Advertisement

Higher Education Policy

, Volume 32, Issue 4, pp 639–661 | Cite as

Taking Their Place: Educational Expansion and Inequality of Educational Opportunities—A Gendered Perspective

  • Eyal Bar-HaimEmail author
  • Carmel Blank
  • Assaf Rotman
Original Article

Educational expansion and gender differences in educational attainment have both been studied in various contexts, but their interdependence has rarely been examined, and even then, yielded conflicting results. We focus on the expansion of tertiary education in Israel resulting from several reforms introduced in the mid-1990s and ask two questions: (a) How did educational expansion affect inequality of opportunity (IEO)? (b) Did the effect of educational expansion differ between men and women? Based on the Israeli census, we examine changes in IEO between 1995 and 2008 across all levels of education. We find that women from lower socioeconomic background were the main beneficiaries of the expansion, especially at the MA+ level. Several explanations for these findings are discussed.

Keywords

MMI Israel Persistent inequality Intersectionality 

Notes

Acknowledgements

Funding was provided by Fonds National de la Recherche Luxembourg (Grant Nos. FNR/P11/05, INTER/NORFACE/16/11333934). The authors wish to thank Yariv Feniger, Yossi Shavit and the participants of the RC28 meeting at Cologne (2017) and the SEMILUX participants for their helpful comments. The usual disclaimer applies.

