactivities/regulatory-initiatives.html (accessed 12 July 2015).
  32. Floyd, Rita (2010) Security and the Environment: Securitisation Theory and US Environmental Security Policy, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Floyd, Rita (2013) ‘Whither Environmental Security Studies?’ in Rita Floyd and Richard A. Matthew eds, Environmental Security: Approaches and Issues, 279–92, London and New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  34. Floyd, Rita and Richard A. Matthew (2013) Environmental Security: Approaches and Issues, London and New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  35. Gault, John (2006) ‘Energy Security, Globalization and Global Security’, GCSP Policy Brief 8: 1–17.Google Scholar
  36. Gies, Erica (2010) ‘As Ethanol Booms, Critics Warn of Environmental Effect’, New York Times, http://www.nytimes.com/2010/06/25/business/energy-environment/25iht-rbogeth.html?pagewanted=1 (accessed 23 September, 2012).
  37. Grunwald, Michael and Juliet Eilperin (2005) ‘Energy Bill Raises Fears About Pollution, Fraud’, Washington Post, http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2005/07/29/AR2005072901128.html (accessed 23 September, 2012).
  38. Hansen, Lene (2006) Security as practice: Discourse Analysis and the Bosnian War, London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  39. Hartmann, Betsy (2010) ‘Rethinking Climate Refugees and climate Conflict: Rhetoric, Reality and the Politics of Policy Discourse’, Journal of International Development 22(2): 233–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Herbstreuth, Sebastian (2014) ‘Constructing Dependency: The United States and the Problem of Foreign Oil’, Millennium — Journal of International Studies 43(1): 24–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Hoogensen Gjørv, Gunhild (2012) ‘Security by Any Other Name: Negative Security, Positive Security, and a Multi-Actor Security Approach’, Review of International Studies 38(4): 835–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. International Energy Agency (2007) Energy Security and Climate Policy: Assessing Interactions. OECD Publishing.Google Scholar
  43. Jacobson, Mark Z. (2009) ‘Review of Solutions to Global Warming, Air Pollution, and Energy Security’, Energy & Environmental Science 2(2): 148–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Jaffe, Amy and Steven Lewis (2002) ‘Beijing’s Oil Diplomacy’, Survival: Global Politics and Strategy 44(1): 115–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Jewell, Jessica, Aleh Cherp and Keywan Riahi (2014) ‘Energy Security Under De-Carbonization Scenarios: An Assessment Framework and Evaluation Under Different Technology and Policy Choices’, Energy Policy 65: 743–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Klare, Michael (2008) Rising Powers, Shrinking Planet: How Scarce Energy is Creating a New World Order, Oxford: Oneworld.Google Scholar
  47. Kruyt, Bert, D. P. van Vuuren, H. J. M. de Vries and H. Groenenberg (2009) ‘Indicators for Energy Security’, Energy Policy 37(6): 2166–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Lee, Pak K. (2005) ‘China’s Quest for Oil Security: Oil (Wars) in the Pipeline?’ Pacific Review 18(2): 265–301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Leung, Guy C. K., Aleh Cherp, Jessica Jewell and Yi-Ming Wei (2014) ‘Securitization of Energy Supply Chains in China’, Applied Energy 123: 316–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Littlefield, Scott R. (2013) ‘Security, Independence, and Sustainability: Imprecise Language and the Manipulation of Energy Policy in the United States’, Energy Policy 52: 779–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Luft, Gal, Anne Korin and Eshita Gupta (2010) ‘Energy Security and Climate Change: A Tenuous Link’, in Benjamin K. Sovacool ed., The Routledge Handbook of Energy Security, 43–55, London and New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  