Advertisement

Comparative Economic Studies

, Volume 57, Issue 4, pp 669–692 | Cite as

The Military Origins of Soviet Industrialization

  • Vladimir Kontorovich
Article

Abstract

The predominant account of Soviet industrialization in Western literature is that it aimed at accelerating economic growth by concentrating investment in heavy industry, a strategy credited to Preobrazhenskii and Feldman. Using evidence from the Soviet sources, this article proposes an alternative origin of the strategy of industrialization and suggests different motives for the policy. It finds no support for Preobrazhenskii’s and Feldman’s authorship. Similar policies were undertaken earlier without the sophisticated economic analysis. It also traces the emergence of the standard view, and offers an explanation for why it became accepted in the face of the readily available contradictory evidence.

Keywords

Soviet industrialization Preobrazhenskii defense 

JEL Classifications

B20 B40 O43 P20 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The author gratefully acknowledges the support of the Earhart Foundation. Thanks are also due to Michael Ellman, Linda Gerstein, and Mark Harrison for their valuable comments on an earlier draft, James Novak for research assistance, and Kenneth Gudel for editing.

References

  1. Abouchar, A . 1973: Inefficiency and reform in the Soviet economy. Soviet Studies 25 (1): 66–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Allen, RC . 2003: Farm to factory. A reinterpretation of the Soviet industrial revolution. Princeton University Press: Princeton, NJ.Google Scholar
  3. Arndt, HW . 1987: Economic development. The history of an idea. University of Chicago Press: Chicago.Google Scholar
  4. Aslund, A . 2002: Building capitalism. The transformation of the former Soviet block. Cambridge University Press: New York.Google Scholar
  5. Backhouse, RE . 2002: The ordinary business of life. A history of economics from the ancient world to the twenty-first century. Princeton University Press: Princeton, NJ.Google Scholar
  6. Bardhan, P . 1993: Economics of development and the development of economics. The Journal of Economic Perspectives 7 (2): 129–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Barnett, V . 2004: The revolutionary Russian economy, 1890–1940. Ideas, debates and alternatives. Routledge: London.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Berend, IT . 2006: An economic history of twentieth-century Europe: Economic regimes from laissez-faire to globalization. Cambridge University Press: New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bergson, A . 1964: The economics of Soviet planning. Yale University Press: New Haven, CT.Google Scholar
  10. Berliner, JS . 1966: The economics of overtaking and surpassing. In: Rosovsky, H. (ed). Industrialization in Two Systems. Essays in Honor of Alexander Gerschenkron. John Wiley and Sons: New York.Google Scholar
  11. Boettke, PJ . 1990: The political economy of Soviet socialism. The formative years, 1918–1928. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Boston.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Brock, WA and Durlauf, SN . 1999: A formal model of theory choice in science. Economic Theory 14 (1): 113–130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Campbell, RW . 1961: Research on the Soviet economy – Achievements and prospects. In: Spulber, N. (ed). Study of the Soviet economy. Direction and Impact of Soviet Growth. Teaching and Research in Soviet Economics. Indiana University Press: Bloomington, IN.Google Scholar
  14. Campbell, RW . 1966: Soviet economic power. Its organization, growth, and challenge, 2nd Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company: Cambridge, MA.Google Scholar
  15. Clark, GM . 1956: The economics of Soviet steel. Harvard University Press: Cambridge, MA.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Davies, RW . 1974: A note on defense aspects of the Ural-Kuznetsk combine. Soviet Studies 26 (2): 272–274.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Davies, RW . 1989: The Soviet economy in turmoil, 1929–1930. Harvard University Press: Cambridge, MA.Google Scholar
