Advertisement

Truth, justice, and reconciliation on the ground: normative divergence in the Western Balkans

  • Jelena Subotic
Article

Abstract

The article contributes to the ‘second wave’ norm diffusion literature by offering a new theoretical lens through which to explain unexpected policy outcomes of international normative interventions. Specifically, the article aims to challenge the international norms scholarship by questioning what power international norms actually have in domestic politics of adopting states. To answer this question I analyse the process of diffusion, contestation, and localisation of transitional justice norms — ways of dealing with legacies of past violence — in the Western Balkans. I choose three principal transitional justice concepts — truth, justice, and reconciliation — and analyse how their local meaning in the Western Balkans diverged normatively from that of international transitional justice advocates, and to what political effect. I trace the processes of normative divergence of international transitional justice norms to demonstrate how the domestic understanding of international norms produced new meanings and practices and fundamentally challenged the principal assumptions behind the global governance of post-conflict reconstruction.

Keywords

international norms justice reconciliation transitional justice truth Western Balkans 

Notes

Acknowledgements

I thank Filip Ejdus, Krenar Gashi, Jamie Rowen, the staff at the Humanitarian Law Centre in Belgrade, guest editors of the special issue Simone Tholens and Lisa Gross, editors of the Journal of International Relations and Development, and three anonymous reviewers for very helpful comments and suggestions.

