Is Student Share of Net Tuition Impacted by a Growing Elderly Population? A Longitudinal, Multi-level Analysis of Student Share of Net Tuition in All 50 American States Between 1992 and 2013
To understand increases in student share of net tuition for state colleges and universities, resulting from state financial decreases in support for higher education, a quantitative, longitudinal, multi-level analysis of data from all 50 states in the USA from 1992 to 2013 was examined. Five hypotheses related to (1) growth in student share of net tuition over a 22-year period, and its relationship to (2) the percent of the population 65 years of age and older, (3) state expenditures for hospitals and public health, (4) state expenditures for police protection and corrections, and (5) Republican political control of state legislatures, were quantitatively tested. Data were obtained from the State Higher Education Executive Officers Association (SHEEOA). Even though student share of net tuition is increasing drastically over the 22-year period, expenditures on public health, police protection, and corrections have no significant effect on increasing or decreasing the share of net tuition for which students are responsible. The effect of the percent of the population 65 years and older, however, has a significant impact on student share of net tuition.
Keywordsstudents tuition higher education policy older adults hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) growth curve analysis (GCA) cross-sectional analysis
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.
- Delaney, J.A. and Doyle, W.R. (2007). ‘The role of higher education in state budgets’, in K.M. Shaw and D.E. Heller (eds). State Postsecondary Education Research: New Methods to Inform Policy and Practice, Sterling, VA: Stylus, pp. 55–76.Google Scholar
- Delaney, J.A. and Kearney, T.D. (2015). ‘Guaranteed tuition policies and state general appropriations for higher education: a difference-in-difference analysis’, Journal of Education Finance 40(4): 359–390.Google Scholar
- Hearn, J.C. and Griswold, C.P. (1994) ‘State-level centralization and policy innovation in U.S. postsecondary education’, Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis 16(2): 161–190.Google Scholar
- Johnstone, D.B. and Marcucci, P.N. (2010) Financing Higher Education Worldwide: Who Pays? Who Should Pay?, Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
- Lobosco, K. (2015) ‘11 States Spend More on Prisons than on Higher Education’ CNN’ 1 October. Accessed 12 February 2018.Google Scholar
- Mortenson, T. (2012) ‘State funding: a race to the bottom’, http://www.acenet.edu/the-presidency/columns-and-features/Pages/state-funding-a-race-to-the-bottom.aspx. Accessed 20 April 2018.
- Okunade, A.A. (2004) ‘What factors influence state appropriations for public higher education in the United States?’ Journal of Education Finance 30(2): 123–138.Google Scholar
- Ortman, J.M., Velkoff, V.A. and Hogan, H (2014) ‘An aging nation: the older population in the United States’, Current Population Reports, May. https://www.census.gov/prod/2014pubs/p25-1140.pdf. Accessed May 4, 2018.
- Rizzo, M.J. (2004) A (less than) Zero-Sum Game? State Funding for Public Higher Education: How Public Higher Education Institutions Have Lost. Unpublished doctoral dissertation; Ithaca, NY: Cornell University.Google Scholar
- Sala-i-Martin, X., Crotti, R., Battista, C., Hanouz, M., Galvan,C., and Marti, G. (2015) ‘Reaching beyond the new normal: findings from the global competitiveness index 2015–2016’, in, K Schwab (ed). The Global Competitiveness Report 2015–2016, World Economic Forum, pp. 3–41.Google Scholar