Advertisement

Attracting International Students to Semi-peripheral Countries: A Comparative Study of Norway, Poland and Portugal

  • Cristina SinEmail author
  • Dominik Antonowicz
  • Jannecke Wiers-Jenssen
Original Article

Abstract

The paper investigates the approaches employed for attracting international full-degree students in three countries on the periphery of Europe/the European Economic Area: Norway, Poland and Portugal. These countries, considered semi-peripheral regarding international student recruitment, have shorter traditions for incoming mobility than countries that are major recruiters and which have been the focus of previous research on attracting international students. The paper analyses national policies and strategies, focusing on their emergence, rationales and instruments. The study is comparative, aiming to find commonalities and differences in the approaches of these countries further to the changing global environment in higher education. The major finding is that semi-peripheral countries appear to employ different strategies and resort to other comparative advantages than the largest student recruiters, exploiting political, cultural or geographical aspects rather than educational assets. The findings highlight the need for these countries to identify their distinctive attraction capacities and assets, as well as to be purposeful in choosing their target recruitment regions.

Keywords

international students recruitment periphery policies internationalization 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We would like to thank Mari Elken for her thorough reading of a draft of this paper and for her helpful feedback. This paper has been developed with support for a postdoctoral fellowship from the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT), Grant Number SFRH/BPD/85724/2012 and with support from the Polish National Research Council (NCN) through its research Grant (UMO-2013/10/M/HS6/00561).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.

