The Haunting Specter of Hindu Ethnonationalist-Neocolonial Development in the Indian Occupied Kashmir
- 1 Downloads
The Indian government says that the removal of Kashmir’s autonomy is for development, but it should be seen as embedded in a structure of neocolonialism based on fundamentalist Hindu ethnonationalism or Hindutva and fueled by neoliberalism in which even Muslims living in India are cast as invaders and foreigners. Kashmiri, doubly marked as the Other: first as Muslims and second as seekers of self-determination, fear their loss of territorial sovereignty will pave way for settler colonialism, dispossession of indigenous people and rampant exploitation of resources resulting in neocolonial maldevelopment.
KeywordsNeocolonialism Kashmir Indian occupation Maldevelopment Indus Water Treaty Settler colonialism Power development
- Athar, Parvaiz. 2019. Kashmir’s Forests Face Axe. Third Pole Net. 12 December. https://www.thethirdpole.net/en/2019/12/12/kashmirs-forests-face-the-axe/?fbclid=IwAR0u8Nm8fKIe9-fsASPCKYhYLZzWOmrZYubgLUpkbh9fL3GNIZardleoo8Q. Accessed 15 December 2019.
- Ather, Zia. 2019. Straw man arguments in removal of Article 370, Asia Dialogue, 27 September. https://theasiadialogue.com/2019/09/27/the-long-read-straw-man-arguments-and-the-removal-of-article-370/. Accessed 2 December 2019.
- Akshay, Deshmane. 2019. Kashmir: Scrapping Article 370 “Unconstitutional”, “Deceitful” Says Legal Expert A.G. Noorani. 8 August. https://www.huffingtonpost.in/entry/kashmir-article-370-scrapping-constitutional-expert-reacts-noorani_in_5d47e58de4b0aca341206135. Accessed 2 December 2019.
- Ayyub, Rana. 2016. Gujarat Files. Anatomy of a Cover Up. India.Google Scholar
- Baruah, Sanjib. 2010. AFSPA: Legacy of Colonial Constituionalism. Seminar 615. http://www.india-seminar.com/2010/615/615_sanjib_baruah.htm. Accessed 18 December 2019.
- Blakeslee, David S. 2014. Propaganda and Politics in Developing Countries: Evidence from India. 25 November. Social Science Research Network. http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2542702. Accessed 10 December 2019.
- Chatterji, Angana P, Parvez Imroz, Gautam Nauvlakha, Zahir-Ud-Din, Mihir Desai, and Khurram Parvez. 2009. Buried Evidence: Unknown, Unmarked, and Mass Graves in Indian administered Kashmir. International People’s Tribunal on Human Rights and Justice in Kashmir. Kashmir Process. 2 December. http://www.kashmirprocess.org/reports/graves/. Accessed 3 September 2019.
- Dar, Zubair A. 2011–2012. Power Projects in Jammu and Kashmir: Controversy, Law, and Justice. LIDS Working Papers, Harvard Law and International Development Society. 2011-2012: 1-34. https://orgs.law.harvard.edu/lids/files/2011/11/LIDS-WP-1112-Dar.pdf. Accessed 3 September 2019.
- Dibyesh, Anand. 2019. Kashmir is a dress rehearsal for Hindu nationalist fantasies. 8 August. https://foreignpolicy.com/2019/08/08/kashmir-is-a-dress-rehearsal-for-hindu-nationalist-fantasies/. Accessed 2 December 2019.
- Duschinski, Haley, Mona Bhan, Ather Zia, and Cynthia K. Mahmood (eds.). 2018. Resisting Occupation in Kashmir. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.Google Scholar
- Economic Times. 2019. Over 57000 acres of land identified for setting up industrial estates, 12 December. https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/economy/policy/over-57000-acres-of-land-identified-for-setting-up-industrial-estates-in-jk/articleshow/72488300.cms?fbclid=IwAR0XpiK58ci_Few1ffY6wBcvgbE2xiAhemIf6ov_vp14tF1EUnFtJbj22Y0. Accessed 10 December 2019.
- Escobar, Arturo. 1995. Encountering Development: The Making and Unmaking of the Third World. Princeton, N.J: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
- Fatima, Kanth and Shrimoyee Nandini Ghosh. 2015. Occupational Hazard. Srinagar: Jammu and Kashmir Coalition of Civil Society. April. https://jkccs.files.wordpress.com/2017/05/occupation-hazard-jkccs.pdf. Accessed 20 September 2019.
