Advertisement

Crime Prevention and Community Safety

, Volume 20, Issue 2, pp 63–83 | Cite as

Visual representations in crime prevention: exploring the use of building information modelling (BIM) to investigate burglary and crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED)

  • Paul CozensEmail author
  • Sam McLeod
  • Jane Matthews
Original Article

Abstract

Criminological research has long utilized visual representations of environments in seeking to explore perceptions of crime and personal safety and to investigate the relevance of specific design and security features. Much of this research has been in the field of environmental psychology and crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED). This paper traces the development of visual representations and the use of environmental stimuli in criminological research. We briefly review the contributions made by various visual media, including maps and drawings, photographs, models, video, virtual reality and gaming engines. These developments in visualization, building design and management technology have drastically improved the realism of representations of environments, and the potential for more standardized, widespread exploration and application of CPTED principles to reduce crime. To scope and evaluate the future potential of such emergent technologies, we critically review the literature concerned with virtual reality and building information technology (BIM), outlining uses in practice and new opportunities for criminological research. We frame the discussion with specific focus on analysing proposed residential dwellings to reduce vulnerability to burglary. A layered exploration for how BIM technologies may assist in implementing increasingly sophisticated assessments of crime vulnerability for proposed residential building designs brings the paper to a close. These discussions provide both a comprehensive overview for interested practitioners and chart specific opportunities for further research.

Keywords

Crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED) Residential burglary Virtual reality (VR) Building information modelling (BIM) Visualizations 