References

  1. Acharya, Amitav (2004) ‘How Ideas Spread: Whose Norms Matter? Norm Localization and Institutional Change in Asian Regionalism’, International Organization 58 (2): 239–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Acharya, Amitav (2011) ‘Norm Subsidiarity and Regional Orders: Sovereignty, Regionalism, and Rule-making in the Third World’, International Studies Quarterly 55 (1): 95–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ahmetašević, Nidžara and Tanja Matić (2014) ‘Democratization of Media in Post-conflict Situations: Reporting on ICTY War Crimes Trials in Serbia’, in Clara Ramirez-Barat, ed., Transitional Justice, Culture, and Society: Beyond Outreach 211–246, New York: Social Science Research Council.Google Scholar
  4. Ainley, Kirsten (2014) ‘Transitional Justice in Cambodia: The Coincidence of Power and Principle’, in Renee Jeffery and Hun Joon Kim eds, Transitional Justice in the Asia-Pacific, 125–56, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  5. Akhavan, Payam (1998) ‘Justice in the Hague, Peace in the Former Yugoslavia? A Commentary on the United Nations War Crimes Tribunal’, Human Rights Quarterly 20 (4): 737–816.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Aliu, Fatmir (2012) ‘Kosovo Kids Taught False History, Study Shows’, Balkan Insight, 24 September, available at http://www.balkaninsight.com/en/article/kosovo-kids-taught-wrongly-a-study-shows (accessed 9 February, 2015).
  7. Amnesty International (2012) ‘Kosovo: If They Are Not Guilty, Who Committed the War Crimes?’, 29 November, available at http://www.amnesty.org/en/news/kosovo-if-they-are-not-guilty-who-committed-war-crimes-2012-11-29 (accessed 5 December, 2012).Google Scholar
  8. Arthur, Paige (2009) ‘How “Transitions” Reshaped Human Rights: A Conceptual History of Transitional Justice’, Human Rights Quarterly 31 (2): 321–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Arzt, Donna E. (2006) ‘Views on the Ground: The Local Perception of International Criminal Tribunals in the Former Yugoslavia and Sierra Leone’, The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 603 (1): 226–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Avant, Deborah D., Martha Finnemore and Susan K. Sell (2010) Who Governs the Globe? Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. B92 (2012) ‘University Students Organize Protest against Hague’, 4 December, available at http://www.b92.net/eng/news/society-article.php?yyyy=2012&mm=12&dd=04&nav_id=83477 (accessed 31 October, 2014).Google Scholar
  12. Barbour, Stephanie A. (2014) ‘Making Justice Visible: Bosnia and Herzegovina’s Domestic War Crimes Trials Outreach’, in Clara Ramirez-Barat, ed., Transitional Justice, Culture, and Society: Beyond Outreach, 97–140, New York: Social Science Research Council.Google Scholar
  13. Bartulovic, Alenka (2006) ‘Nationalism in the Classroom: Narratives of the War in Bosnia-Herzegovina (1992–1995) in the History Textbooks of the Republic of Srpska’, Studies in Ethnicity and Nationalism 6 (3): 51–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bass, Gary Jonathan (2000) Stay the Hand of Vengeance: The Politics of War Crimes Tribunals, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  15. Bell, Christine (2008) On the Law of Peace: Peace Agreements and the Lex Pacificatoria, Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Binningsbo, Helga Malmin, Cyanne E. Loyle, Scott Gates and Jon Elster (2012) ‘Armed Conflict and Post-conflict Justice, 1946–2006 A Dataset’, Journal of Peace Research 49 (5): 731–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Brysk, Alison (2009) Global Good Samaritans: Human Rights as Foreign Policy, Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bytyci, Fato (2014) ‘Kosovo Parliament Votes for a New War Crimes Court’, Reuters (23 April), available at http://www.reuters.com/article/2014/04/23/us-kosovo-warcrimes-idUSBREA3M0YD20140423 (accessed 20 March 2015).
  19. Cardenas, Sonia (2007) Conflict and Compliance: State Responses to International Human Rights Pressure, Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Clark, Janine Natalya (2009) ‘The Limits of Retributive Justice Findings of an Empirical Study in Bosnia and Hercegovina’, Journal of International Criminal Justice 7 (3): 463–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Cohen, Stanley (2001) States of Denial: Knowing about Atrocities and Suffering, Cambridge: Polity.Google Scholar
  22. Croatian Parliament (2006) Deklaracija o Oluji, [Declaration on Operation Storm] in Narodne novine (76–2000), Zagreb.Google Scholar