- Frykenberg, Robert E. 2008. Hindutva as a Political Religion: An Historical Perspective. In The Sacred in Twentieth-Century Politics, ed. R. Griffin, R. Mallett, and J. Tortorice. London: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
- Gettleman, Jeffrey, Kai Schultz, Hari Kumar and Suhasini Raj. 2019. In Kashmir Move, Critics Say, Modi Is Trying to Make India a Hindu Nation. 6 August. https://www.nytimes.com/2019/08/06/world/asia/jammu-kashmir-india.html. Accessed 2 December 2019.
- Gudavarthy, Ajay. 2019. India is riven by stark inequality – but that is unlikely to galvanise a new transformative politics. 28 August. https://scroll.in/article/932296/india-is-riven-by-stark-inequality-but-that-is-unlikely-to-galvanise-a-new-transformative-politics. Accessed 2 December 2019.
- Güldoğan, Diyar. 2019. UN asks Indian to end rights breach. Andalou Post. 10 October. https://www.aa.com.tr/en/asia-pacific/un-asks-india-to-end-rights-breaches-in-jammu-kashmir-/1578339. Accessed 3 September 2019.
- Hussain, S. N.d. Kashmir: Palestine in the Making. Monograph. Srinagar: Kashmir Institute.Google Scholar
- Ishan, Kukreti. 2019. With State under Lockdown J&K faces record forets clearance. Down to Earth. 5 August. https://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/forests/with-state-under-lockdown-j-k-fac-issues-record-forest-clearances-67322. Accessed 2 December 2019.
- Kanjwal, Hafsa. 2019. India’s settler colonialism has taken a dicturbing trend. 5 August. https://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/2019/08/05/indias-settler-colonial-project-kashmir-takes-disturbing-turn/. Accessed 2 December 2019.
- Kak, Sanjay Kak. A Time for Freedom in Until My Freedom Has Come: The New Intifada in Kashmir. New Delhi: Penguin Books. 2010.Google Scholar
- Mohammad, Junaid. 2019. Disinherited and Disempowered, Kashmiris Have No Option but to Resist. The Globe Post. 12 August. https://theglobepost.com/2019/08/12/kashmir-india-resistance/. Accessed 2 December 2019.
- OHCHR (Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights). 2018. Report on the Situation of Human Rights in Kashmir: Developments in the Indian State of Jammu and Kashmir from June 2016 to April 2018, and General Human Rights Concerns in Azad Jammu and Kashmir and Gilgit-Baltistan. United Nations OHCHR. www.ohchr.org/Documents/Countries/IN/DevelopmentsInKashmirJune2016ToApril2018.pdf.
- Rajalakshmi, T.R. 2019. Kashmir’s Development statistics: Nailing a lie, 30 August. https://frontline.thehindu.com/cover-story/article29054385.ece. Accessed 2 December 2019.
- Schofield, Victoria. 1996. Kashmir in the Crossfire. London: Tauris.Google Scholar
- Schofield, Victoria. 2004. Kashmir in Conflict: India, Pakistan, and the Unending War. London: I.B. Tauris.Google Scholar
- Shreya, Nandi. 2019. Road projects likely to get a renewed push. 6 August. LiveMint. https://www.livemint.com/news/india/j-k-to-get-better-road-connectivity-post-scrapping-article-370-provisions-1565103693151.html. Accessed 6 September.
- Teltumbde, Atul. 2017. One Nation, One Market. Economic and Political Weekly. 52/27.Google Scholar
- Tanwar, Sangeeta. 2019. Indian political parties spent 8 billion in this years elections – nearly half was by BJP. The Quartz India. https://qz.com/india/1635113/modis-bjp-spent-way-more-than-congress-in-indian-election-2019/. Accessed 17 December 2019.
- Whitehead, Andrew. 2008. A Mission in Kashmir. USA: Penguin.Google Scholar
- Zia, Ather. 2018. The Killable Kashmiri Body: The Life and Execution of Afzal Guru. In Resisting Occupation in Kashmir, ed. Haley Duschinski, Mona Bhan, Ather Zia, and Cynthia K. Mahmood. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.Google Scholar
- Zia, Ather. 2019a. Resisting Disappearance: Military Occupation & Women’s Activism in Kashmir. Seattle: University of Washington Press.Google Scholar
- Zia, Ather. 2019b. Straw man arguments and the removal of article 370. https://theasiadialogue.com/2019/09/27/the-long-read-straw-man-arguments-and-the-removalof-article-370/. Accessed January 2020.
- Zia, Ather. 2020. “Their wounds are our wounds”: A case for Affective Solidarity between Palestine and Kashmir. Identities: Global Studies in Culture and Power. 26(5).Google Scholar