References

  1. Altbach, P. G. (2013) The international imperative in higher education. Global perspectives on higher education, Rotterdam: Sense Publishers.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Altbach, P. G. and Teichler, U. (2001) ‘Internationalisation and exchanges in a globalized University’, Journal of Studies in International Education 5(1): 5–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Antonowicz, D. (2012) ‘External Influences and Local Responses. Changes in Polish Higher Education 1990–2005’, in P. Maassen and M. Kwiek (eds). National higher education reforms in a European context: comparative reflections on Poland and Norway, Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang, pp. 87–111.Google Scholar
  4. Assunção, M. (2017) ‘Exportação do Ensino Superior’, PortugalGlobal: A crescente internacionalização do ensino superior português (97): 7–8.Google Scholar
  5. Barnett, G. A., Lee, M., Jiang, K. and Park. H.W. (2016) ‘The flow of international students from a macro perspective: a network analysis’, Compare: A Journal of Comparative and International Education 46(4): 533–559.Google Scholar
  6. Beine, M., Noël, R. and Ragot, L. (2014) ‘Determinants of the international mobility of students’, Economics of Education Review 41(August): 40–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Blumenthal, P., Goodwin, C., Smith, A. and Teichler, U. (1996) Academic mobility in a changing world: Regional and Global Trends, London: Jessica Kingsley.Google Scholar
  8. Börjesson, M. (2017) ‘The global space of international students in 2010’, Journal of Ethnic and Migration studies 43(8): 1256–1275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cantwell, B. (2017) ‘The geopolitics of the educational market’, in E. Hazelkorn (ed). Global Rankings and the Geopolitics of Higher Education, London: Routledge, pp. 309–324.Google Scholar
  10. Caruso, R. and de Wit, H. (2015) ‘Determinants of mobility of students in Europe: Empirical evidence for the period 1998–2009’, Journal of Studies in International Education 19(3): 265–282.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Choudaha, R. (2017) ‘Are international students “Cash Cows”?’ International Higher Education 90(1):5–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cox, M. (2013) International student recruitment: policies and developments in selected countries: Sweden, Norway and Finland, The Hague: Nuffic.Google Scholar
  13. Cremonini, L. and Antonowicz, D. (2009) ‘In the Eye of the Beholder? Conceptualizing academic attraction in the global higher education market’, European Education 41(2): 52–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. de Wit, H., Hunter, F., Howard, L. and Egron-Polak, E. (2015) European Parliament study on internationalisation of higher education, Brussels: European Union.Google Scholar
  15. Drori, G. (2013) ‘Branding universities: Trends and strategies’, International Higher Education (71): 3–5.Google Scholar
  16. Elken, M., Hovdhaugen, E. and Wiers-Jenssen, J. (2015) Higher Education in the Nordic Countries: Evaluation of the Nordic agreement on admission to higher education, publishing series TemaNord 2015:526, Copenhagen: Nordic Council of Ministers.Google Scholar
  17. European University Association (2013) Internationalisation in European higher education: European policies, institutional strategies and EUA support, Brussels: EUA.Google Scholar
  18. Fonseca, M. L., Esteves, A. and Iorio, J. (2015) ‘Mobilidade internacional de estudantes do ensino superior: os alunos universitários brasileiros em Portugal’ in J. Peixoto, B. Padilla, J.C. Marques, and P. Góis (eds). Vagas atlânticas: migrações entre Brasil e Portugal no início do século XXI, Lisboa: Editora Mundos Sociais, pp. 149–175.Google Scholar
  19. França, T., Alves, E., and Padilla, B. (2018) ‘Portuguese policies fostering international student mobility: a colonial legacy or a new strategy?’, Globalisation, Societies and Education 16(3): 325–338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Gornitzka, Å. and Langfeldt, L. (2008) ‘The internationalisation of national knowledge policies’, in Borderless Knowledge, Dordrecht: Springer, pp. 141–169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. GUS [Central Statistical Office] (2016) Higher education institutions and their finances in 2015, Warsaw: GUS.Google Scholar
  22. Knight, J. and de Wit, H. (1995) ‘Strategies for internationalisation of higher education: Historical and conceptual perspectives’, in H. de Wit (ed). Strategies for internationalisation of higher education. A comparative study of Australia, Canada, Europe, and the United States, Amsterdam: European Association for International Education, pp. 5–32.Google Scholar
  23. Kołodko, G. (2009) ‘A two-thirds of success. Poland’s post-communist transformation 1989–20092’, Communist and Post-Communist Studies 42(3): 325–351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kondakci, Y. (2011) ‘Student mobility reviewed: Attraction and satisfaction of international students in Turkey’, Higher Education 62(5): 573.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kwiek, M. (2014) ‘Structural Changes in the Polish Higher Education System (1990–2010): A Synthetic View’, European Journal of Higher Education 4(3): 266–280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kwiek, M and Dobbins, M. (2017) ‘Europeanisation and globalisation in higher education in Central and Eastern Europe: 25 years of changes revisited (1990–2015)’, European Education Research Journal 16(5): 519–528.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Llewellyn-Smith, C. and McCabe, V.S. (2008) ‘What is the attraction for exchange students: the host destination or the host university? Empirical evidence from a study of an Australian University’, International Journal of Tourism Research 10(6): 593–607.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. MADR/MEC (2014) Uma estratégia para a internacionalização do ensino superior português [A strategy for the internationalisation of Portuguese Higher Education], Lisbon: Ministry of Regional Development and Ministry of Education.Google Scholar
  29. Mazzarol, T. and Soutar, G.N. (2002) ‘The “push-pull” Factors Influencing International Student Selection of Education Destination’, International Journal of Educational Management 16(2): 82–90.Google Scholar
  30. Ministry of Education and Research (2009) Internasjonalisering av utdanning [Internationalisation of education], White paper no 14 (2008–2009), Oslo: Ministry of Education.Google Scholar