52. MacNeil, Robert and Matthew Paterson (2012) ‘Neoliberal Climate Policy: From Market Fetishism to the Developmental State’, Environmental Politics 21(2): 230–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Matthew, Richard A. (2013) ‘Climate Change and Security’, in Rita Floyd and Richard A. Matthew eds, Environmental Security: Approaches and Issues, 264–77, London and New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  54. McCollum, David L., Volker Krey, Keywan Riahi, Peter Kolp, Arnulf Grubler, Marek Makowski and Nebojsa Nakicenovic (2013) ‘Climate Policies can Help Resolve Energy Security and Air Pollution Challenges’, Climatic change 119(2): 479–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. McDonald, Matt (2012) Security, the Environment and Emancipation: Contestation Over Environmental Change, Abingdon: Routledge.Google Scholar
  56. Milliken, Jennifer (1999) ‘The Study of Discourse in International Relations’, European Journal of International Relations 5(2): 225–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Mulligan, Shane (2010) ‘Energy, Environment, and Security: Critical Links in a Post-Peak World’, Global Environmental Politics 10(4): 79–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Mulligan, Shane (2011) ‘Energy and Human Ecology: A Critical Security Approach’, Environmental Politics 20(5): 633–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. National Energy Policy (2001) ‘National Energy Policy’, US Department of Energy, http://www.ne.doe.gov/pdfFiles/nationalEnergyPolicy.pdf (accessed 21 September, 2012).
  60. Neumann, Iver B. (2008) ‘Discourse Analysis’, in Audie Klotz and Deepa Prakash eds, Qualitative Methods in International Relations, 61–77, London and New York: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. NRDC (2002) ‘The Cheney Energy Task Force’, National Resources Defence Council, http://www.nrdc.org/air/energy/taskforce/tfinx.asp (accessed 20 September, 2012).
  62. Nyman, Jonna (2014) ‘Red Storm Ahead: Securitisation of Energy in US-China Relations’, Millennium 43(1): 43–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Nyman, Jonna and Anthony Burke (forthcoming) Ethical Security Studies: A New Research Agenda, London and New York: Routledge, forthcoming.Google Scholar
  64. Obama, Barack (2009a) ‘2009.01.26 Obama on Energy Independence’, Washington Post, http://projects.washingtonpost.com/obama-speeches/speech/51/ (accessed 20 September, 2012).
  65. Obama, Barack (2009b) ‘2009.02.14 Obama to Congress’, White House, http://www.whitehouse.gov/the_press_office/Remarks-of-President-Barack-Obama-Address-to-Joint-Session-of-Congress/ (accessed 20 September, 2012).
  66. Obama, Barack (2009c) ‘2009.03.23 Obama Remarks on Clean Energy and Technology’, Office of the Press Secretary, http://www.whitehouse.gov/the_press_office/Remarks-by-The-President-on-Investments-in-Clean-Energy-and-New-Technologies-3-23-09/ (accessed 27 September, 2012).
  67. Obama, Barack (2009d) ‘2009.03.24 Obama Press Conference’, Office of the Press Secretary, http://www.whitehouse.gov/the_press_office/News-Conference-by-the-President-3-24-2009/ (accessed 20 September, 2012).
  68. Obama, Barack (2009e) ‘2009.09.21 Obama in Troy’, Office of the Press Secretary, http://www.whitehouse.gov/the_press_office/Remarks-by-the-President-on-Innovation-and-Sustainable-Growth-at-Hudson-Valley-Community-College/ (accessed 20 September, 2012).
  69. Obama, Barack (2009f) ‘2009.11.23 Obama on Education’, Washington Post, http://projects.washingtonpost.com/obama-speeches/speech/59/ (accessed 20 September, 2012).
  70. Obama, Barack (2010a) ‘2010.02.03 Obama Addresses Governors’, Washington Post, http://projects.washingtonpost.com/obama-speeches/speech/177/ (accessed on 3 September, 2012).
  71. Obama, Barack (2010b) ‘2010.03.31 Obama on Offshore Drilling’, Washington Post, http://projects.washingtonpost.com/obama-speeches/speech/210/ (accessed 20 September, 2012).
