Eastern Economic Journal

, Volume 41, Issue 1, pp 86–101 | Cite as

Testing for Ethnicity Discrimination among NHL Referees: A Duration Model Approach

  • Kevin Mongeon
  • Neil Longley


Motivated by an endogenity issue between score margin and penalty events, this paper tests for ethnicity discrimination among NHL referees by analyzing over 2.6 million player shifts. Using duration models to compare the penalty rates of various player–referee ethnicity combinations, we find that French Canadian referees call penalties at significantly faster rates on English Canadian players than do English Canadian referees. The results are broadly consistent with the prior discrimination literature and are intuitively reasonable within the context of the historic French–English tensions throughout Canada’s history.


discrimination hockey ethnicity 

JEL Classifications

J15 J44 J71 L83 



The authors would like to thank anonymous referees’ and the editor as well as numerous attendees at the 2011 Southern Economics Association conference, and the 2012 European Conference on Sport Economics for helpful suggestions.


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Copyright information

© Eastern Economic Association 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kevin Mongeon
    • 1
  • Neil Longley
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Sport ManagementBrock UniversityCatharinesCanada
  2. 2.Isenberg School of Management, University of Massachusetts AmherstAmherstUSA

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