  31. Ministry of Education and Research (1985) Om høyere utdanning [On higher education], White paper no 19, Oslo: Ministry of Education.Google Scholar
  32. Ministry of Education and Research (2001) Gjør din plikt, krev din rett. Kvalitetsreform av høyere utdanning [Do your duty, demand your rights. Quality reform in higher education]. White paper no 27, Oslo: Ministry of Education.Google Scholar
  33. Ministry of Education and Research (2017) Kultur for kvalitet i høyere utdanning [Culture for Quality in higher education]. White paper no 11 2016–2017. Oslo: Ministry of Education and research.Google Scholar
  34. MNiSW [Ministry of Science and Higher Education] (2009a) Partnerstwo dla Wiedzy. Reforma szkolnictwa wyższego w Polsce, Warsaw: MNiSW.Google Scholar
  35. MNiSW (2009b) Założenia do nowelizacji ustawyPrawo o szkolnictwie wyższym oraz ustawy o stopniach naukowych i tytule naukowym oraz o stopniach i tytule w zakresie sztuki, Warsaw: MNiSW.Google Scholar
  36. MNiSW (2015) Program umiędzynarodowienia szkolnictwa wyższego, MNiSW, Warsaw.Google Scholar
  37. Mosneaga, A. and Agergaard, J. (2012) ‘Agents of internationalisation? Danish universities’ practices for attracting international students’, Globalisation, Societies and Education 10(4): 519–538.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Mourato, J. (2016) ‘Ensino Superior Politécnico and internacionalização’, Público, 23 February.Google Scholar
  39. Nicolescu, L. (2009) ‘Applying Marketing to Higher Education: scopes and limits’, Management and Marketing 4(2): 35–44.Google Scholar
  40. Norges offentlige utredninger (1989) Grenseløs læring [Borderless knowledge] Green paper 1989:13, Oslo: NOU.Google Scholar
  41. OECD (2016) Education at a Glance. OECD Indicators, Paris: OECD.Google Scholar
  42. OECD (2017) Education at a Glance. OECD Indicators, Paris: OECD.Google Scholar
  43. Opper, S., Teichler, U. and Carlson, J. (1990) The Impact of Study Abroad Programmes on Students and Graduates, London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.Google Scholar
  44. Pacholski, L. (2005) ‘Jakie uniwersytety?’, Nauka 1: 147–156.Google Scholar
  45. Perkins, R. and Neumayer, E. (2014) ‘Geographies of educational mobilities: Exploring the uneven flows of international students’, The Geographical Journal 180(3): 246–259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Pinheiro, R. and Antonowicz, D. (2014) ‘Opening the gates or coping with the flow? Governing access to higher education in Northern and Central Europe’, Higher Education 70(3): 299–313.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Salerno, C. (2007) ‘A Service Enterprise: The Market Vision’, in P.A. Maassen, and J. Olsen (eds). University Dynamics and European Integration, Dordrecht: Springer, 119–135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Sarpebakken, B. (2016) Doktorgradsstatistikk. Tabeller og figurer [Doctoral statistics. Tables and figures] Oslo: Nordic Institute for Studies in Innovation, Research and Education. http://www.nifu.no/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/Figurer-og-tabeller-1980-2016-NY.pdf.
  49. Sin, C., Veiga, A. and Amaral, A. (2016) European Policy Implementation and Higher Education: Analysing the Bologna Process, London: Palgrave.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. SIU (2016) Mobilitetsrapport 2016 [Mobility report 2016], Bergen: Norwegian Centre for International cooperation in Education.Google Scholar
  51. Stier, J. (2004) ‘Taking a critical stance toward internationalisation ideologies in higher education: idealism, instrumentalism and educationalism’, Globalisation, Societies and Education 2(1): 1–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Sułkowski Ł. (2016) ‘Strategia umiędzynarodowienia’, Forum Akademickie 11, accessed 15 February 2019 at https://prenumeruj.forumakademickie.pl/fa/2016/11/strategia-umiedzynarodowienia.
  53. Sursock, A. (2015) Trends 2015: Learning and Teaching in European Universities, Brussels: EUA.Google Scholar
  54. Thieme, J. (2009) Szkolnictwo wyższe: wyzwania XXI wieku: Polska, Europa, USA, Warsaw: Difin.Google Scholar
  55. Urbanovič, J., Wilkins, S., and Huisman, J. (2016) ‘Issues and challenges for small countries in attracting and hosting international students: the case of Lithuania’, Studies in Higher Education 41(3): 491–507.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. van der Wende, M. (1997) ‘Missing links. The relationship between National Policies for Internationalisation and those for Higher Education in general’, in T. Kälvemark and M. van der Wende (eds). National Policies for the Internationalisation of Higher Education in Europe, Stockholm: National Agency of Higher Education, pp. 10–38.Google Scholar
  57. Varghese, N.V. (2008) Globalization of higher education and cross-border student mobility, Paris: UNESCO.Google Scholar
  58. Vedung, E. (1998) ‘Policy Instruments: Typologies and Theories’, in M.-L. Bemelmans-Videc, R.C. Rist, and E. Vedung (eds). Carrots, Sticks and Sermons: Policy Instruments and Their Evaluation, New Brunswick and London: Transaction Publishers, pp. 21–58.Google Scholar
  59. Wallerstein, I.M. (1974) The modern world-system. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  60. Weick, K. E. (1976) ‘Educational organizations as loosely coupled systems’, Administrative Science Quarterly 21(1):1–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Wiers-Jenssen, J. and Sandersen, H.T. (2017) ‘The Norwegian Framework for Educational Cooperation with Russia: Educational Policy with a Hint of Foreign Affairs’, in M. Sundet, P.A. Forstorp, and A. Örtenblad (eds). Higher Education in the High North: Academic Exchanges between Norway and Russia, Dordrecht: Springer, pp. 47–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Wiers-Jenssen, J. (2018) ‘Paradoxical Attraction? Why an Increasing Number of International Students Choose Norway’, Journal of Studies in International Education, published online 27 July.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1028315318786449.

Copyright information

© International Association of Universities 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Agência de Avaliação e Acreditação do Ensino SuperiorLisbonPortugal
  2. 2.Centre for Research in Higher Education Policies (CIPES)MatosinhosPortugal
  3. 3.Nicolaus Copernicus UniversityToruńPoland
  4. 4.OsloMet – Oslo Metropolitan UniversityOsloNorway

Personalised recommendations