a migrant ethic of care? negotiating care and caring among migrant workers in London's low-pay economy
- 155 Downloads
A care deficit is clearly evident in global cities such as London and is attributable to an ageing population, the increased employment of native-born women, prevalent gender ideologies that continue to exempt men from much reproductive work, as well as the failure of the state to provide viable alternatives. However, while it is now acknowledged that migrant women, and to a lesser extent, migrant men, step in to provide care in cities such as London, there is less research on how this shapes the nature, politics and ethics of care. Drawing upon empirical research with low-paid migrant workers employed as domiciliary care providers in London, this paper explores the emergence of a distinct migrant ethic of care that is critically shaped by the caring work that migrant women and men perform.
Keywordsmigrants ethics care care workers London
The authors would like to acknowledge the Economic and Social Research Council for funding this research on low-paid migrant workers in London, as well as their colleague, Professor Isabel Dyck, for her useful comments on an earlier draft of this paper.
- Allamby, L. (2005) EU migrant workers: new social arrangements, Law Centre (NI), Available at: http://www.lawcentreni.org/Publications/Frontline?eu__migrant_workers_htm.
- Anderson, B. (2000) Doing the Dirty Work? The Global Politics of Domestic Labour, London: Zed Books.Google Scholar
- Ardayfio-Schandorf, E. (2004) Bridges of Development: A Compendium of Gender and the Ghanaian Family, Accra: Woeli Publishing Services.Google Scholar
- Datta, K., McIlwaine, C.J., Evans, Y., Herbert, J., May, J. and Wills, J. (2006) Work, Care and Life Among Low Paid Migrant Workers in London: Towards a Migrant Ethic of Care? Working Paper, Department of Geography, Queen Mary, University of London.Google Scholar
- Ehrenreich, B. and Hochschild, A.R. (2002) editors, Global Woman: Nannies, Maids and Sex Workers in the New Economy, London: Granta Books.Google Scholar
- Evans, Y., Herbert, J., Datta, K., May, J., McIlwaine, C.J. and Wills, J. (2005) Making the City Work: Low Paid Employment in London, Working Paper, Department of Geography, Queen Mary, University of London.Google Scholar
- Evans, Y., Wills, J., Datta, K., Herbert, J., McIlwaine, C.J. and May, J. (2007) ‘“Subcontracting by stealth” in London's hotels: impact and implications for labour organising’ Just Labour: A Canadian Journal of Work and Society, Vol. 10: 85–97.Google Scholar
- Fisher, B. and Tronto, J. (1990) in Abel, E. and Nelson, M. (1990) editors, Circle of Care: Work and Identity in Womens' Lives, Albany: State University Press.Google Scholar
- Gardner, K. (2002) Age, Narrative and Migration: The Life Course and Life Histories of Bengali Elders in London, Oxford and New York: BERG.Google Scholar
- GLA (Greater London Authority) (2005) A Fairer London: The 2005 Living Wage in London, London: GLA.Google Scholar
- Gregson, N. and Lowe, N. (1994) Servicing the Middle Classes: Class, Gender and Waged Work in Contemporary Britain, London: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Hochschild, A. (2000) in Hutton, W. and Giddens, A. (2000) editors, On the Edge: Living with Global Capitalism, London: Jonathan Cape.Google Scholar
- Hochschild, A. (2002) in Ehrenreich, B. and Hochschild, A.R. (2002) editors, Global Woman: Nannies, Maids and Sex Workers in the New Economy, London: Granta Books.Google Scholar
- Hondagneu-Sotelo, P. (2000) in Meyer, M.H. (2000) editor, Care Work: Gender, Labour and the Welfare State, New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Hondagneu-Sotelo, P. (2001) Doméstica: Immigrant Workers Cleaning and Caring in the Shadows of Affluence, Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
- Kofman, E. (2006) ‘Gendered migration, social reproduction and welfare regimes: new dialogues and directions’ Paper presented at the ESRC seminar on Working Lives in Post Industrial Europe.Google Scholar
- Mackintosh, M., Raghuram, P. and Henry, L. (2006) ‘A perverse subsidy: African trained nurses and doctors in the NHS’ Soundings, Vol. 34: 103–113.Google Scholar
- May, J., Datta, K., Evans, Y., Herbert, J., McIlwaine, C.J. and Wills, J. (2008) in Smith, A., Stenning, A. and Willis, K. (2008) editors, Social Justice and Neoliberalism: Global Perspectives, London: Verso.Google Scholar
- McIlwaine, C. (2008) Subversion or Subjugation: Transforming Gender Ideologies Among Latin American Migrants in London, Working Paper, Department of Geography, Queen Mary, University of London. Available at: http://www.geog.qmul.ac.uk/docs/staff/6313.pdf.
- McIlwaine, C.J., Datta, K., Evans, Y., Herbert, J., May, J. and Wills, J. (2006) Gender and Ethnic Identities Among Low-paid Migrant Workers in London, Working Paper, Department of Geography, Queen Mary, University of London.Google Scholar
- Momsen, J.H. (1999) editor, Gender, Migration and Domestic Service, London: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Morokvasic, M. (2007) in Lenz, I., Ullrich, C. and Fersch, B. (2007) editors, Gender Orders Unbound: Globalisation, Restructuring and Reciprocity, Farmington Hills, Opladen: Barbara Budrich Publishers.Google Scholar
- Parreñas, R. (2001) Servants of Globalization: Women, Migration and Domestic Work, Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
- Parreñas, R. (2002) in Ehrenreich, B. and Hochschild, A.R. (2002) editors, Global Woman: Nannies Maids and Sex Workers in the New Economy, London: Granta Books.Google Scholar
- Pearson, R. (2007) ‘Re-assessing paid word and women's empowerment: lessons from the global economy’ in A. Cornwall, E. Harrison and A. Whitehead (2007).Google Scholar
- Pessar, P. (2005) ‘Women, gender, and international migration across and beyond the Americans: inequalities and limited empowerment’ Expert Group Meeting on International Migration and Development in Latin America and the Caribbean, Available at: http://www.un.org/esa/population/publications/IttMigLAC/P08_PPessar.pdf.
- Portelli, A. (1998) in Chamberlain, M. and Thompson, P. (1998) editors, Narrative and Genre, London: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Rapport, N. and Dawson, A. (1998) Migrants of Identity: Perceptions of Home in a World of Movement, Berg: Oxford.Google Scholar
- Romero, M. (1992) Maid in the USA, New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Singer, W. (1997) Creating Histories: Oral Narratives and the Politics of History Making, New Delhi: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Stiell, B. and England, K. (1999) in Momsen, J.H. (1999) editor, Gender, Migration and Domestic Service, London: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Tronto, J. (1993) Moral Boundaries: A Political Argument for an Ethic of Care, London: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Ungerson, C. and Yeandle, S. (2005) ‘Care workers and work-life balance: the example of domiciliary careworkers’ in Houston, D. (2005).Google Scholar
- Wills, J. (2003) ‘On the frontline of care: a research report to explore home-care employment and service provision in Tower Hamlets’ Research report for UNISON.Google Scholar
- Wills, J., May, J., Datta, K., Evans, Y., Herbert, J. and McIlwaine, C.J. (2009) ‘London's migrant division of labour’ European Journal of Urban and Regional Studies, (forthcoming).Google Scholar
- Wills, J., Datta, K., Evans, Y., Herbert, J., May, J. and McIlwaine, C.J. (2010) Global Cities at Work: New Migrant Divisions of Labour, London: Pluto Press.Google Scholar