  23. Davis, Laura (2010) The European Union and Transitional Justice, New York: International Center for Transitional Justice, June.Google Scholar
  24. DiMaggio, Paul and Walter W. Powell (1983) ‘The Iron Cage Revisited: Institutional Isomorphism and Collective Rationality in Organizational Fields’, American Sociological Review 48 (2): 147–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Documenta (2012) ‘Statement on the Occasion of Non-appealable Judgment to General Gotovina and Markač’, 16 November, available at http://www.documenta.hr/en/statement-on-the-occassion-of-non-appealable-judgment-to-generals-gotovina-and-marka%C4%8D.html (accessed 5 December, 2012).
  26. Dragović-Soso, Jasna (2013) ‘The Parting of Ways: Public Reckoning with the Recent Past in Post-Milošević Serbia’, in Timothy William Waters, ed., The Milošević Trial: An Autopsy, 389–408, New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  27. Fletcher, Laurel E. and Harvey M. Weinstein (2002) ‘Violence and Social Repair: Rethinking the Contribution of Justice to Reconciliation’, Human Rights Quarterly 24 (3): 573–639.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Ford, Stuart (2012) ‘A Social Psychology Model of the Perceived Legitimacy of International Criminal Courts: Implications for the Success of Transitional Justice Mechanisms’, Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law 45: 405–76.Google Scholar
  29. Freeman, Mark (2004) Bosnia and Herzegovina: Selected Developments in Transitional Justice, New York: International Center for Transitional Justice, October.Google Scholar
  30. Freyburg, Tina and Solveig Richter (2010) ‘National Identity Matters: The Limited Impact of EU Political Conditionality in the Western Balkans’, Journal of European Public Policy 17 (2): 263–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Gibson, James L. (2004) Overcoming Apartheid: Can Truth Reconcile a Divided Nation? New York: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
  32. Grillot, Suzette R. and Rebecca J. Cruise (2013) ‘Regional Security Community in the Western Balkans: A Cross-comparative Analysis’, Journal of Regional Security 8 (1): 7–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Grodsky, Brian (2009) ‘International Prosecutions and Domestic Politics: The Use of Truth Commissions as Compromise Justice in Serbia and Croatia’, International Studies Review 11 (4): 687–706.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Hafner-Burton, Emilie and Kiyoteru Tsutsui (2007) ‘Justice Lost! The Failure of International Human Rights Law To Matter Where Needed Most’, Journal of Peace Research 44 (7): 407–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hagan, John and Sanja Kutnjak Ivković (2006) ‘War Crimes, Democracy, and the Rule of Law in Belgrade, the Former Yugoslavia, and Beyond’, ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 605 (1): 129–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Hansen, Thomas Obel (2011) ‘Transitional Justice in Kenya — An Assessment of the Accountability Process in Light of Domestic Politics and Security Concerns’, California Western International Law Journal 42 (1): 1–36.Google Scholar
  37. Harmon, Mark B. and Fergal Gaynor (2007) ‘Ordinary Sentences for Extraordinary Crimes’, Journal of International Criminal Justice 5 (3): 683–712.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Hathaway, Oona A. (2007) ‘Why Do Countries Commit to Human Rights Treaties?’ Journal of Conflict Resolution 51 (4): 588–621.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Hayner, Priscilla B. (2001) Unspeakable Truths: Confronting State Terror and Atrocity, New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  40. Hedl, Drago (2014) ‘Croatia Whitewashes War Crimes After Joining EU’, Balkan Insight, 11 June, available at http://www.balkaninsight.com/en/article/croatia-whitewashes-war-crimes-after-joining-eu (accessed 31 October, 2014).
  41. Helsinki Committee for Human Rights in Serbia (2011) Human Rights in Serbia 2010: Human Rights Reflect Institutional Impotence, Belgrade: HCHRS.Google Scholar
  42. Helsinki Committee for Human Rights in Serbia (2012) Human Rights in Serbia 2011: European Option Obstructed, Belgrade: HCHRS.Google Scholar
  43. Helsinki Committee for Human Rights in Serbia (2013) Human Rights in Serbia 2012: Populism Entropy of Democracy, Belgrade: HCHRS.Google Scholar
  44. Hodžić, Refik (2010) ‘Living the Legacy of Mass Atrocities Victims: Perspectives on War Crimes Trials’, Journal of International Criminal Justice 8 (1): 113–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Human Rights Watch (2014) ‘Kosovo: Approve Special Court for Serious Abuses’, 11 April, available at http://www.hrw.org/news/2014/04/11/kosovo-approve-special-court-serious-abuses (accessed 14 April, 2014).
