The European Union and the Libyan crisis
- 395 Downloads
This article investigates the European Union (EU)’s answer to the Libya crisis of 2011 to show the unresolved dilemmas of an intergovernmental approach to foreign and defence policies. The Lisbon Treaty has institutionalized a dual constitution or decision-making regime: supranational for the policies of the single market, and intergovernmental for the policies traditionally at the core of national sovereignty, such as foreign and defence policies. In the most significant test for the EU foreign and defence policies in the post-Lisbon era, the intergovernmental approach generated unsatisfactory outcomes because it was unable to solve structural and institutional problems of collective action. Without revising the intergovernmental constitution, it will be difficult for the EU as an actor to play a role in international politics in the future.
KeywordsEU Libya Lisbon Treaty sovereignty intergovernmental constitution
I thank Mariagiulia Amadio Viceré for her research assistance. A first version of this article was presented at the EUSA Conference, Baltimore, 10 May 2013, where it was fruitfully discussed by Stephanie Anderson.
- Agence France-Press. (2011) Europe planning for Lybia Force despite UN concerns, 22 April, agency dispatch.Google Scholar
- Allen, D. (2012) The common foreign and security policy. In: E. Jones, A. Menon and S. Weatherill (eds.) The Oxford Handbook of the European Union. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp 643–660.Google Scholar
- Barroso, J.M.D. (2011) Statement by the president following his meeting with Navy Pillay, United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (Speech 11/121). EU Commission Press Release. Brussels, 23 February, http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_SPEECH-11-121_en.htm.
- Bindi, F. (ed.) (2010) The Foreign Policy of the European Union. Assessing Europe’s Role in the World. Washington DC: The Brookings Institution Press.Google Scholar
- Brattberg, E. (2011) Opportunities lost, opportunities seized: The Libya crisis as Europe’s perfect storm. EPC Policy Brief, June, http://www.epc.eu/documents/uploads/pub_1310_opportunities_lost.pdf.
- Buzek, J. (2011) ‘On the Situation in Libya’. Warsaw 21 February, http://www.sitepres.europarl.europa.eu/president/pl-en/press/press_release/2011/2011-February/press_release-2011-February-28.html.Google Scholar
- Carta, C. (2012) The European Union Diplomatic Service: Ideas, Preferences and Identities. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Castle, S. (2011) Discontent over foreign policy chief goes public. International Herald Tribune 24 May, p. 4.Google Scholar
- Chopin, T. and Lefebvre, M. (2010) Three phone numbers for Europe: Will the Lisbon Treaty make the European Union more effective abroad? Europe Analysis Series, Centre on the United States and Europe at Brookings, Washington DC, (US-Europe Analysis Series, n.43).Google Scholar
- Cox, M. and Stokes, D. (eds.) (2008) US Foreign Policy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- De France, O. and Witney, N. (2013) Europe’s strategic cacophony. European Council on Foreign Relations Policy Brief, n. 77 (April).Google Scholar
- Devuyst, Y. (2012a) The European Council and the CFSP after the Lisbon Treaty. European Foreign Affairs Review 17 (3): 327–350.Google Scholar
- Devuyst, Y. (2012b) The Constitutional and Lisbon Treaties. In: E. Jones, A. Menon and S. Weatherll (eds.) The Oxford Handbook of the European Union. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 163–178.Google Scholar
- Dyson, T. (2010) Defence policy: Temporal and spatial differentiation within reformed bandwagoning. In: K. Dyson and A. Sepos (eds.) Which Europe? The Politics of Differentiated Integration. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
- Foster, N. (2010) EU Treaties and Legislation 2010–2011. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Friends of Europe. (2011) An 8-point strategy to revitalize the EU, http://www.friendsofeurope.org.
- Gnesotto, N. and de Margerie, S.-C. (2013) Defence: The French ambition for Europe. Notre Europe, Tribune 29 April.Google Scholar
- Howorth, J. (2007) Security and Defence Policy in the European Union. London: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
- Howorth, J. (2011) The new faces of Lisbon: Assessing the performance of Catherine Ashton and Herman van Rompuy on the global stage. European Foreign Affairs Review 16 (3): 303–323.Google Scholar
- Juncos, A.E. (2009) A More Coherent and Effective European Foreign Policy? Federal Trust for Education and Research Report, February, http://mayapur.securesites.net/fedtrust/filepool/EU_Foreign_Policy_Report.pdf.
- Kempin, R. and Von Ondarza, N. (2011) CSDP on the brink. The importance of bringing France and the United Kingdom back in. SWP Comments, German Institute for International and Security Affairs. 13 May, http://www.swp-berlin.org/fileadmin/contents/products/comments/2011C13_kmp_orz_ks.pdf.
- Koenig, N. (2011) The EU and the Libyan Crisis in Quest of Coherence. IAI Working Papers 11 (19): Rome: Istituto Affari Internazionali.Google Scholar
- Laidi, Z. (2013) Following from above. Project Syndicate, 1 February, http://www.project-syndicate.org/commentary/lessons-from-mali-about-american-foreign-policy-by-zaki-laidi.
- Menon, A. (2012) Defense policy. In: E. Jones, A. Menon and S. Weatherll (eds.) The Oxford Handbook of the European Union. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 585–599.Google Scholar
- Missiroli, A. (2010) The new EU ‘foreign policy’ system after Lisbon: A work in progress. European Foreign Affairs Review 15 (4): 427–452.Google Scholar
- Missiroli, A. (2011) Arab spring, European strings. BEPA Monthly Brief, Issue, 46, European Commission, April. http://ec.europa.eu/bepa/pdf/publications_pdf/see_also/n46_-_april_2011.pdf.
- Morillas, P. (2011) Institutionalization or intergovernmental decision-taking in foreign policy: The implementation of the Lisbon Treaty. European Foreign Affairs Review 16 (2): 243–257.Google Scholar
- Piris, J.-C. (2012) The Future of Europe: Towards a Two-speed EU? Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- Reuters. (2011) Berlusconi under fire for not ‘disturbing’ Geddafi, 20 February, agency dispatch.Google Scholar
- Schumacher, T. (2011) The EU and the Arab spring: Between spectatorship and actorness. Insight Turkey 13 (3): 107–119.Google Scholar
- De Scoutheete, P. (2011) Decision-making in the Union. Notre Europe, Policy Brief No. 24, April, http://www.notre-europe.eu/media/bref24-deschoutheete-en.pdf?pdf=ok.
- Van Rompuy, H. (2011) ‘Statement by Herman Van Rompuy, President of the European Council on the Developments in the EU’s Southern Neighborhood’. Prague, 23 February, European Council Press Release, http://www.consilium.europa.eu/uedocs/cms_data/docs/pressdata/en/ec/119450.pdf.Google Scholar
- Wallace, H. and Wallace, W. (2007) Overview: The European Union, politics and policy-making. In: E.J. Knud, M.A. Pollack and B. Rosamond (eds.) Handbook of European Union Politics. London: Sage, pp. 339–358.Google Scholar
- Wong, R. and Hill, C. (eds.) (2012) National and European Foreign Policy. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Westerwelle, G. (2011) Official declaration on UNSC resolution 1973, German Foreign Office Press Release, Berlin 18 March, http://www.auswaertiges-amt.de/DE/Infoservice/Presse/Reden/2011/110318_BM_Regierungserklärung_Libyen.html.