  72. Obama, Barack (2010c) ‘2010.08.17 Obama at Seattle fundraiser’, Washington Post, http://projects.washingtonpost.com/obama-speeches/speech/371/ (accessed 20 September, 2012).
  73. Obama, Barack (2010d) ‘2010.09.13 Obama Remarks on the Economy’, Washington Post, http://projects.washingtonpost.com/obama-speeches/speech/395/ (accessed 20 September, 2012).
  74. Obama, Barack (2011) ‘2011.03.11 Obama News Conference’, Washington Post, http://projects.washingtonpost.com/obama-speeches/speech/586/ (accessed 20 September, 2012).
  75. Obama, Barack (2012a) ‘2012.01.24 Obama State of the Union’, Office of the Press Secretary, http://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/2012/01/24/remarks-president-state-union-address (accessed 21 September, 2012).
  76. Obama, Barack (2012b) ‘2012.01.25 Obama in Cedar Rapids’, Office of the Press Secretary, http://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/2012/01/25/remarks-president-conveyor-engineering-and-manufacturing-cedar-rapids-io (accessed 21 September, 2012).
  77. Obama, Barack (2012c) ‘2012.01.27 Obama in Ann Arbor’, Washington Post, http://projects.washingtonpost.com/obama-speeches/speech/907/ (accessed 20 September, 2012).
  78. Obama, Barack (2012d) ‘2012.03.22 Obama in Cushing’, Washington Post, http://projects.washingtonpost.com/obama-speeches/speech/972/ (accessed 22 January, 2013).
  79. Obama, Barack (2013a) ‘Remarks by Obama at the Brandenburg Gate’, White House, http://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/2013/06/19/remarks-president-obama-brandenburg-gate-berlin-germany (accessed 24 March, 2014).
  80. Obama, Barack (2013b) ‘Remarks by the President on Climate Change at Georgetown University’, White House, http://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/2013/06/25/remarks-president-climate-change (accessed 24 March, 2014).
  81. Obama, Barack (2013c) ‘State of the Union’, White House, http://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/2013/02/12/remarks-president-state-union-address (accessed 24 March, 2014).
  82. Obama, Barack (2014) ‘State of the Union’, White House, http://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/2014/01/28/president-barack-obamas-state-union-address (accessed 24 March, 2014).
  83. Rogers-Hayden, T., F. Hatton and I. Lorenzoni (2011) ‘‘Energy Security’ and ‘Climate Change’: Constructing UK Energy Discursive Realities’, Global Environmental Change 21(1): 134–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Rommeney, Dirk (2013) ‘Germany’s Radical Energy Plans’, China Dialogue, http://www.chinadialogue.net/blog/6437-Germany-s-radical-energy-plans-/en (accessed 25 October, 2013).
