Genetic Justice: Identity and Equality in the Biotech Age
- 14 Downloads
As genetic technologies merge with forensics, medicine, and human reproduction, renewed eugenic temptations are arising. The prospect of heritable genetic modification has been debated for decades; the prevailing position in international policy and human rights documents has been that, due to its numerous safety and social risks, it should be legally off limits. The question is now at a tipping point. With decisive action, we can avoid this threat to the future of equality.
KeywordsDNA Genetic testing Heritable genome editing Pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) Eugenics
- Adams, Rachel. 2019. Gene-edited babies don’t grow in test tubes—mothers’ roles shouldn’t be erased. The Conversation, 29 May. https://theconversation.com/gene-edited-babies-dont-grow-in-test-tubes-mothers-roles-shouldnt-be-erased-117070. Accessed 19 December 2019.
- Aldhous, Peter. 2019. The Golden State Killer Case Has Spawned A New Forensic Science Industry. Buzzfeed News, 15 February. https://www.buzzfeednews.com/article/peteraldhous/genetic-genealogy-dna-business-parabon-bode.
- Andorno, Roberto, Françoise Baylis, Marcy Darnovsky, Donna Dickenson, Hille Haker, Katie Hasson, Leah Lowthorp, George Annas, Catherine Bourgain, Katherine Drabiak, Sigrid Graumann, Katrin Grüber, Matthias Kaiser, David King, Regine Kollek, Callum MacKellar, Jing-Bao Nie, Osagie Obasogie, Mirriam Tyebally-Fang, Gabriele Werner-Felmayer, and Jana Zuscinova. 2020 (forthcoming). Geneva Statement on Heritable Human Genome Editing: The Need for Course Correction. Trends in Biotechnology.Google Scholar
- Baylis, Françoise and Marcy Darnovsky. 2019. Scientists Disagree About the Ethics and Governance of Human Germline Editing. Hastings Center Bioethics Forum. https://www.thehastingscenter.org/scientists-disagree-ethics-governance-human-germline-genome-editing/.
- Bolnick, Deborah A., Duana Fullwiley, Troy Duster, Richard S. Cooper, Joan H. Fujimura, Jonathan Kahn, Jay S. Kaufman, Jonathan Marks, Ann Morning, Alondra Nelson, Pilar Ossorio, Jenny Reardon, Susan M. Reverby, and Kimberly TallBear. 2007. The Science and Business of Genetic Ancestry Testing. Science 318(5849): 399–400.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Buchanan, Mark. 2019. Gene Editing Might Alter Our DNA. It Might Destroy Our Humanity, Too. https://www.bloomberg.com/opinion/articles/2019-11-25/crispr-technology-advances-but-ethical-risks-do-too. Accessed 9 December 2019.
- Darnovsky, Marcy, Leah Lowthorp, and Katie Hasson. 2018. Reproductive gene editing imperils universal human rights. OpenGlobalRights. https://www.openglobalrights.org/reproductive-gene-editing-imperils-universal-human-rights/?lang=English. Accessed 16 December 2019.
- Garzon, Charles. 2018. Fox Sports and 23andMe rooting for an ancestral goal at the World Cup: What can possibly go wrong? Biopolitical Times (Center for Genetics and Society blog). https://www.geneticsandsociety.org/biopolitical-times/fox-sports-and-23andme-rooting-ancestral-goal-world-cup-what-can-possibly-go. Accessed 16 December 2019.
- Hasson, Katie. 2019. Rigorous Pathway or Runaway Train? Biopolitical Times (Center for Genetics and Society blog). https://www.geneticsandsociety.org/biopolitical-times/rigorous-pathway-or-runaway-train. Accessed 16 December 2019.
- Khassam, Ashifah. 2018. Canada uses DNA and ancestry sites to check migrants’ identity. The Guardian, July 18. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2018/jul/30/canada-uses-dna-and-ancestry-sites-to-check-migrants-identity. Accessed 9 December 2019.
- Kolata, Gina and Heather Murphy. 2018. The Golden State Killer Is Tracked Through a Thicket of DNA, and Experts Shudder. The New York Times, 27 April. https://www.nytimes.com/2018/04/27/health/dna-privacy-golden-state-killer-genealogy.html.
- Lander, Eric, Françoise Baylis, Feng Zhang, Emmanuelle Charpentier, Paul Berg, Catherine Bourgain, J. Bärbel Friedrich, Keith Joung, Jinsong Li, David Liu, Luigi Naldini, Jing-Bao Nie, Renzong Qiu, Bettina Schoene-Seifert, Feng Shao, Sharon Terry, Wensheng Wei, and Ernst-Ludwig Winnacker. 2019. Adopt a moratorium on heritable genome editing. Nature 567: 165–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Lemieux, Julianna. 2019. The Risky Business of Embryo Selection. Genetic Engineering News, 1 April. https://www.genengnews.com/magazine/april-2019-vol-39-no-4/the-risky-business-of-embryo-selection/.
- Lowthorp, Leah. 2018. AncestryDNA Markets Genetic ‘Greatness’ During the Olympics. Biopolitical Times (Center for Genetics and Society blog). https://www.geneticsandsociety.org/biopolitical-times/ancestrydna-markets-genetic-greatness-during-olympics. Assessed 16 December 2019.
- McKibben, Bill. 2019. Falter: Has the human game begun to play itself out?. New York: Macmillan.Google Scholar
- Molteni, Megan. 2019. A DNA Firm That Caters to Police Just Bought a Genealogy Site. Wired, 12 December. https://www.wired.com/story/a-dna-firm-that-caters-to-police-just-bought-a-genealogy-site/.
- Ram, Natalie. 2019. The U.S. May Soon Have a De Facto National DNA Database. Slate, 19 March. https://slate.com/technology/2019/03/national-dna-database-law-enforcement-genetic-genealogy.html. Accessed 16 December 2019.
- Regalado, Antonio. 2019. The DNA Database Used to Find the Golden State Killer is a National Security Leak Waiting to Happen. MIT Technology Review, 30 October. https://www.technologyreview.com/s/614642/dna-database-gedmatch-golden-state-killer-security-risk-hack. Accessed 13 December 2019.
- Shanks, Pete. 2009. Racism and Genomes. Biopolitical Times (Center for Genetics and Society blog). https://www.geneticsandsociety.org/biopolitical-times/racism-and-genomes?id=4460. Accessed 10 December 2019.
- Shanks, Pete. 2019. Polygenic Traits, Human Embryos, and Eugenic Dreams. Biopolitical Times (Center for Genetics and Society blog). https://www.geneticsandsociety.org/biopolitical-times/polygenic-traits-human-embryos-and-eugenic-dreams. Accessed 16 December 2019.
- Zimmer, Carl. 2018. Elizabeth Warren Has a Native American Ancestor. Does That Make Her Native American? The New York Times, 15 October 2018. https://www.nytimes.com/2018/10/15/science/elizabeth-warren-native-american.html.