References

  1. Abu-Rabia-Queder, S. (2012) ‘Between tradition and modernization: understanding the problem of female’, in J. Waldren and I-M Kaminski (eds.) Learning from the Children: Childhood, Culture and Identity in a Changing World, New York: Berghahn Books, pp. 35–50.Google Scholar
  2. Abu-Rabia-Queder, S. and Weiner-Levy, N. (2008) ‘Identity and gender in cultural transitions: returning home from higher education as ‘internal immigration’ among Bedouin and Druze women in Israel’, Social Identities 14(6): 665–682.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Acker, J. (1973) ‘Women and social stratification: a case of intellectual sexism’, American Journal of Sociology 78(4): 936–945.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Addi-Raccah, A. and Mcdossi, O. (2009) Trends in Gender Inequality in Field of Study in the Higher Education System. Gender and Ethnicity in the Israeli Academy (Hebrew), Tel-Aviv: Pardes Publishers.Google Scholar
  5. Ayalon, H. (2003) ‘Women and men go to university: mathematical background and gender differences in choice of field in higher education’, Sex Roles 48(5): 277–290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Arar, K. (2011) ‘Trapped between two worlds’-Muslim Palestinian women from Israel in Jordanian universities: new identity and the price it demands’, Social Identities 17(5): 625–642.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bank of Israel (2010) Bank of Israel Annual Report for 2009.Google Scholar
  8. Bar-Haim E. and Shavit Y. (2018) ‘Higher Education, Economic Inequality and Inequality of Opportunities’, Megamot 53(1): 99–124 (in Hebrew)Google Scholar
  9. Bar-Haim, E., Blank, C. and Shavit, Y. (2013) Educational Opportunity, Employment, and Income: 1995–2008. Jerusalem: Israel. Taub Center for Social Policy Studies in Israel. Policy Paper Series. Policy Paper No. 2013.09Google Scholar
  10. Ben-Porath, Y. and Gronau, R. (1985) ‘Jewish mother goes to work: trends in the labor force participation of women in Israel, 1955–1980’, Journal of Labor Economics 3(1, Part 2): S310–S327.Google Scholar
  11. Bernardi, F. and Ballarino, G. (eds.) (2016) Education, Occupation and Social Origin: A Comparative Analysis of the Transmission of Socio-Economic Inequalities, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing.Google Scholar
  12. Blau, P. and Duncan, O. D. (1967) The American Occupational Structure, New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  13. Boliver, V. (2011) ‘Expansion, differentiation, and the persistence of social class inequalities in British higher education’, Higher Education 61(3): 229–242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Boudon, R. (1974) Education, Opportunity, and Social Inequality: Changing Prospects in Western Society, New York: Wiley-InterscienceGoogle Scholar
  15. Breen, R., Luijkx, R., Müller, W. and Pollak, R. (2009) ‘Nonpersistent inequality in educational attainment: evidence from eight European countries’, American Journal of Sociology 114(5): 1475–1521.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Buchmann, C. and DiPrete, T.A. (2006) ‘The growing female advantage in college completion: the role of family background and academic achievement’, American Sociological Review 71(4): 515–541.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Buchmann, C., DiPrete, T.A. and McDaniel, A. (2008) ‘Gender inequalities in education’, Annual Review of Sociology 34: 319–337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Central Bureau of Statistics (2010) The conversion key from the 1994 Standard Classification of Occupations to the Isco-88 classification, Jerusalem: Central Bureau of Statistics. Available online at http://www.cbs.gov.il/publications10/conver10/pdf/e_print.pdf
  19. Central Bureau of Statistics (2012) Yearbook of Statistics63, Jerusalem: The Central Bureau of Statistics (in Hebrew). Available Online at: http://www1.cbs.gov.il/reader.
  20. Chauvel, L., Hartung, A. and Bar-Haim, E. (2017) Closing or Persisting Gender Gap? A Cohort Analysis of Education and Wages in the United States and Europe. Paper presented at the Population Association of America-PAA Annual Meeting 2017; 27 April, Chicago, USA.Google Scholar
  21. Chesters, J. and Watson, L. (2013) ‘Understanding the persistence of inequality in higher education: evidence from Australia’, Journal of Education Policy 28(2): 198–215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Colley, A., Comber, C. and Hargreaves, D.J. (1994) ‘Gender effects in school subject preferences: a research note’, Educational Studies 20(1): 13–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Collins, R. (2002) ‘Credential inflation and the future of universities’ in S. Brint (ed.) The Future of the City of Intellect: The Changing American University, Stanford: Stanford University Press, pp. 23–46.Google Scholar
  24. Council for Higher Education and Planning and Budgeting Committee (2012) Higher Education in Israel 2012 (in Hebrew(. Available Online: http://che.org.il/wp-content/uploads/2016/10/2012.pdf