  18. Davies, RW . 1993: Soviet military expenditure and the armaments industry, 1929–1933: A reconsideration. Europe-Asia Studies 45 (4): 577–608.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Davies, RW . 1994: Industry. In: Davies, RW, Harrison, M and Wheatcroft, SG (eds). The Economic Transformation of the Soviet Union, 1913–1945. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.Google Scholar
  20. Davies, RW . 2010: The economic history of the Soviet Union reconsidered. Kritika: Explorations in Russian and Eurasian History 11 (1): 145–159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Day, RB . 1975: Preobrazhensky and the theory of the transition period. Soviet Studies 27 (2): 196–219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. de Schweinitz, K. Jr. 1964: Soviet strategy for economic growth, review of Spulber, N. 1964: Indiana University Press: Bloomington, IN In: American Economic Review 54(6):1135–1137.Google Scholar
  23. Diamond, AM. Jr. 2008: Science, economics of. In: Durlauf, SN and Blume, LE (eds). The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics, 2nd Edition. Vol. 7. Palgrave Macmillan: New York.Google Scholar
  24. Dobb, M . 1955: Comparative rates of growth in industry: A comment on Strumilin’s article on ‘expanded reproduction’. Soviet Studies 7 (1): 52–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Dobb, M . 1966: Soviet economic development since 1917. International Publishers: New York.Google Scholar
  26. Dobb, M . 1967: Papers on capitalism, development, and planning. Routledge and Kegan Paul: London.Google Scholar
  27. Domar, ED (ed). 1957: A Soviet model of growth. In: Essays in the Theory of Economic Growth. Oxford University Press: New York.Google Scholar
  28. Dyker, DA . 1983: The process of investment in the Soviet Union. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.Google Scholar
  29. Dyker, DA . 1985: The future of the Soviet economic planning system. M. E. Sharpe: Armonk, NY.Google Scholar
  30. Easterly, W . 2001: The elusive quest for growth. MIT Press: Cambridge, MA.Google Scholar
  31. Ellman, M . 1990a: Evgenii Alexeyevich Preobrazhensky. In: Eatwell, J, Milgate, M and Newman, P (eds). Problems of the Planned Economy. W. W. Norton and Company: New York.Google Scholar
  32. Ellman, M . 1990b: Grigorii Alexandrovic Fel’dman. In: Eatwell, J, Milgate, M and Newman, P (eds). Problems of the Planned Economy. W. W. Norton and Company: New York.Google Scholar
  33. Ellman, M . 2004: Soviet industrialization: A remarkable success? Slavic Review 63 (4): 841–849.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Ellman, M . 2008: The political economy of Stalinism in the light of the archival revolution. Journal of Institutional Economics 4 (1): 99–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Engerman, DC . 2003: Modernization from the other shore. American intellectuals and the romance of Russian economic development. Harvard University Press: Cambridge, MA.Google Scholar
  36. Engerman, DC . 2009: Know your enemy: The rise and fall of America’s Soviet experts. Oxford University Press: New York.Google Scholar
  37. Erlich, A . 1950: Preobrazhenski and the economics of Soviet industrialization. Quarterly Journal of Economics 64 (1): 57–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Erlich, A . 1960: The Soviet industrialization debate, 1924–1928. Harvard University Press: Cambridge, MA.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Erlich, A . 1978: Dobb and the Marx-Feldman model: A problem in Soviet economic strategy. Cambridge Journal of Economics 2 (2): 203–214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Feldman, GA . 1964 [1928]: On the theory of growth rates of national income – I. In: Spulber, N. (ed). Foundations of Soviet Strategy for Economic Growth. Indiana University Press: Bloomington, IN.Google Scholar
