More and more Western companies understand that Asian markets offer great opportunities to export goods and services. In addition many investment approaches made to Asian markets take place by entering such markets via so-called platform countries (for example Hong Kong and Singapore), as they serve as a bridge to the Asian market and offer an interesting learning base, with consumers cultural behavior being essentially Asian but with strong Westernized influences. As brand extension research has proved to be of major importance for international companies, we examine the effects of fit, order of market entry and involvement on brand extension evaluations in these platform countries. Although some of our knowledge from Western research can be generalized in an Asian context, the psychological triggers are rather different, as collectivistic societies foster the need for status and admiration instead of personal satisfaction. Our study contributes to the literature by taking the concept of self-construal as a theoretical basis for these differences. Results show that in low involvement situations an ordered market entry is required to make multiple brand extensions possible. Against this background, implications for brand extensions in platform countries are drawn and compared with previous studies conducted in Western markets.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Aaker, D.A. and Keller, K.L. (1990) Consumer evaluations of brand extensions. Journal of Marketing 54 (1): 27–41.
Aaker, J.L., Benet-Martínez, V. and Garolera, J. (2001) Consumption symbols as carriers of culture: A study of Japanese and Spanish brand personality constructs. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 81 (3): 492–508.
Agrawal, N. and Maheswaran, D. (2005) The effects of self-construal and commitment on persuasion. Journal of Consumer Research 31 (4): 841–849.
Ahluwalia, R. (2008) How far can a brand stretch? Understanding the role of self-construal. Journal of Marketing Research 45 (3): 337–350.
Ajzen, I. and Fishbein, M. (1972) Attitudes and normative beliefs as factors influencing behavioral intentions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 21 (1): 1–9.
Avnet, T. and Higgins, E.T. (2006) How regulatory fit affects value in consumer choices and opinions. Journal of Marketing Research 43 (1): 1–10.
Barone, M.J. (2005) The interactive effects of mood and involvement on brand extension evaluations. Journal of Consumer Psychology 15 (3): 263–270.
Barone, M.J., Miniard, P.W. and Romeo, J.B. (2000) The influence of positive mood on brand extension evaluations. Journal of Consumer Research 26 (4): 386–400.
Bergkvist, L. and Rossiter, J.R. (2007) The predictive validity of multiple-item versus single-item measures of the same construct. Journal of Marketing Research 44 (2): 175–184.
Bhat, S. and Reddy, S.K. (2001) The impact of parent brand attribute associations and affect on brand extension evaluation. Journal of Business Research 53 (3): 111–122.
Blichfeldt, B.S. (2004) On the development of brand and line extensions. Journal of Brand Management 12 (3): 177–190.
Bloch, P.H. and Richins, M.L. (1983) A theoretical model for the study of product importance perceptions. Journal of Marketing 47 (3): 69–81.
Bottomley, P.A. and Doyle, J.R. (1996) The formation of attitudes towards brand extensions. Testing and generalising Aaker and Keller's model. International Journal of Research in Marketing 13 (4): 365–377.
Bottomley, P.A. and Holden, S.J.S. (2001) Do we really know how consumers evaluate brand extensions? Empirical generalization based on secondary analysis of eight studies. Journal of Marketing Research 38 (4): 494–500.
Boush, D.M. and Loken, B. (1991) A process-tracing study of brand extension evaluation. Journal of Marketing Research 28 (1): 16–28.
Bray, J.H. and Maxwell, S.E. (1985) Multivariate Analysis of Variance. California: Sage Publications.
Briley, D.A. and Wyer Jr, R.S. (2002) The effect of group membership salience on the avoidance of negative outcomes: Implications for social and consumer decisions. Journal of Consumer Research 29 (3): 400–415.
Buil, I., de Chernatony, L. and Martinez, E. (forthcoming) Examining the role of advertising and sales promotions in brand equity creation. Journal of Business Research, in press.
Burgess, S.M. and Steenkamp, J.B. (2006) Marketing renaissance. How research in emerging markets advances marketing science and practice. International Journal of Research in Marketing 23 (4): 337–356.
Cacioppo, J.T. and Petty, R.E. (1984) The elaboration likelihood model of persuasion. Advances in Consumer Research 11 (1): 673–675.
Choi, T.M., Liu, N., Liu, S.C., Mak, J. and To, J.T. (2010) Fast fashion brand extensions: An empirical study of consumer preferences. Journal of Brand Management 17 (7): 472–487.
Chowdhury, M.H.K. (2007) An investigation of consumer evaluations of brand extensions. International Journal of Consumer Studies 31 (4): 337–384.
Cohen, J. (1988) Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences, 2nd edn. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Cronley, M.L., Mantel, S.P. and Kardes, F.R. (2010) Effects of accuracy motivation and need to evaluate on mode of attitude formation and attitude-behavior consistency. Journal of Consumer Psychology 20 (3): 274–281.
Dacin, P.A. and Smith, D.C. (1993) The effects of adding products to a brand on consumer's evaluations of new brand extensions. Advances in Consumer Research 20 (1): 594–598.