  46. Humanitarian Law Center (2013a) Report on War Crimes Trials in Serbia in 2012, Belgrade: HLC.Google Scholar
  47. Humanitarian Law Center (2013b) Transitional Justice in Post-Yugoslav Countries: Report for 2010–2011, Belgrade: HLC.Google Scholar
  48. International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (2003) Prosecutor vs. Biljana Plavšić, IT-00-39&40/1- S, ICTY Sentencing Judgment, 27 February.Google Scholar
  49. Irvine, Jill A. and Patrice C. McMahon (2013) ‘From International Courts to Grassroots Organizing: Obstacles to Transitional Justice in the Balkans’, in Olivera Simić and Zala Volčič, eds., Transitional Justice and Civil Society in the Balkans, 217–37, New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Ivanović, Josip (2014) ‘Post-war Reconciliation in Croatia “Stalled”, Report Warns’, Balkan Insight, 14 April, available at http://www.balkaninsight.com/en/article/croatian-ngos-deep-divisions-within-croatian-society (accessed 31 October, 2014).
  51. Jones, Briony (2012) ‘Exploring the Politics of Reconciliation through Education Reform: The Case of Brčko District, Bosnia and Herzegovina’, International Journal of Transitional Justice 6 (1): 126–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Kerr, Rachel (2005) ‘The Road from Dayton to Brussels? The International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia and the Politics of War Crimes in Bosnia’, European Security 14 (3): 319–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Kim, Hun Joon and Jason Sharman (2014) ‘Accounts and Accountability: Corruption, Human Rights, and Individual Accountability Norms’, International Organization 68 (2): 417–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Klarin, Mirko (2009) ‘The Impact of the ICTY Trials on Public Opinion in the Former Yugoslavia’, Journal of International Criminal Justice 7 (1): 89–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Kostovicova, Denisa (2005) Kosovo: The Politics of Identity and Space, London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  56. Kostovicova, Denisa (2013) ‘Airing Crimes, Marginalizing Victims: Political Expectations and Transitional Justice in Kosovo’, in Timothy William Waters, ed., The Milošević Trial: An Autopsy, 249–59, New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  57. Lake, Milli (2014) ‘Organizing Hypocrisy: Providing Legal Accountability for Human Rights Violations in Areas of Limited Statehood’, International Studies Quarterly 58 (3): 515–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Lakić, Nikola (2013) ‘History Education and the Security Community Building in the Western Balkans: A Critical View’, Journal of Regional Security 8 (2): 115–36.Google Scholar
  59. Lamont, Christopher K. (2009) International Criminal Justice and the Politics of Compliance, Burlington, VT: Ashgate Pub.Google Scholar
  60. Lamont, Christopher K. (2012) ‘Forging Transitional Justice: The Reconciliation of Law and Transition in Macedonia’, in Zhidas Daskalovski and Marija Risteska, eds., The Macedonian Question: 20 Years of Political Struggle into European Integration Structures, 76–94, Rangendingen, Germany: Libertas.Google Scholar
  61. Little, Adrian (2012) ‘Disjunctured Narratives: Rethinking Reconciliation and Conflict Transformation’, International Political Science Review 33 (1): 82–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Malazogu, Leon, Milan Nič, Filip Ejdus and Tomasz Zornaczuk (2014) Integration or Isolation? Northern Kosovo in 2014 Electoral Limbo, Bratislava: Central European Policy Institute, 13 February.Google Scholar
  63. Manojlović Pintar, Olga (2010) ‘Rat i nemir’, [Peace and Uncertainty] in Dubravka Stojanović, Radina Vučetić, Sanja Petrović Todosijević, Olga Manojlović Pintar and Radmila Radić, eds., Novosti iz prošlosti: Znanje, neznanje, upotreba i zloupotreba istorije [News from the Past: Knowledge, Ignorance, Use and Misuse of History] Belgrade: Belgrade Centre for Human Rights.Google Scholar
  64. Marusic, Sinisa Jakov (2013) ‘Macedonia Spies Probe “Has Become a Witch-Hunt”’, Balkan Insight, 30 July, available at http://www.balkaninsight.com/en/article/macedonian-lustration-deemed-witch-hunt (accessed 31 October, 2014).
  65. Mattli, Walter and Ngaire Woods (2009) The Politics of Global Regulation, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. McMahon, Patrice C. and David P. Forsythe (2008) ‘The ICTY’s Impact on Serbia: Judicial Romanticism meets Network Politics’, Human Rights Quarterly 30 (2): 412–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. McMahon, Patrice C. and Jon Western (2009) ‘The Death of Dayton’, Foreign Affairs, 17 August.Google Scholar