  25. Darr, A. (2015) ‘Convergence of service and technical skills: the case of ERP implementation in Israel’, Asian Journal of Technology Innovation 23(sup1): 26–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. De Fontenay, C. and Carmel, E. (2004) ‘Israel’s Silicon Wadi: The Forces behind Cluster Formation’ in T. Bresnahan and A. Gambardella (eds.) Building High-Tech Clusters: Silicon Valley and beyond, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 40–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. DiPrete, T.A. and Buchmann, C. (2006) ‘Gender-specific trends in the value of education and the emerging gender gap in college completion’, Demography 43(1): 1–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. DiPrete, T. and Buchman C. (2013) The Rise of Women, New York: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
  29. Ganzeboom, H.B. and Treiman, D.J. (1996) ‘Internationally comparable measures of occupational status for the 1988 International Standard Classification of Occupations’, Social Science Research 25(3): 201–239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Featherman, D.L., Jones, F.L. and Hauser, R.M. (1975) ‘Assumptions of social mobility research in the US: the case of occupational status’, Social Science Research 4(4): 329–360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Feniger, Y. and Ayalon, H. (2016) ‘English as a gatekeeper: inequality between Jews and Arabs in access to higher education in Israel’, International Journal of Educational Research 76(1): 104–111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Fuchs, H. (2017) Education and Employment Among Young Arab Israelis. Jerusalem: Taub Center for Social Policy Studies in Israel.Google Scholar
  33. Goldthorpe, J.H. (2013a) The Role of Education in Intergenerational Social Mobility: Problems from Empirical Research in Sociology and Some Theoretical Pointers from Economics. Oxford: University of Oxford. Barnett Papers in Social Research. Working Paper 13-02. Available on http://www.spi.ox.ac.uk/fileadmin/documents/pdf/Barnett_Paper_13-02.pdf.
  34. Goldthorpe, J.H. (2013b) ‘Understanding–and misunderstanding–social mobility in Britain: the entry of the economists, the confusion of politicians and the limits of educational policy’, Journal of Social Policy 42(3): 431–450.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Gornitzka, Å. and Larsen, I.M. (2004) ‘Towards professionalisation? Restructuring of administrative work force in universities’, Higher Education 47(4): 455.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Guri-Rosenblit, S. (1996) ‘Trends in access to Israeli higher education 1981–96: from a privilege to a right’, European Journal of Education 31(3): 321–340.Google Scholar
  37. Harwood, J. (2010) ‘Understanding academic drift: on the institutional dynamics of higher technical and professional education’, Minerva 48(4): 413–427.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Ichou, M. and Vallet, L.A. (2011) ‘Do all roads lead to inequality? Trends in French upper secondary school analysed with four longitudinal surveys’, Oxford Review of Education 37(2): 167–194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Jacobs, J.A. (1989) Revolving Doors: Sex Segregation and Women’s Careers, Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  40. Katz, I. and Flum, H. (2018) ‘Crossing expected and unexpected borders in the way to higher education: the ‘Window to the Academy’ programme’ in S. Jackson (ed.) Developing Transformative Spaces in Higher Education: Learning to Transgress, Abingdon: Routledge, pp. 22–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Katz-Gerro, T. and Yaish, M. (2003) ‘Higher education: is more better? Gender differences in labour market returns to tertiary education in Israel’, Oxford Review of Education 29(4): 571–592.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Kogan, M., Bauer, M., Bleiklie, I. and Henkel, M. (2006) Transforming Higher Education: A Comparative Study (2nd edition), Dordrecht: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Kristal, T. and Cohen, Y. (2016) ‘The causes of rising wage inequality: the race between institutions and technology’, Socio-Economic Review 15(1): 187–212.Google Scholar
  44. Laiho, A. (2010) ‘Academisation of nursing education in the Nordic Countries’, Higher Education 60(6): 641–656.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Leathwood, C. and Read, B. (2008) Gender and the Changing Face of Higher Education: A Feminised Future?, London: SRHE/Open University Press.Google Scholar
  46. Levanon, A., England, P. and Allison, P. (2009) ‘Occupational feminization and pay: assessing causal dynamics using 1950–2000 US census data’, Social Forces 88(2): 865–891.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Liu, Y., Green, A. and Pensiero, N. (2016) ‘Expansion of higher education and inequality of opportunities: a cross-national analysis’, Journal of Higher Education Policy and Management 38(3): 242–263.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Lucas, S.R. (2001) ‘Effectively maintained inequality: Education transitions, track mobility, and social background effects’, American Journal of Sociology 106(6): 1642–1690.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Lucas, S.R. (2009) ‘Stratification theory, socioeconomic background, and educational attainment: a formal analysis’, Rationality and Society 21(4): 459–511.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Mandel, H. and Birgier, D.P. (2016) ‘The gender revolution in Israel: progress and stagnation’, in N. Khattab, S. Miaari and H. Stier (eds). Socioeconomic Inequality in Israel, New York: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 153–184.Google Scholar
