Organizational level and friendship expectation at work
- 170 Downloads
The literature on interpersonal interactions/relationships in work organizations indicates that personnel at higher organizational levels are more sociable and yet have workplace impersonality. This study unravels previous inconsistencies by examining employees’ friendship expectations across organizational levels. Data were collected from 222 full-time employees with a variety of occupational backgrounds in Taiwan. The results indicated that expectations of instrumental friendship at work did not differ across organizational levels. However, higher-level employees had lower expectations of expressive friendship at work, which provides personal emotional satisfaction, while detracting from workplace competitive advantage. The findings of this study shed new light on previous inconsistencies and the mutually contradictory organizational stances on workplace friendship. Significant implications are provided for dilemmas concerning isolated offices, ‘management by walking around’ and workplace relationships.
Keywordsorganizational level friendship expectations at work workplace relationships isolated office management by walking around
We thank three anonymous reviewers and John Billingsley for helpful comments on earlier versions of this article.
- Adams, G. and Balfour, D. (1998) Unmasking Administrative Evil. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
- Armour, S. (2007) Friendship and work: A good or bad partnership? USA Today. http://www.usatoday.com/money/workplace/2007-08-01-work-friends_N.htm, accessed 7 August 2007.
- Bass, B.M. (1981) Stogdill's Handbook of Leadership, Revised edn. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
- Bernikow, L. (1986) Lonely in America. New York: Harper and Row.Google Scholar
- Brusman, M. (2007) Human relationships at work: The untapped frontier. Working Resources. http://www.workingresources.com/professionaleffectivenessarticles/article.nhtml?uid=10062, accessed 5 September 2007.
- Guld, M. (2007) Recruitment: Number two priority. Receivables Report for America's Health Care Financial Managers 22 (11): 10–11.Google Scholar
- Hamilton, J.B. (2007) Management: Experience speaks. Paper, File and Foil Converter 81 (1): 56.Google Scholar
- Hare, A.P. (1976) Handbook of Small Group Research. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
- Hellriegel, D., Jackson, S.E. and Slocum, J.W. (1999) Management, 8th edn. Cincinnati, OH: South-Western.Google Scholar
- Howard, C.M. (1998) How your employee communications programs can boost productivity and pride. Public Relations Quarterly 43 (3): 15–23.Google Scholar
- Ibarra, H. (1993) Personal networks of women and minorities in management: A conceptual framework. Academy of Management Review 18 (1): 58–87.Google Scholar
- Ibarra, H. and Hunter, M. (2007) How leaders create and use networks. Harvard Business Review 85 (1): 40–47.Google Scholar
- Jaques, E. (1990) In praise of hierarchy. Harvard Business Review 68 (1): 127–134.Google Scholar
- Kim, J. and Mueller, C.W. (1978) Quantitative Applications in the Social Sciences: Vol. 14. Factor Analysis: Statistical Methods and Practical Issues. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
- Knapp, M.L. (1978) Non-verbal Communication in Human Interaction, 2nd edn. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.Google Scholar
- Lin, N. (1982) Social resources and instrumental action. In: P.V. Marsden and N. Lin (eds.) Social Structure and Network Analysis. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage, pp. 131–145.Google Scholar
- Lincoln, J.R. (1982) Inter- and inter-organizational networks. In: S.B. Bacharach (ed.) Research in the Sociology of Organizations. Greenwich, CT: Jai Press, pp. 1–38.Google Scholar
- Mintzberg, H. (1973) The Nature of Managerial Work. New York: Harper and Row.Google Scholar
- Pile, J. (1978) Open Office Planning. London: Architectural Press.Google Scholar
- Sias, P.M. and Perry, T. (2004) Disengaging from workplace relationships. Human Communication Research 30 (4): 589–602.Google Scholar