URBAN DESIGN International

, Volume 20, Issue 2, pp 107–129 | Cite as

Space, movement and heritage planning of the historic cities in Islamic societies: Learning from the Old City of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

Original Article
  • 64 Downloads

Abstract

Traditional historic cities in Islamic societies of Asia and Africa are fast disappearing and/or losing relevance. There is a clear need for heritage planners to plan for what is left and to integrate these historic cities with the bigger cities that surround them. This study on movement dynamics of people and cars in relation to spatial configuration, described using space syntax, was undertaken in the Old City of Jeddah to understand and learn how accessibility and the density of people and activities can be used for retaining the viability and vitality of this and other historic cities. The study reports several findings that are potentially relevant to heritage planning. However, further studies are needed to understand the importance of the findings in relation to different social and symbolic realities of Islamic societies before specific spatial strategies can be identified for heritage planning in this and other historic cities.

Keywords

heritage planning traditional Islamic cities space movement space syntax Jeddah 

References

  1. Abu-Lughod, J. (1993) The Islamic city: Historic myth, Islamic essence, and contemporary relevance. In: H. Amirahmadi and S.S. El-Shakhs (eds.) Urban Development in the Muslim World. New Brunswick, NJ: The Center for Urban Policy Research, pp. 11–36.Google Scholar
  2. Akbar, J. (1988) Crisis in the Built Environment: The Case of the Muslim City. New York: EJ Brill.Google Scholar
  3. Alberts, H.C. and Hazen, H.D. (2010) Maintaining authenticity and integrity at cultural world heritage sites. The Geographical Review 100 (1): 56–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Alexander, C. (1966) The city is not a tree. Design 206 (February): 46–55.Google Scholar
  5. Amirahmadi, H. and El-Shakhs, S.S. (eds.) (1993) Urban Development in the Muslim World. New Brunswick, NJ: The Center for Urban Policy Research.Google Scholar
  6. Angelo, P. (1977) Jiddah: Portrait of an Arabian City. Jiddah, KSA: Falcon Press.Google Scholar
  7. Ardalan, N. and Bakhtiar, L. (1973) The Sense of Unity. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  8. Ashworth, G.J. (1993) Heritage planning: An approach to managing historic cities. In: Z. Zuziak (ed.) Managing Historic Cities. Cracow, Poland: International Cultural Center, pp. 27–47.Google Scholar
  9. Baer, W. (1995) The conservation and use of the Walled City of Tripoli. Geographical Journal 160 (2): 143–148.Google Scholar
  10. Baran, P.K., Rodríguez, D.A. and Khattak, A.J. (2008) Space syntax and walking in a new urbanist and suburban neighborhoods. Journal of Urban Design 13 (1): 5–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Buchanan, P. (1988) What city? A plea for place in the public realm. Architectural Review 184 (1101): 31–41.Google Scholar
  12. Byrne, D. (1991) Western hegemony in archaeological heritage management. History and Anthropology 5 (2): 269–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Castells, M. (2002) Local and global: Cities in the network society. Tijdschrift Voor Economische en Sociale Geografie 93 (5): 548–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Christaller, W. (1966) Central Places in Southern Germany. Translated by C. W. Baskin London: Prentice-Hall, (Original in Germany 1933).Google Scholar
  15. Cook, R. (1980) Zoning for Downtown Urban Design. New York: Lexington Books.Google Scholar
  16. Ford, L. (1985) Urban morphology and preservation in Spain. Geographical Review 75 (3): 265–299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Gehl, J. (1989) A changing street life in a changing society. Places 6 (1): 8–17.Google Scholar
  18. Goffman, E. (1963) Behavior in Public Places: Notes on the Social Organization of Gatherings. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  19. Goffman, E. (1972) Relations in Public: Micro Studies of the Public Order. New York: Harper & Row.Google Scholar
  20. Hakim, B.S. (1986) Arabic-Islamic Cities: Building and Planning Principles. London: KPI.Google Scholar
  21. Hesse, M. (2010) Cities, material flows and the geography of spatial interaction: Urban places in the system of chains. Global Networks 10 (1): 75–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hillier, B. (1996) Space is the Machine. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  23. Hillier, B. (2005) The art of place and the science of space. World Architecture – Special Issue on Space Syntax 11 (185): 96–102.Google Scholar
