International Politics

, Volume 56, Issue 3, pp 259–271 | Cite as

Introduction: strategy in EU foreign policy

  • Cristian NitoiuEmail author
  • Monika Sus


The point of departure for the special collection is provided by the observation that the growing complexity of the crises in the neighbourhood and the internal ones faced by the Union provides a sense of urgency to any type of strategic thinking that the EU might embrace. Against this backdrop, the recent shift towards geopolitics and strategic thinking is contextualized and the understanding of key aspects of ways in which the shift is translated into strategies by EU actors is put forward. The analysis recognizes the recent developments within the institutional dimension of EU’s foreign and security policy, yet it confirms the fundamental meaning of the member states’ willingness to invest resources and harmonize their foreign policy strategies at the EU level.


EU foreign and security policy Strategic thinking European Union’s Global Strategy Resilience 


  1. Alaranta, T. 2016. Turkey’s Grand Strategy in the EU’s Eastern Neighbourhood: Counterpoising Russia and the West. In Key Actors in the EU’s Eastern Neighbourhood, ed. K. Raik and S. Saari, 105–117. Helsinki: The Finnish Institute of International Affairs.Google Scholar
  2. Allen, D. 1998. Who Speaks for Europe: The Search for an Effective and Coherent External Policy. In A Common Foreign Policy for Europe? Competing Visions of the CFSP, ed. J. Peterson and H. Sjursen, 41–58. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  3. Barrinha, A. 2016. Progressive Realism and the EU’s International Actorness: Towards a Grand Strategy? Journal of European Integration 38(4): 441–454. Scholar
  4. Beland, D. 2009. Ideas, Institutions, and Policy Change. Journal of European Public Policy 16(5): 701–718. Scholar
  5. Biava, A., M. Drent, and G.P. Herd. 2011. Characterizing the European Union’s Strategic Culture: An Analytical Framework. Journal of Common Market Studies: JCMS 49(6): 1227–1248. Scholar
  6. Birkland, T.A. 1997. After Disaster: Agenda Setting, Public Policy and Focusing Events. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.Google Scholar
  7. Biscop, S. 2010. The ENP, Security and Democracy in the Context of the European Security Strategy. In The European Neighbourhood Policy in Perspective: Context, Implementation and Impact, ed. R.G. Whitman and S. Wolff, 73–88. London: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Biscop, S., and J. Andersson. 2007. The EU and the European Security Strategy: Forging a Global Europe. Abingdon: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cross, M.D. 2016. The EU Global Strategy and Diplomacy. Contemporary Security Policy 37(3): 402–413. Scholar
  10. Eising, R., D. Rasch, and R. Rozbicka. 2015. Institutions, Policies, and Arguments: Context and Strategy in EU Policy Framing. Journal of European Public Policy. Scholar
  11. European External Action Service. 2015. The European Union in a Changing Global Environment.
  12. European External Action Service. 2016. Shared Vision, Common Action: A Stronger Europe.
  13. European External Action Service. 2017 Implementation Plan on Security and Defence.
  14. Ginsberg, R.H. 1999. Conceptualizing the European Union as an International Actor: Narrowing the Theoretical Capability-Expectations Gap. Journal of Common Market Studies: JCMS 37(3): 429–454. Scholar
  15. Goddard, S.E., and R.R. Krebs. 2015. Rhetoric, Legitimation, and Grand Strategy. Security Studies 24(1): 5–36. Scholar
  16. Hall, G.O. 2013. Authority, Ascendancy, and Supremacy: China, Russia, and the United States’ Pursuit of Relevancy and Power. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  17. Hardacre, A., and M. Smith. 2009. The EU and the Diplomacy of Complex Interregionalism. The Hague Journal of Diplomacy 4(2): 167–188. Scholar
  18. Headley, J. 2012. Is Russia Out of Step with European Norms? Assessing Russia’s Relationship to European Identity, Values and Norms Through the Issue of Self-Determination. Europe-Asia Studies 64(3): 427–447. Scholar
  19. Hill, Ch. 2003. What Is to Be Done? Foreign Policy as a Site for Political Action. International Affairs 79(2): 233–255. Scholar
  20. Howorth, J. 2010. The EU as a Global Actor: Grand Strategy for a Global Grand Bargain? Journal of Common Market Studies 48(3): 455–474. Scholar
  21. Howorth, J. 2016. EU Global Strategy in a Changing World: Brussels’ Approach to the Emerging Powers. Contemporary Security Policy 37(3): 389–401. Scholar
  22. Jørgensen, K.E. 2009. The European Union in Multilateral Diplomacy. The Hague Journal of Diplomacy 4(2): 189–209. Scholar
  23. Kreutz, J. 2015. Human Rights, Geostrategy, and EU Foreign Policy, 1989–2008. International Organization 69(1): 195–217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Manners, I. 2011. The European Union’s Normative Power: Critical Perspectives and Perspectives on the Critical. In Normative Power Europe: Empirical and Theoretical Perspectives, ed. R.G. Whitman, 226–247. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Matlary, J.H. 2006. When Soft Power Turns Hard: Is an EU Strategic Culture Possible? Security Dialogue 37(1): 105–121. Scholar
  26. Nitoiu, C. 2014. EU–Russia Relations: Between Conflict and Cooperation”. International Politics 51(2): 234–253. Scholar
  27. Rochefort, D.A. 1994. The Politics of Problem Definition: Shaping the Policy Agenda. Lawrence, KA: University Press of Kansas.Google Scholar
  28. Rogers, J. 2009. From ‘Civilian Power’ to ‘Global Power’: Explicating the European Union’s ‘Grand Strategy’ Through the Articulation of Discourse Theory. Journal of Common Market Studies 47(4): 831–862. Scholar
  29. Smith, M. 2003. The Framing of European Foreign and Security Policy: Towards a Post-Modern Policy Framework? Journal of European Public Policy 10(4): 556–575. Scholar
  30. Smith, M. 2011. A Liberal Grand Strategy in a Realist World? Power, Purpose and the EU’s Changing Global Role. Journal of European Public Policy 18(March): 144–163. Scholar
  31. Smith, M. 2016. Implementing the Global Strategy Where It Matters Most: The EU’s Credibility Deficit and the European Neighbourhood. Contemporary Security Policy 37(3): 446–460. Scholar
  32. Sus, M. 2017. Towards the European Union’s Foreign Policy 2025—Taking Stock of the Dahrendorf Foresight Project. Global Policy 8(4): 115–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Tocci, N. 2016. The Making of the EU Global Strategy. Contemporary Security Policy 37(3): 461–472. Scholar
  34. Youngs, R. 2010. The EU’s Role in World Politics: A Retreat from Liberal Internationalism. London: Routledge.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Macmillan Publishers Ltd., part of Springer Nature 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Aston Centre for Europe, School of Languages and Social SciencesAston UniversityBirminghamUK
  2. 2.Hertie School of GovernanceBerlinGermany

Personalised recommendations