Dacin, P.A. and Smith, D.C. (1994) The effect of brand portfolio characteristics on consumer evaluations of brand extensions. Journal of Marketing Research 31 (2): 229–242.
Dawar, N. and Anderson, P.F. (1994) The effects of order and direction on multiple brand extensions. Journal of Business Research 30 (2): 119–129.
De Jong, M.G., Steenkamp, J.B. and Veldkamp, B.P. (2009) A model for the construction of country-specific yet internationally comparable short-form marketing scales. Marketing Science 28 (4): 674–689.
Diamantopoulos, A. (2005) The C-OAR-SE procedure for scale development in marketing: A comment. International Journal of Research in Marketing 22 (1): 1–9.
Echambadi, R., Arroniz, I., Reinartz, W. and Lee, J. (2006) Empirical generalizations from brand extension research. How sure are we? International Journal of Research in Marketing 23 (3): 253–261.
Estrella Tolentino, P. (2000) Multinational Corporations. Emergence and Evolution. London, New York: Taylor & Francis.
Finn, A. and Kayande, U. (2005) How fine is C-OAR-SE? A generalizability theory perspective on Rossiter's procedure. International Journal of Research in Marketing 22 (1): 11–21.
Fu, G., Saunders, J. and Qu, R. (2009) Brand extensions in emerging markets: Theory development and testing in China. Journal of Global Marketing 22 (3): 217–228.
Han, J.K. and Schmitt, B.H. (1997) Product-category dynamics and corporate identity in brand extensions. A comparison of Hong Kong and US consumers. Journal of International Marketing 5 (1): 77–92.
Henseler, J., Horvath, C., Sarstedt, M. and Zimmermann, L. (2010) A cross-cultural comparison of brand extension success factors: A meta-study. Journal of Brand Management 18 (1): 5–20.
Higgins, E.T. (2000) Making a good decision: Value from fit. American Psychologist 55 (11): 1217–1230.
Hofstede, G. (2007) A European in Asia. Asian Journal of Social Psychology 10 (1): 16–21.
Jaccard, J. (1998) Interaction Effects in Factorial Analysis of Variance. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.
Jung, K and Tey, L. (2010) Searching for boundary conditions for successful brand extensions. Journal of Product and Brand Management 19 (4): 276–285.
Kapferer, J.N. and Laurent, G. (1985) Consumer involvement profiles: A new practical approach to consumer involvement. Journal of Advertising Research 25 (6): 48–56.
Keller, K.L. (1993) Conceptualizing, measuring and managing customer-based brand equity. Journal of Marketing 57 (1): 30–50.
Kumar, V. (2000) International Marketing Research. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Lee, M. (1995) Effects of schema congruity and involvement on product evaluations. Advances in Consumer Research 22 (1): 210–216.
Mandel, N. (2003) Shifting selves and decision making: The effects of self-construal priming on consumer risk-taking. Journal of Consumer Research 30 (1): 30–40.
Maoz, E. and Tybout, A.M. (2002) The moderating role of involvement and differentiation in the evaluation of brand extensions. Journal of Consumer Psychology 12 (2): 119–131.
Markus, H.R and Kitayama, S. (1991) Culture and the self: Implications for cognition, emotion, and motivation. Psychological Review 98 (2): 224–253.
Martinez Salinas, E. and Pina Perez, J.M. (2009) Modeling the brand extensions’ influence on brand image. Journal of Business Research 62 (1): 50–60.
Mervis, C.B. and Rosch, E. (1981) Categorization of natural objects. Annual Review of Psychology 32 (1): 89–115.
Merz, M.A., He, Y. and Alden, A.L. (2008) A categorization approach to analyzing the global consumer culture debate. International Marketing Review 25 (2): 166–182.
Monga, A.B. and John, D.R. (2007) Cultural differences in brand extension evaluation. The influence of analytic versus holistic thinking. Journal of Consumer Research 33 (4): 529–536.
Monga, A.B. and John, D.R. (2010) What makes brands elastic? The influence of brand concept and styles of thinking on brand extension evaluation. Journal of Marketing 74 (3): 80–92.
Mooij, M. and Hofstede, G. (2002) Convergence and divergence in consumer behavior: Implications for international retailing. Journal of Retailing 78 (1): 61–69.
Nijssen, E.J. and Hartmann, D. (1994) Consumer Evaluations of Brand Extensions: An Integration of Previous Research. Rotterdam Institute for Business Economies Studies. Working Paper.
Nkwocha, I., Bao, Y., Johnson, W.C. and Brotspies, H.V. (2005) Product fit and consumer attitude toward brand extensions: The moderating role of product involvement. Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice 13 (3): 49–61.
Oakley, J.L., Balachander, S. and Sriram, S. (2005) Understanding the simultaneous effects of category fit and order of entry on consumer perceptions of brand extensions. Advances in Consumer Research 32 (1): 135–136.