  51. Mare, R.D. (1980) ‘Social background and school continuation decisions’, Journal of the American Statistical Association 75(370): 295–305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Marginson, S. (2016) ‘The worldwide trend to high participation higher education: dynamics of social stratification in inclusive systems’, Higher Education 72(4): 413–434.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Maselli, I. (2012) ‘The evolving supply and demand of skills in the labour market’, Intereconomics 47(1): 22–30.Google Scholar
  54. McDaniel, A. (2013) ‘Parental education and the gender gap in university completion in Europe’ Demographic Research 29(Article 3): 71–84.Google Scholar
  55. Preston, J.A. (1999) ‘Occupational gender segregation trends and explanations’, The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance 39(5): 611–624.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Raftery, A.E. and Hout, M. (1993) ‘Maximally maintained inequality: expansion, reform, and opportunity in Irish education, 1921–1975’ Sociology of Education 66(1): 41–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Roach, R. (2001) ‘Where are the Black men on campus?’, Diverse Issues in Higher Education 18(6): 18.Google Scholar
  58. Rotman, A., Shavit, Y. and Shalev, M. (2016) ‘Nominal and positional perspectives on educational stratification in Israel’, Research in Social Stratification and Mobility 43(1): 17–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Rury, J. (2004) Education and Social Change: Themes in the history of American schooling, Abingdon: Routledge.Google Scholar
  60. Rury, J.L. (1991) Education and Women’s Work: Female Schooling and the Division of Labor in Urban America, 1870-1930. SUNY Series on Women and Work. New York: State University of New York Press.Google Scholar
  61. SabbahKarkaby, M. and Stier, H. (2017) ‘Links between education and age at marriage among Palestinian women in Israel: changes over time’, Studies in Family Planning 48(1): 23–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Sewell, W. and Hauser, R. (1992) ‘The influence of the American occupational structure on the Wisconsin Model’, Contemporary Sociology 21(5): 598–603.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Scheeren, L., van de Werfhorst, H.G. and Bol, T. (2018) ‘The Gender revolution in context: how later tracking in education benefits girls’, Social Forces 97(1): 193–220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Schultz, T.W. (1961) ‘Investment in human capital’, The American Economic Review 51(1): 1–17.Google Scholar
  65. Shu, X. and Marini, M.M. (1998) ‘Gender-related change in occupational aspirations’, Sociology of Education 71(1): 43–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Solorzano, D.G. (1992) ‘An exploratory analysis of the effects of race, class, and gender on student and parent mobility aspirations’, The Journal of Negro Education 61(1): 30–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Stier, H. (2010) ‘The end of the sole provider era: dual earner families in Israel’, in V. Muhlbauer and L. Kulik (eds.) Working Families: Parents in the Labor Market in Israel, Rishon Lezion: Peles Publishing, pp. 17–45 [Hebrew].Google Scholar
  68. Stier, H. and Herzberg-Druker, E. (2017) ‘Running ahead or running in place? educational expansion and gender inequality in the labor market’, Social Indicators Research 130(3): 1187–1206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Stier, H. and Yaish, M. (2008) ‘The determinants of women’s employment dynamics: the case of Israeli women’, European Sociological Review 24(3): 363–377.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Swed, O. and Butler, J.S. (2015) ‘Military capital in the Israeli Hi-tech industry’, Armed Forces and Society 41(1): 123–141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Vincent-Lancrin, S. (2008) ‘The reversal of gender inequalities in higher education: an on-going trend’, Higher Education to 2030 (1): 265–298.Google Scholar
  72. Wood, D., Kaplan, R. and McLoyd, V.C. (2007) ‘Gender differences in the educational expectations of urban, low-income African American youth: the role of parents and the school’, Journal of Youth and Adolescence 36(4): 417–427.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Yaish, M. (2001) ‘Class structure in a deeply divided society: class and ethnic inequality in Israel, 1974–1991’, The British Journal of Sociology 52(3): 409–437.Google Scholar
  74. Yaish, M. and Kraus, V. (2003) ‘The consequences of economic restructuring for the gender earnings gap in Israel, 1972–1995’, Work, Employment and Society 17(1): 5–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Yamamoto, Y. and Brinton, M.C. (2010) ‘Cultural capital in East Asian educational systems: the case of Japan’, Sociology of Education 83(1): 67–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© International Association of Universities 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.The PEARL Institute for Research on Socio Economic InequalityThe University of LuxembourgEsch-sur-AlzetteLuxembourg
  2. 2.The Department of Sociology and AnthropologyTel-Aviv UniversityTel AvivIsrael

Personalised recommendations