  68. Meernik, James (2005) ‘Justice and Peace? How the International Criminal Tribunal Affects Societal Peace in Bosnia’, Journal of Peace Research 42 (3): 271–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Mihr, Anja (2013) ‘Transitional Justice and the Quality of Democracy’, International Journal of Conflict and Violence 7 (2): 298–313.Google Scholar
  70. Minow, Martha (1998) Between Vengeance and Forgiveness: Facing History after Genocide and Mass Violence, Boston, MA: Beacon Press.Google Scholar
  71. Mladjenovic, Lepa (2004) ‘The ICTY: The Validation of the Experiences of Survivors’, in Steven R. Ratner and James L. Bischoff, eds., International War Crimes Trials: Making A Difference? Austin: University of Texas,, 59–65.Google Scholar
  72. Moore, Frances C. (2012) ‘Negotiating Adaptation: Norm Selection and Hybridization in International Climate Negotiations’, Global Environmental Politics 12 (4): 30–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Murphy, Colleen (2010) A Moral Theory of Political Reconciliation, Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Musila, Godfrey M. (2009) ‘Options for Transitional Justice in Kenya: Autonomy and the Challenge of External Prescriptions’, International Journal of Transitional Justice 3 (3): 445–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Nettelfield, Lara J. and Sarah E. Wagner (2014) Srebrenica in the Aftermath of Genocide, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  76. Office of the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights (2006) Rule-of-Law Tools for Post-conflict States, New York: OHCHR.Google Scholar
  77. Olsen, Tricia D., Leigh A. Payne and Andrew G. Reiter (2010) Transitional Justice in Balance: Comparing Processes, Weighing Efficacy, Washington: U.S. Institute of Peace.Google Scholar
  78. Orentlicher, Diane F. (2008) Shrinking the Space for Denial: The Impact of the ICTY in Serbia, New York: Open Society Institute, May.Google Scholar
  79. Orentlicher, Diane F. (2010) That Someone Guilty Be Punished: The Impact of the ICTY in Bosnia, New York: Open Society Justice Initiative and International Center for Transitional Justice.Google Scholar
  80. Pavelić, Boris (2013) ‘Croatian Court: State Responsible for Serbs’ Murder’, Balkan Insight, 24 January, available at http://www.balkaninsight.com/en/article/croatian-court-procclaims-state-responsible-for-killed-serbs (accessed 31 October, 2014).
  81. Peci, Edona (2014) ‘Kosovo Asks EU to Set Up New Tribunal’, Balkan Insight, 14 April, available at http://www.balkaninsight.com/en/article/kosovo-asks-eu-for-war-crime-tribunal (accessed 14 April, 2014).
  82. Perry, Valery (2013) ‘Classrooms as a Battleground for Hearts and Minds: Efforts to Reform and Transform Education in Post-war Bosnia and Herzegovina’, in Ola Listhaug and Sabrina P. Ramet, eds., Civic and Uncivic Values in Bosnia–Herzegovina: The Record since Dayton, Ravenna: Longo Editore.Google Scholar
  83. Peskin, Victor (2008) International Justice in Rwanda and the Balkans: Virtual Trials and the Struggle for State Cooperation, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Ramirez-Barat, Clara, ed. (2014) Transitional Justice, Culture, and Society: Beyond Outreach, New York: Social Science Research Council.Google Scholar
  85. Richmond, Oliver P. and Jason Franks (2008) ‘Co-opting the Liberal Peace: Untying the Gordian Knot in Kosovo’, Conflict and Cooperation 43 (1): 81–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Ristić, Marija (2014) ‘Serbia Welcomes New Kosovo War Crimes Court’, Balkan Insight, 24 April, available at http://www.balkaninsight.com/en/article/serbia-welcomes-new-kosovo-war-crimes-court (accessed 31 October, 2014).