  41. Filtzer, D . 1979: Evgeny Preobrazhensky. Challenge 22 (1): 64–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Gaidar, Y (ed). 2003: The inevitability of collapse of the socialist economy. In: The Economics of Transition. The MIT Press: Cambridge, MA.Google Scholar
  43. Gatrell, P . 1994: Government, industry and rearmament in Russia, 1900–1914. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Gatrell, P . 2005: Russia’s first world war. Pearson Education: Harlow.Google Scholar
  45. Gerschenkron, A . 1962: Economic backwardness in historical perspective. Belknap Press: Cambridge, MA.Google Scholar
  46. Gerschenkron, A . 1970: Europe in the Russian mirror. Four lectures in economic history. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Goldman, AI and Shaked, M . 1991: An economic model of scientific activity and truth acquisition. Philosophical Studies 63 (1): 31–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Goldstein, ER . 1971: Military aspects of Russian industrialization: The defense industries, 1890–1917. Unpublished PhD Dissertation, Case Western Reserve University: Cleveland, OH.Google Scholar
  49. Goodwin, CD . 1991: Introduction. In: Goodwin, CE. (ed). Economics and National Security. A History of their Interaction. Duke University Press: Durham, NC.Google Scholar
  50. Gregory, PR . 2004: The political economy of Stalinism. Evidence from the Soviet secret archives. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.Google Scholar
  51. Gregory, PR and Stuart, RC . 1985: Comparative economic systems, 2nd Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company: Boston.Google Scholar
  52. Gregory, PR and Stuart, RC . 1986: Soviet economic structure and performance, 3rd Edition. Harper & Row: New York.Google Scholar
  53. Gregory, PR and Stuart, RC . 2001: Russian and Soviet economic performance and structure, 7th Edition. Addison Wesley Longman: Boston.Google Scholar
  54. Grossman, G . 1958: Thirty years of Soviet industrialization. Survey 23: 15–21.Google Scholar
  55. Grossman, G . 1974: Economic systems, 2nd Edition. Prentice Hall: Englewood Cliffs, NJ.Google Scholar
  56. Hacker, BC . 1977: The weapons of the West: Military technology and modernization in the 19th-century China and Japan. Technology and Culture 18 (1): 43–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Hands, DW . 1997: Caveat emptor: Economics and contemporary philosophy of science. Philosophy of Science 64, Supplement. Proceedings of the 1996 Biennial Meetings of the Philosophy of Science Association. Part II: Symposia Papers: S107–S116.Google Scholar
  58. Hansen, WL . 1991: The education and training of economic doctorates. Journal of Economic Literature 29 (3): 1054–1087.Google Scholar
  59. Harrison, M . 2006: Five-year plan. In: Merriman, JM and Winter, JM (eds). Europe since 1914: Encyclopedia of the Age of War and Reconstruction. Charles Scribner’s Sons/Thomson Gale: Detroit, MI.Google Scholar
  60. Harrison, M (ed) 2008: Guns and rubles. The defense industry in the Stalinist state. Yale University Press: New Haven, CT.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Heckscher, E . 1935: Mercantilism. G. Allen & Unwin, Ltd.: London.Google Scholar
  62. Holzman, FD . 1957: The Soviet Ural-Kuznetsk combine: A study in investment criteria and industrialization policies. Quarterly Journal of Economics 71 (3): 368–405.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Hunter, H . 1957: Soviet transportation policy. Harvard University Press: Cambridge, MA.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Hunter, H . 1983: The new tasks of Soviet planning in the thirties. In: Desai, P. (ed). Marxism, Central Planning, and the Soviet Economy. Economic Essays in Honor of Alexander Erlich. The MIT Press: Cambridge, MA.Google Scholar
  65. Hunter, H and Szyrmer, JM . 1992: Faulty foundations. Soviet economic policies, 1928–1940. Princeton University Press: Princeton, NJ.Google Scholar
  66. Institut Marksa-Engelsa-Lenina-Stalina pri TsK KPSS. 1953: Kommunisticheskaia partiia Sovetskogo Soiuza v rezoliutsiiakh i resheniiakh siezdov, konferentsii i plenumov TsK, 1898–1953, Part II. Gospolitizdat: Moscow.Google Scholar