  24. Hillier, B. (2008) Space and spatiality: What the built environment needs from social theory. Building Research & Information 36 (3): 216–230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hillier, B. and Hanson, J. (1984) The Social Logic of Space. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hillier, B. and Iida, S. (2005) Network effects and psychological effects: A theory of urban movement. In: A van Nes (ed.) Proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on Space Syntax Volume I; Delft, the Netherlands: TU Delft, pp. 553–564.Google Scholar
  27. Hillier, B., Penn, A., Hanson, J., Grajewski, T. and Xu, J. (1993) Natural movement; or, configuration and attraction in urban pedestrian movement. Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design 20 (1): 29–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. IBM Corp. (Released 2011) IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 20.0. Armonk, NY: IBM Corp.Google Scholar
  29. ICOMOS. (1964) The Venice charter: International charter for the conservation and restoration of monuments and sites. Second International Congress of Architects and Technicians of Historic Monuments, Venice, Italy, http://www.icomos.org/venice_charter.html, accessed 20 June 2010.Google Scholar
  30. Jacobs, J. (1961) The Death and Life of Great American Cities. New York: Random House.Google Scholar
  31. Jensen, O.B. (2010) Negotiation in motion: Unpacking a geography of mobility. Space and Culture 13 (4): 389–403.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Lapidus, I.M. (1969) Middle Eastern Cities: A Symposium on Ancient, Islamic, and Contemporary Middle Eastern Urbanism. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  33. League of Nations. (1931) Athens charter for the restoration of historic monuments. Adopted at the First International Congress of Architects and Technicians of Historic Monuments, Athens, Greece, http://www.icomos.org/anthens_charter.html, accessed 12 January 2010.Google Scholar
  34. Lefebvre, H. (1991) The Production of Space. Translated by D. Nicholson-Smith Oxford: Blackwell, (Original in French 1974).Google Scholar
  35. Lowenthal, D. (1995) Changing criteria for authenticity. In: K. E. Larsen (ed.) Nara Conference on Authenticity in Relation to the World Heritage Convention, Nara, Japan, 1–6 November 1994. Paris: UNESCO World Heritage Centre, pp. 121–136.Google Scholar
  36. Montgomery, J. (1998) Making a city: Urbanity, vitality and urban design. Journal of Urban Design 3 (1): 93–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Noe, S.V. (1993) The walled city of Delhi: Retrospect and prospect. In: H. Amirahmadi and S.S. El-Shakhs (eds.) Urban Development in the Muslim World. New Brunswick, NJ: The Center for Urban Policy Research, pp. 72–93.Google Scholar
  38. Pendlebury, J., Short, M. and While, A. (2009) Urban world heritage sites and the problem of authenticity. Cities 26 (6): 349–358.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Peponis, J., Hadjinikolaou, E., Livieratos, C. and Fatouros, D.A. (1989) The spatial core of urban culture. Ekistics 56 (334–335): 43–55.Google Scholar
  40. Peponis, J., Ross, C. and Rashid, M. (1997) The structure of urban space, movement and co-presence: The case of Atlanta. Geoforum 28 (3–4): 341–358.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Poulios, I. (2010) Moving beyond a values-based approach to heritage conservation. Conservation and Management of Archaeological Sites 12 (2): 170–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Rodwell, D. (2007) Conservation and Sustainability in Historic Cities. Oxford: Blackwell.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Rodwell, D. (2008) Urban regeneration and the management of change: Liverpool and the historic urban landscape. Journal of Architectural Conservation 14 (2): 83–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Saqqaf, A.Y. (ed.) (1987) The Middle East City: Ancient Traditions Confront a Modern World. 2nd edn. New York: Paragon House Publishers.Google Scholar
  45. Turner, A. and Friedrich, E. (2010–2011) Depthmap Software, Version 10.14.00b. London: University College London.Google Scholar
  46. Ullman, E.L. (1980) Geography as spatial interaction. In: E.L. Ullman and R.R. Boyce (eds.) Geography as Spatial Interaction. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press, pp. 13–27, (Original in 1954).Google Scholar
  47. UNESCO. (2005) Vienna Memorandum on ‘World Heritage and Contemporary Architecture – Managing the Historic Urban Landscape’. Paris, France: World Heritage Centre, p. 6, http://whc.unesco.org/en/activities/48, accessed 28 April 2013.
  48. Weber, M., Roth, G. and Wittich, C. (1968) Economy and Society: An Outline of Interpretive Sociology. New York: Bedminster Press Incorporated (Original in Germany 1921).Google Scholar
  49. Zubaida, S. (1989) Islam, the People and the State. London and New York: Routledge.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Palgrave Macmillan, a division of Macmillan Publishers Ltd 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Architecture, Design, & Planning, University of KansasLawrenceUSA

Personalised recommendations