  85. Scheffran, Jurgen, Michael Brzoska, Jasmin Kominek, P. Michael Link and Janpeter Schilling (2012) ‘Disentangling the Climate-Conflict Nexus: Empirical and Theoretical Assessment of Vulnerabilities and Pathways’, Review of European Studies 4(5): 1–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Schortgen, Francis (2006) ‘Protectionist Capitalists vs. Capitalist Communists: CNOOC’s Failed Unocal Bid in Perspective’, Asia Pacific: Perspectives 6(2): 2–10.Google Scholar
  87. Simpson, Adam (2007) ‘The Environment: Energy Security Nexus: Critical Analysis of an Energy ‘Love Triangle’ in Southeast Asia’, Third World Quarterly 28(3): 539–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Simpson, Adam (2013) ‘Challenging Inequality and Injustice: A Critical Approach to Energy Security’, in Rita Floyd and Richard A. Matthew eds, Environmental Security: Approaches and Issues, 248–63, London and New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  89. Simpson, Adam (2014) Energy, Governance and Security in Thailand and Myanmar (Burma): A Critical Approach to Environmental Politics in the South, Farnham: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  90. Sovacool, Benjamin K., ed. (2010) ‘Introduction: Defining, Measuring and Exploring Energy Security’, in, The Routledge Handbook of Energy Security, 1–42, London and New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  91. Sovacool, Benjamin K. and Marilyn A. Brown (2010) ‘Competing Dimensions of Energy Security: An International Perspective’, Annual Review of Environment and Resources 35(1): 77–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Strauss, Claudia (2013) ‘How are Language Constructions Constitutive? Strategic Uses of Conventional Discourses about Immigration’, Journal of International Relations and Development 16(2): 262–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Toke, David and Sevasti-Eleni Vezirgiannidou (2013) ‘The Relationship Between Climate Change and Energy Security: Key Issues and Conclusions’, Environmental Politics 22(4): 537–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Trombetta, Maria Julia (2008) ‘Environmental Security and Climate Change: Analysing the Discourse’, Cambridge Review of International Affairs 21(4): 585–602.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Tunsjø, Øystein (2010) ‘Hedging Against Oil Dependency: New Perspectives on China’s Energy Security Policy’, International Relations 24(1): 25–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Umbach, Frank (2012) ‘The Intersection of Climate Protection Policies and Energy Security’, Journal of Transatlantic Studies 10(4): 374–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. US Department of Defence (2010) ‘Quadrennial Defence Review’, Department of Defence, http://www.defense.gov/QDR/QDRasof29JAN101600.pdf (accessed 29 September, 2014).
  98. US Department of Defence (2014) ‘Quadrennial Defence Review’, Department of Defence, http://www.defense.gov/pubs/2014_Quadrennial_Defense_Review.pdf (accessed 29 September, 2014).
  99. Valentine, Scott Victor (2010) ‘The Fuzzy Nature of Energy Security’, in Benjamin K Sovacool, ed., The Routledge Handbook of Energy Security, 56. London and New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  100. Vezirgiannidou, Sevasti-Eleni (2013) ‘Climate and Energy Policy in the United States: The Battle of Ideas’, Environmental Politics 22(4): 593–609.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Vivoda, Vlado (2009) ‘Diversification of Oil Import Sources and Energy Security: A Key Strategy or an Elusive Objective?’ Energy Policy 37(11): 4615–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Wæver, Ole (1995) ‘Securitization and De-Securitization’, in Ronnie Lipschutz, ed., On Security, 46–86, New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  103. White House (2008) ‘Fact Sheet: Diversifying our Energy Supply and Confronting Climate Change’, White House, http://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/infocus/energy/ (accessed 27 September, 2012).
  104. White House (2011) ‘Blueprint for a Secure Energy Future’, White House, http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/blueprint_secure_energy_future.pdf (accessed 20 September, 2012).
  105. White House (2012) ‘2012.03.12 A Secure Energy Future: Progress Report’, White House, http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/email-files/the_blueprint_for_a_secure_energy_future_oneyear_progress_report.pdf (accessed 12 October, 2012).
  106. White House (2014) ‘The Recovery Act and Renewable Energy Investments’, White House, http://www.whitehouse.gov/recovery/innovations/clean-renewable-energy (accessed 1 October, 2014).
  107. White House National Economic Council (2006) ‘Advanced Energy Initiative’, George Bush White House Archives, http://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/stateoftheunion/2006/energy/energy_booklet.pdf (accessed 21 September, 2012).
  108. Winzer, Christian (2012) ‘Conceptualizing Energy Security’, Energy Policy 46: 36–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Wirth, Timothy, C. Boyden Gray and John D. Podesta (2003) ‘The Future of Energy Policy’, Foreign Affairs 82(4): 131–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Yergin, Daniel (1988) ‘Energy Security in the 1990s’, Foreign Affairs 67(1): 110–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Macmillan Publishers Ltd 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Politics and International Relations, University of LeicesterLeicesterUK

Personalised recommendations