The Effects of Contingent Convertible (CoCo) Bonds on Insurers’ Capital Requirements Under Solvency II

Abstract

The Liikanen Group proposes contingent convertible (CoCo) bonds as a potential mechanism to enhance financial stability in the banking industry. Especially life insurance companies could serve as CoCo bond holders, as they are already the largest purchasers of bank bonds in Europe. We develop a stylised model with a direct financial connection between banking and insurance and study the effects of various types of bonds such as non-convertible bonds, write-down bonds and CoCos on banks’ and insurers’ risk situations. In addition, we compare insurers’ capital requirements under the proposed Solvency II standard model as well as under an internal model that ex ante anticipates additional risks due to possible conversion of the CoCo bond into bank shares. In order to check the robustness of our findings, we consider different CoCo designs (write-down factor, trigger value, holding time of bank shares) and compare the resulting capital requirements with those for holding non-convertible bonds. We identify situations in which insurers benefit from buying CoCo bonds due to lower capital requirements and higher coupon rates. Furthermore, our results highlight how the Solvency II standard model can mislead insurers in their CoCo investment decision due to economically irrational incentives.

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Notes

  1. 1.

    See Liikanen Group (2012).

  2. 2.

    The trigger is typically a fixed core capital ratio set by the regulator. See, for example, FINMA (2011).

  3. 3.

    See Avdjiev et al. (2013, pp. 48–49). Banks that have issued CoCo bonds include Lloyds Bank (2009), UBS (2012), Barclays (2013) and Deutsche Bank (2012).

  4. 4.

    See Bank for International Settlements (2011).

  5. 5.

    See Krahnen (2013, p. 15).

  6. 6.

    See Insurance Europe and Oliver Wyman (2013).

  7. 7.

    See Glasserman and Nouri (2012).

  8. 8.

    Bank for International Settlements (2011).

  9. 9.

    Eling et al. (2007).

  10. 10.

    Gatzert and Wesker (2012).

  11. 11.

    Flannery (2002).

  12. 12.

    Shang (2013).

  13. 13.

    Pennacchi (2011).

  14. 14.

    Glasserman and Nouri (2012).

  15. 15.

    A bank’s risk-weighted assets are usually determined at the end of each quarter. See Zähres (2011, p. 7).

  16. 16.

    Note that for simplicity reasons, we assume that the bank’s assets exhibit a risk weight of 100 per cent. Thus, total assets V t equal the amount of risk-weighted assets at time t.

  17. 17.

    We find c* by valuing the bonds discounted expected cash flows for a given bank risk and then iterating over c until we find the coupon value c* such that the face value equals the present value. See Pennacchi (2011).

  18. 18.

    See Glasserman and Nouri (2012, p. 1819).

  19. 19.

    See Brigo et al. (2013, p. 12) for a similar approach.

  20. 20.

    See GDV (2014, p. 28).

  21. 21.

    See EIOPA (2013b, p. 116).

  22. 22.

    Among European life insurers, market risk accounts for up to 70 per cent of the overall SCR. See Fitch Ratings (2011).

  23. 23.

    Laas and Siegel (2013).

  24. 24.

    See EIOPA (2013b, p. 133).

  25. 25.

    EIOPA (2013b, pp. 136–137).

  26. 26.

    See EIOPA (2013b, p. 139).

  27. 27.

    ST0CC amounts to the second part of Eq. (11) evaluated at time t=1.

  28. 28.

    The second case also applies to a write-down bond.

  29. 29.

    See EIOPA (2013b, pp. 147–154).

  30. 30.

    See EIOPA (2013b, p. 148).

  31. 31.

    See EIOPA (2013c, p. 45).

  32. 32.

    Reichling et al. (2007, p. 104).

  33. 33.

    EIOPA (2013b, pp. 148–149).

  34. 34.

    We use the insurer’s average asset return between time t=0 and t=1.

  35. 35.

    Specifically, we use the following time series: WZ9810, WZ9812, WZ9814, WZ9816, WZ9818, WZ9820, WZ9822, WZ9824, WZ9826, WZ3431 and WZ3433. See www.bundesbank.de.

  36. 36.

    Source: Datastream.

  37. 37.

    Pennacchi (2011, p. 19).

  38. 38.

    Based on the 2012 average stock and real estate investment weight of the largest life insurance enterprises in Europe. See EIOPA (2013a).

  39. 39.

    See BaFin (2012).

  40. 40.

    See Deutsche Bank Annual Report (2012).

  41. 41.

    See Avdjiev et al. (2013).

  42. 42.

    Chen et al. (2013).

  43. 43.

    See Chen et al. (2013, p. 22).

  44. 44.

    The low conversion ratio (φ=0.25) in calibration IV corresponds to the issued CoCo bond by Rabobank in 2011 with a write-down factor of 75 per cent. See Corcuera et al. (2013, p. 134).

  45. 45.

    The accompanying letter ratings represent the Standard & Poor’s rating scale.

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Appendix

Appendix

Proofs

  • We proof formula (9) with induction in δ T :

    Let δ T =2. Note that by convention, empty products are equal to 1, that is ∏i=jnf(i)=1 for all n<j and all functions f. With formula (8) it follows

    Let δ T δ T +1. By using the case δ T =2 and formula (8), it follows that the fraction of equity held after the (δ T +1)th conversion is

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Niedrig, T., Gründl, H. The Effects of Contingent Convertible (CoCo) Bonds on Insurers’ Capital Requirements Under Solvency II. Geneva Pap Risk Insur Issues Pract 40, 416–443 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1057/gpp.2015.11

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Keywords

  • contingent convertible (CoCo) bond
  • Basel III
  • Solvency II
  • life insurance
  • interconnectedness