O'Cass, A. and Lim, K. (2002) Toward understanding the young consumer's brand associations and ethnocentrism in the Lion's port. Psychology and Marketing 19 (9): 759–775.
Park, C.W., Milberg, S. and Lawson, R. (1991) Evaluation of brand extensions: The role of product feature similarity and brand concept consistency. Journal of Consumer Research 18 (2): 185–193.
Paulhus, D.L. and Reid, D.B. (1991) Enhancement and denial in socially desirable responding. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology 60 (2): 307–317.
Pedhazur, E.J. and Schmelkin, L. (1991) Measurement, Design and Analysis: An Integrated Approach. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Perdue, B.C. and Summers, J.O. (1986) Checking the success of manipulations in marketing experiments. Journal of Marketing Research 23 (4): 317–326.
Perreault, W.D. and Darden, W.R. (1975) Unequal cell sizes in marketing experiments. Use of the general linear hypothesis. Journal of Marketing Research 12 (3): 333–342.
Peterson, R.A., Albaum, G. and Beltramini, R.F. (1985) A meta-analysis of effect sizes in consumer behavior experiments. Journal of Consumer Research 12 (1): 97–103.
Petty, R.E. and Cacioppo, J.T. (1984) Source factors and the elaboration likelihood model of persuasion. Advances in Consumer Research 11 (1): 668–672.
Roll, M. (2006) Brand strategies for Asia. Brand Strategy 200: 34–35.
Rosch, E. and Mervis, C.B. (1975) Family resemblances: Studies in the internal structure of categories. Cognitive Psychology 7 (4): 573–605.
Rosch, E., Mervis, C.B., Gray, W.D., Johnson, D.M. and Boyes-Braem, P. (1976) Basic objects in natural categories. Cognitive Psychology 8 (3): 382–439.
Rossiter, J.R. (2002) The C-OAR-SE procedure for scale development in marketing. International Journal of Research in Marketing 19 (4): 305–335.
Sharon, N.G. (2010) Cultural orientation and brand dilution: Impact of motivation level and extension typicality. Journal of Marketing Research 47 (1): 186–198.
Shine, B.C., Park, J. and Wyer, R.S. (2007) Brand synergy effects in multiple brand extensions. Journal of Marketing Research 44 (4): 663–670.
Simms, J. (2005) Where are all the new ideas? Marketing (UK) 18: 34–36.
Steenkamp, J.-B.E.M. (2005) Moving out of the US silo: A call to arms for conducting international marketing research. Journal of Marketing 69 (4): 6–8.
Stevens, J.P. (2002) Applied Multivariate Statistics for the Social Science, 4th edn. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Sujan, M. and Dekleva, C. (1987) Product categorization and inference making: Some implications for comparative advertising. Journal of Consumer Research 14 (3): 372–378.
Sunde, L. and Brodie, RJ. (1993) Consumer evaluations of brand extensions: Further empirical results. International Journal of Research in Marketing 10 (1): 47–53.
Taylor, VA. and Bearden, WO. (2003) Ad spending on brand extensions: Does similarity matter? Journal of Brand Management 11 (1): 63–74.
Trafimow, D., Triandis, H.C. and Goto, S.G. (1991) Some tests of the distinction between the private self and the collective self. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 60 (5): 649–655.
Tsai, BH. and Li, SH. (2004) The effect of foreign ownership restrictions on the price dynamics of depositary receipts – Evidence from the Taiwan and Hong Kong markets. Journal of Accounting, Auditing & Finance 19 (3): 301–329.
Völckner, F. and Sattler, H. (2006) Drivers of brand extension success. Journal of Marketing 70 (2): 18–34.
Zhang, X., Cao, Q. and Grigoriou, N. (2011) Consciousness of social face: The development and validation of a scale measuring desire to gain face versus fear of losing face. Journal of Social Psychology 151 (2): 129–149.
1received his PhD from the University of Mannheim, Germany, and a Habilitation from the University of St. Gallen, Switzerland. He is Chair of Marketing I at the University of Mainz and has published in leading international and national journals. He is interested in product and management, as well as in innovation networks and management.
3received his PhD from the University of Mainz, Germany and is Assistant Professor at the Chair of Marketing I, University of Mainz. His research interests lie in business ethics, branding, consumption emotions and decision theory.
Single items for measuring affective, cognitive and conative evaluation
How much would you say that you would like or dislike this new Tempo product?
(1) do not like it at all – (7) like it extraordinarily.
What do you think about the quality of this new Tempo product?
(1) low quality – (7) high quality.
How do you feel about buying this new Tempo product if it were available where you usually shop for a reasonable price?
(1) definitely not buy – (7) definitely buy.
Results of the Kolmogorov–Smirnov test and Levene test
About this article
Cite this article
Huber, F., Lenzen, M., Meyer, F. et al. Brand extensions in the platform countries of Asia – Effects of fit, order of market entry and involvement. J Brand Manag 20, 424–443 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1057/bm.2012.50
- multiple brand extensions
- platform countries
- order of market entry