  87. Roht-Arriaza, Naomi (2005) The Pinochet Effect: Transnational Justice in the Age of Human Rights, Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Roht-Arriaza, Naomi and Javier Mariezcurrena, eds. (2006) Transitional Justice in the Twenty-first Century: Beyond Truth vs. Justice, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Rotberg, Robert I. (2000) ‘Truth Commissions and the Provision of Truth, Justice and Reconciliation’, in Robert I. Rotberg and Dennis F. Thompson, eds., Truth v. Justice: The Morality of Truth Commissions, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press,, 3–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Rowen, Jamie (2012) ‘Mobilizing Truth: Agenda Setting in a Transnational Social Movement’, Law & Social Inquiry 37 (3): 686–718.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Saxon, Dan (2005) ‘Exporting Justice: Perceptions of the ICTY among the Serbian, Croatian and Muslim Communities in the Former Yugoslavia’, Journal of Human Rights 4 (4): 552–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Sikkink, Kathryn (2009) ‘From State Responsibility to Individual Criminal Accountability: A New Regulatory Model for Core Human Rights Violations’, in Walter Mattli and Ngaire Woods, eds., The Politics of Global Regulation, 121–50, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  93. Sikkink, Kathryn (2011) The Justice Cascade: How Human Rights Prosecutions Are Changing World Politics, New York: WW Norton.Google Scholar
  94. Simonsen, Sven Gunnar (2004) ‘Nationbuilding as Peacebuilding: Racing to Define the Kosovar’, International Peacekeeping 11 (2): 289–311.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Simpson, Eileen (2004) ‘Stop to the Hague: Internal versus External Factors Suppressing the Advancement of the Rule of Law in Serbia’, Georgetown Journal of International Law 36 (1): 1255–88.Google Scholar
  96. Snyder, Jack L. and Leslie Vinjamuri (2003) ‘Trials and Errors: Principle and Pragmatism in Strategies of International Justice’, International Security 28 (3): 5–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Stensrud, Ellen Emilie (2009) ‘New Dilemmas in Transitional Justice: Lessons from the Mixed Courts in Sierra Leone and Cambodia’, Journal of Peace Research 46 (1): 5–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Stover, Eric and Harvey M. Weinstein (2004) My Neighbor, My Enemy: Justice and Community in the Aftermath of Mass Atrocity, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Subotić, Jelena (2009) Hijacked Justice: Dealing with the Past in the Balkans, Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  100. Teitel, Ruti (2003) ‘Transitional Justice Genealogy’, Harvard Human Rights Journal 16: 69–94.Google Scholar
  101. Teitel, Ruti (2005) ‘The Law and Politics of Contemporary Transitional Justice’, Cornell International Law Journal 38 (3): 837–62.Google Scholar
  102. Thomas, Daniel C. (2001) The Helsinki Effect: International Norms, Human Rights, and the Demise of Communism, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  103. Thoms, Oskar N.T., James Ron and Roland Paris (2010) ‘State-level Effects of Transitional Justice: What Do We Know?’ International Journal of Transitional Justice 4 (3): 329–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Thomson, Susan (2011) ‘The Darker Side of Transitional Justice: The Power Dynamics Behind Rwanda’s Gacaca Courts’, Africa 81 (3): 373–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Tolbert, David (2014) ‘Transitional Justice Should Be Part of Serbia’s Accession to the EU’, Through Accession Toward Justice (2): 1–3.Google Scholar
  106. UN Secretary General (2004) The Rule of Law and Transitional Justice in Conflict and Postconflict Societies, New York: United Nations.Google Scholar
  107. United Nations Security Council (1993) Resolution 827, New York: UN Security Council, 25 May.Google Scholar
  108. Vandeginste, Stef (2012) ‘Burundi’s Truth and Reconciliation Commission: How To Shed Light on the Past while Standing in the Dark Shadow of Politics?’ International Journal of Transitional Justice 6 (2): 355–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Vinjamuri, Leslie (2010) ‘Deterrence, Democracy, and the Pursuit of International Justice’, Ethics & International Affairs 24 (2): 191–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Vinjamuri, Leslie and Aaron P. Boesenecker (2007) Accountability and Peace Agreements: Mapping Trends from 1980 to 2006, Geneva: Centre for Humanitarian Dialogue, September.Google Scholar
  111. Waldorf, Lars (2006) ‘Mass Justice for Mass Atrocity: Rethinking Local Justice as Transitional Justice’, Temple Law Review 79 (1): 1–88.Google Scholar
  112. Wilson, Richard A. (2001) The Politics of Truth and Reconciliation in South Africa: Legitimizing the Post-apartheid State, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Zdravković-Zonta, Helena (2009) ‘Narratives of Victims and Villains in Kosovo’, Nationalities Papers 37 (5): 665–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Palgrave Macmillan, a division of Macmillan Publishers Ltd 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jelena Subotic
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Political ScienceGeorgia State UniversityAtlantaUSA

Personalised recommendations