  67. Ioannides, J and Doucouliagos, C . 2013: What’s to know about the credibility of empirical economics? Journal of Economic Surveys 27 (5): 997–1004.Google Scholar
  68. Ioffe, I . 1948: Planirovanie promyshlennogo proizvodstva. Gosplanizdat: Moscow.Google Scholar
  69. Istoriia vsesoiuznoi kommunisticheskoi partii (bol’shevikov). Kratkii kurs. 1997 [1938]: Pisatel’: Moscow.Google Scholar
  70. Jasny, N . 1961: Soviet industrialization. University of Chicago Press: Chicago.Google Scholar
  71. Jasny, N . 1964: Soviet strategy for economic growth. review of Spulber, N. 1964. Indiana University Press: Bloomington, IN. In: Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 356: 213–214.Google Scholar
  72. Kaser, M . 1970: Soviet economics. McGraw-Hill: New York.Google Scholar
  73. Kershaw, JA . 1961: Directions for future growth of the Soviet economy. In: Spulber, N. (ed). Study of the Soviet Economy. Direction and Impact of Soviet Growth. Teaching and Research in Soviet Economics. Indiana University Press: Bloomington, IN.Google Scholar
  74. Kitcher, P . 1993: The advancement of science. Science without legend, objectivity without illusions. Oxford University Press: New York.Google Scholar
  75. Kontorovich, V and Wein, A . 2009: What did the Soviet rulers maximize? Europe-Asia Studies 61 (9): 1579–1601.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Kontorovich, V . 2014: A Cold War Creature Which Sat Out the War. Europe-Asia Studies 66 (5): 811–829.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Kornai, J . 1992: The socialist system. The political economy of communism. Princeton University Press: Princeton, NJ.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Koropeckyj, IS . 1967: The development of Soviet location theory before the world war. II. Soviet Studies 19 (2): 232–244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Kuhn, TS . 1970 [1962]: The structure of scientific revolutions. University of Chicago Press: Chicago.Google Scholar
  80. Leijonhufvud, A . 1973: Life among the Econ. Western Economic Journal 11 (3): 327–337.Google Scholar
  81. Leonard, RJ . 1991: ‘War as a simple economic problem’: The rise of an economics of defense. In: Goodwin, CD. (ed). Economics and National Security. A History of their Interaction. Duke University Press: Durham, NC.Google Scholar
  82. Leontief, W . 1960: The decline and rise of Soviet economic science. Foreign Affairs 38 (2): 261–272.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Leontiev, A . 1946: Sovetskii metod industrializatsii. Pravda: Moscow.Google Scholar
  84. Lockwood, WW . 1992 [1954]: The economic development of Japan. Growth and structural change 1868–1938. Center for Japanese Studies: Ann Arbor, MI.Google Scholar
  85. Lokshin, EI . 1947: Promyshlennost’ SSSR. Gosplanizdat: Moscow.Google Scholar
  86. McCann, FD . 1984: The formative period of twentieth-century Brazilian army thought, 1900–1922. Hispanic American Historical Review 64 (4): 737–765.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Meier, GM . 2005: Biography of a subject. An evolution of development economics. Oxford University Press: Oxford.Google Scholar
  88. Mendershausen, H . 1943: The economics of war. Prentice-Hall: New York.Google Scholar
  89. Miller, J . 1965: Soviet strategy for economic growth. review of Spulber, N. 1964. Indiana University Press: Bloomington In: Economic Journal 75(300): 834–835.Google Scholar
  90. Millar, JR . 1976: What’s wrong with the ‘standard story’. Problems of communism 25 (4): 50–55.Google Scholar
  91. Millar, JR . 1980: Where are the young specialists on the Soviet economy and what are they doing? Journal of Comparative Economics 4 (3): 317–329.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Millar, JR . 1981: The ABCs of Soviet socialism. University of Illinois Press: Urbana, IL.Google Scholar
  93. Moravcik, I . 1965: The priority of heavy industry as an objective of Soviet economic policy. Soviet Studies 17 (2): 245–251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Munting, R . 1982: The economic development of the USSR. St. Martin’s: New York.Google Scholar
  95. North, DC . 2005: Understanding the process of economic change. Princeton University Press: Princeton, NJ.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Notkin, AI . 1984: Problemy sotsialisticheskogo vosproizvodstva. Nauka: Moscow.Google Scholar
  97. Nove, A . 1969: An economic history of the U.S.S.R. Penguin Press: Baltimore.Google Scholar
  98. Nove, A . 1992: An economic history of the USSR. 1917–1991. Penguin Press: New York.Google Scholar
  99. Ofer, G . 1987: Soviet economic growth: 1928–1985. Journal of Economic Literature 25 (4): 1767–1833.Google Scholar
  100. Ofer, G . 2003: Communist Russia. In: Mokyr, J. (ed). The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History, Vol. 4. Oxford University Press: Oxford.Google Scholar
  101. Ofer, G . 2008: Soviet growth record. In: Durlauf, SN and Blume, LE (eds). The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics, 2nd Edition. Vol. 7. Palgrave Macmillan: New York.Google Scholar
  102. Offer, A . 1987: War economy. In: Eatwell, J, Milgate, M and Newman, P (eds). Problems of the Planned Economy. W. W. Norton and Company: New York.Google Scholar
  103. Pavlova, IV . 2001: Mekhanizm vlasti i stroitel’stvo stalinskogo sotsializma. SO RAN: Novosibirsk.Google Scholar
  104. Polanyi, M . 1962: The republic of science: Its political and economic theory. Minerva 1 (1): 54–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Prybyla, JS . 1965: Soviet strategy for economic growth. review of Spulber, N. 1964. Indiana University Press: Bloomington, IN. In: Russian Review 24(1): 68–70.Google Scholar
  106. Rostow, WW . 1961: The stages of economic growth. A non-communist manifesto. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.Google Scholar
  107. Rutland, P . 1985: The myth of the plan. Lessons of Soviet planning experience. Open Court: La Salle, IL.Google Scholar
  108. Sah, RK and Stiglitz, JE . 1984: The economics of price scissors. The American Economic Review 74 (1): 125–138.Google Scholar
  109. Sah, RK and Stiglitz, JE . 1987: Price scissors and the structure of the economy. The Quarterly Journal of Economics 102 (1): 109–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Samuelson, L . 2000: Plans for Stalin’s war machine: Tukhachevskii and military- economic planning, 1925–1941. Palgrave Macmillan Press: Basingstoke and London.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Sen, G . 1984: The military origins of industrialization and international trade rivalry. Pinter: London.Google Scholar
  112. Shakhnazarov, G . 1993: Tsena svobody. Rossika-Zevs: Moscow.Google Scholar
  113. Siegelbaum, LH . 1983: The politics of industrial mobilization in Russia, 1914–17. A study of the war-industries committees. St. Martin’s Press: New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Sorokin, G . 1946: Sotsialisticheskoe planirovanie narodnogo khoziaistva SSSR. Gosudarstvennoe izdatel’stvo politicheskoi literatury: Moscow.Google Scholar
  115. Spiegel, HW . 1940: Wehrwirtschaft: Economics of the military state. American Economic Review 30 (4): 713–723.Google Scholar
  116. Spulber, N . 1964: Soviet strategy for economic growth. Indiana University Press: Bloomington, IN.Google Scholar
  117. Spulber, N . 1969: The Soviet economy. Structure, principles, problems. Revised edition. W. W. Norton and Company: New York.Google Scholar
  118. Spulber, N . 2003: Russia’s economic transition: From late tsarism to the new millennium. Cambridge University Press: New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Stalin, IV (ed). 1947 [1925a]: Politicheskii otchet tsentral’nogo komiteta XIV siezdu VKP(b). In: Sochineniia, Vol. 7. Gosudarstvennoe izdatel’stvo politicheskoi literatury: Moscow.Google Scholar
  120. Stalin, IV (ed). 1947 [1925b]: Zakliuchitel’noe slovo po Politicheskomu otchetu tsentral’nogo komiteta. In: Sochineniia, Vol. 7. Gosudarstvennoe izdatel’stvo politicheskoi literatury: Moscow.Google Scholar
  121. Stalin, IV (ed). 1948 [1926]: O khoziaistvennom polozhenii Sovetskogo Soiuza i politike partii. In: Sochineniia, Vol. 8. Gosudarstvennoe izdatel’stvo politicheskoi literatury: Moscow.Google Scholar
  122. Stalin, IV (ed). 1949 [1928]: Ob industrializatsii strany i o pravom uklone v VKP(b). In: Sochineniia, Vol. 11. Gosudarstvennoe izdatel’stvo politicheskoi literatury: Moscow.Google Scholar
  123. Stalin, IV (ed). 1951 [1931]: O zadachakh khoziaistvennikov. In: Sochineniia, Vol. 13. Gosudarstvennoe izdatel’stvo politicheskoi literatury: Moscow.Google Scholar
  124. Stalin, IV (ed). 1951 [1933]: Itogi pervoi piatiletki. In: Sochineniia, Vol. 13. Gosudarstvennoe izdatel’stvo politicheskoi literatury: Moscow.Google Scholar
  125. Stalin, IV (ed.) 1967 [1946]: Rech’ na predvybornom sobranii izbiratelei Stalinskogo izbiratel’nogo okruga goroda Moskvy. In: Sochineniia, Vol. 3. Hoover Institution: Stanford, CA.Google Scholar
  126. Stigler, GJ, Stigler, SM and Friedland, C . 1995: The journals of economics. Journal of Political Economy 103 (2): 331–359.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Stone, DR . 2000: Hammer and rifle: The militarization of the Soviet Union, 1926–1933. University Press of Kansas: Lawrence, KS.Google Scholar
  128. Stone, N . 1976: Organising an economy for war: The Russian shell shortage, 1914–1917. In: Best, G and Wheatcroft, A (eds). War, Economy and the Military Mind. Croom Helm: London.Google Scholar
  129. Sutton, AC . 1973: National suicide: Military aid to the Soviet Union. Arlington House: New Rochelle, NY.Google Scholar
  130. Swianiewicz, S . 1965: Forced labor and economic development. An enquiry into the experience of Soviet industrialization. Oxford University Press: London.Google Scholar
  131. Temin, P . 1991: Soviet and Nazi economic planning in the 1930s. Economic History Review 44 (4): 573–593.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Trotsky, L . 2004 [1937]: The revolution betrayed. Dover: New York.Google Scholar
  133. Ulam, A . 1974: Expansion and coexistence, 2nd Edition. Praeger: New York.Google Scholar
  134. The Economist. 2013: Unreliable research: Trouble at the lab, 19 October, http://www.economist.com/news/briefing/21588057-scientists-think-science-self-correcting-alarming-degree-it-not-trouble, accessed 2 June 2014.
  135. Vayrynen, R . 1992: Military industrialization and economic development: Theory and historical case studies. Dartmouth: Aldershot.Google Scholar
  136. Voronetskaia, AA (ed). 1969: Industrializatsiia SSSR 1926–1928 gg. Dokumenty i materialy. Nauka: Moscow.Google Scholar
  137. Wade, N . 2009: Researcher condemns conformity among his peers. TierneyLab. The New York Times, 23 July.Google Scholar
  138. Wilber, CK . 1969: The Soviet model and underdeveloped countries. The University of North Carolina Press: Chapel Hill, NC.Google Scholar
  139. Wilczynski, J . 1970: The economics of socialism. Aldine: Chicago.Google Scholar
  140. Wiles, P . 1961: Communist economics and our economics textbooks. In: Spulber, N. (ed). Study of the Soviet Economy. Direction and Impact of Soviet Growth. Teaching and Research in Soviet Economics. Indiana University Press: Bloomington, IN.Google Scholar
  141. Wiles, P . 1964: Western Research into the Soviet Economy. Survey 50: 69–81.Google Scholar
  142. Wiles, PJ de la F . 1967: The political and social prerequisites for a Soviet-type economy. Economica 34 (133): 1–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. World Bank. 1991: World Development Report 1991. The Challenge of Development. Oxford University Press: New York.Google Scholar
  144. Zaleski, E . 1971: Planning for Economic Growth in the Soviet Union, 1918-1932. The University of North Carolina Press: Chapel Hill, NC.Google Scholar
  145. Zhuravlev, S . 2009: Rozhdenie krasnogo kolossa. Ekspert 1, 28 December.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Association for Comparative Economics 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Vladimir Kontorovich
    • 1
  1. 1.Economics Haverford CollegeHaverfordUSA

Personalised recommendations