References

  1. Abdulkarim, D., and J.L. Nasar. 2014. Do Seats, Food Vendors, and Sculptures Improve Plaza Visitability? Environment and Behavior 46: 805–825.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Adams, D. 1994. Urban Planning and the Development Process. London: UCL Press.Google Scholar
  3. Andresen, M.A. 2014. Environmental Criminology: Evolution, theory and practice. Abingdon: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Aranda, G., and E. Finch. 2003. Using Repository Grids to Measure Changes in Risk-Taknig Behavior. Journal of Construction Research 4: 101–114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Arayici, Y., P. Coates, L. Koskela, M. Kagioglou, C. Usher, and K. O’Reilly. 2011. Technology Adoption in the BIM Implementation for Lean Architectural Practice. Automation in Construction 20: 189–195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Armitage, R. 2007. Sustainability Versus Safety: Confusion, Conflict and Contradiction in Designing Out Crime. In Imagination for Crime Prevention. Crime Prevention Studies, vol. 21, ed. G. Farrell, K. Bowers, S. Johnson, and M. Townsley, 81–110. Monsey: Criminal Justice Press.Google Scholar
  7. Armitage, R. 2016. Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design. In Crime Science Series, ed. Environmental Criminology, and Crime Analysis, 259–285. Abingdon: Routledge.Google Scholar
  8. Armitage, R. 2017. Burglars’ take on crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED): Reconsidering the relevance from an offender perspective. Security Journal.Google Scholar
  9. Armitage, R., and L. Monchuk. 2011. Sustaining the Crime Reduction Impact of Designing Out Crime: Re-Evaluating the Secured by Design Scheme 10 Years on. Security Journal 24: 320–343.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Austin, D.M., and C. Sanders. 2007. Graffiti and Perceptions of Safety: A Pilot Study Using Photographs and Survey Data. Journal of Criminal Justice and Popular Culture 14: 292–316.Google Scholar
  11. Azhar, S., W.A. Carlton, D. Olsen, and I. Ahmad. 2011. Building Information Modeling for Sustainable Design and LEED® Rating Analysis. Automation in Construction 20: 217–224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bailenson, J.N., J.I.M. Blascovich, A.C. Beall, and B. Noveck. 2006. Courtroom Applications of Virtual Environments, Immersive Virtual Environments, and Collaborative Virtual Environments. Law and Policy 28: 249–270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bennett, T., and R. Wright. 1984. Burglars on Burglary: Prevention and the Offender. Gower: Aldershot.Google Scholar
  14. Bereitschaft, B. 2016. Gods of the City? Reflecting on City Building Games as an Early Introduction to Urban Systems. Journal of Geography 115: 51–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Brown, B.B., and I. Altman. 1983. Territoriality, Defensible Space and Residential Burglary: An Environmental Analysis. Journal of Environmental Psychology 3: 203–220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Brown, B.B., and D.L. Bentley. 1993. Residential Burglars Judge Risk: The Role of Territoriality. Journal of Environmental Psychology 13: 51–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Bullinger, H.-J., W. Bauer, G. Wenzel, and R. Blach. 2010. Towards User Centred Design (UCD) in Architecture Based on Immersive Virtual Environments. Computers in Industry 61: 372–379.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Chen, H.-T., S.-W. Wu, and S.-H. Hsieh. 2013. Visualization of CCTV Coverage in Public Building Space Using BIM Technology. Visualization in Engineering 1: 5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Chon, J., and C. Scott Shafer. 2009. Aesthetic Responses to Urban Greenway Trail Environments. Landscape Research 34: 83–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Clancey, G. 2011. Crime Risk Assessments in New South Wales. European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research 17: 55–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Cohen, L., and M. Felson. 1979. Social change and crime rate trends: A routine activity approach. American Sociological Review 44: 588–608.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Cozens, P. 2008. Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design in Western Australia: Planning for Sustainable Urban Futures. International Journal of Sustainable Development and Planning 3: 272–292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Cozens, P. 2016. Think Crime! Using Evidence, Theory and Crime Prevention Through Encironmental Design (CPTED) for Planning Safer Cities. Perth: Praxis Education.Google Scholar
  24. Cozens, P., D. Hillier, and G. Prescott. 2001. Crime and the Design of Residential Property—Exploring the Perceptions of Planning Professionals, Burglars and Other Users: Part 2. Property Management 19: 222–248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Cozens, P., D. Hillier, and G. Prescott. 2002a. Criminogenic Associations and Characteristic British Housing Designs. International Planning Studies 7: 119–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Cozens, P., and T. Love. 2015. A Review and Current Status of Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED). CPL Bibliography 30: 393–412.Google Scholar
  27. Cozens, P., G. Saville, and D. Hillier. 2005. Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED): A Review and Modern Bibliography. Property Management 23: 328–356.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Cozens, P., and M. Tarca. 2016. Exploring Housing Maintenance and Vacancy in Western Australia: Perceptions of Crime and Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED). Property Management 34 (3): 199–220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Cozens, P., J. Waters, and R. Neale. 2002b. A Virtual Reality Approach to Personal Safety and the Design of Built Environment Facilities. In 18th Annual ARCOM Conference, 2–4 September, vol. 2, ed. D. Greenwood, 461–473. Northumbria: Association of Researchers in Construction Management.Google Scholar
  30. Cozens, P.M., R.H. Neale, J. Whitaker, and D. Hillier. 2003. Managing Crime and the Fear of Crime at Railway Stations. A Case Study in South Wales (UK). International Journal of Transport Management 1: 121–132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Cozens, P.M., R.H. Neale, J. Whitaker, and D. Hillier. 2004. Tackling Crime and Fear of Crime While Waiting at Britain’s Railway Stations. Journal of Public Transportation 7: 23–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Cozens, P.M. 2014. Think Crime! Using Evidence, Theory and Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED) for Safer Cities. Perth: Praxis Education.Google Scholar
  33. Craik, K.H. 1971. The Assessment of Places. In Advances in Psychological Assessment, vol. 2, ed. P. McReynolds, 40–62. Palo Alto, CA: Science and Behavior Books.Google Scholar
  34. Cromwell, P.F., J.N. Olson, and D.A.W. Avary. 1991. Breaking and entering: An ethnographic analysis of burglary. Thousand Oaks: Sage.Google Scholar
  35. Crowe, T.D. 2000. Crime prevention through environmental design: Applications of architectural design and space management concepts. Oxford: Butterworth.Google Scholar
  36. Deadman, D. 2003. Forecasting Residential Burglary. International Journal of Forecasting 19: 551–555.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Du Plessis, C. 1999. The Links between Crime Prevention and Sustainable Development. Open House International 24: 33–40.Google Scholar
  38. Dubourg, R., J. Hamed, and J. Thorns. 2005. The economic and social costs of crime against individuals and households 2003/04. London: Home Office.Google Scholar
  39. Dunston, P.S., L.L. Arns, J.D. Mcglothlin, G.C. Lasker, and A.G. Kushner. 2011. An Immersive Virtual Reality Mock-Up for Design Review of Hospital Patient Rooms. In Collaborative Design in Virtual Environments, ed. X. Wang, and J.J.-H. Tsai, 167–176. Dordrecht: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Eastman, C., Paul Teicholz, Rafael Sacks, and K. Liston. 2011. BIM Handbook: A Guide to Building Information Modeling for Owners, Managers, Designers, Engineers and Contractors, 2nd ed. Hoboken: Wiley.Google Scholar
  41. Ebert, L.C., T.T. Nguyen, R. Breitbeck, M. Braun, M.J. Thali, and S. Ross. 2014. The Forensic Holodeck: An Immersive Display for Forensic Crime Scene Reconstructions. Forensic Science, Medicine and Pathology 10: 623–626.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Evans, M. 2013. Violent Crime Costs the UK Economy £124 Billion, Report Suggests. The Telegraph. April 24th. Accessed online on 13th December 2017 at: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/10013830/Violent-crime-costs-the-UK-economy-124-billion-report-suggests.html.
  43. Farrell, G., N. Tilley, and A. Tseloni. 2014. Why the Crime Drop? Crime and Justice 43: 421–490.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Federal Bureau of Investigations. (2011). Uniform Crime Report: Crime in the United States, 2010Burglary. Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  45. Fisher, B.A.J. 2005. Techniques of Crime Scene Investigation, 7th ed. Boca Raton: CRC Press.Google Scholar
  46. Fisher, B.S., and J.L. Nasar. 1992. Fear of Crime in Relation to Three Exterior Site Features. Environment and Behavior 24: 35–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Fletcher, J. 1849. Moral and Educational Statistics of England and Wales. Journal of the Statistical Society of London 12: 189–335.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Forester, J. 1999. The deliberative practitioner: Encouraging participatory planning processes. Cambridge: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  49. Gaber, J. 2007. Simulating Planning: SimCity as a Pedagogical Tool. Journal of Planning Education and Research 27: 113–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Gehl, J. 2011. Life between buildings: Using public space. Washington, DC: Island Press.Google Scholar
  51. Ghomeshi, M., and M.M. Jusan. 2013. Investigating Different Aesthetic Preferences Between Architects and Non-architects in Residential Façade Designs. Indoor and Built Environment 22: 952–964.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Gibson, J.J. 1979. The ecological approach to visual perception. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.Google Scholar
  53. Glasson, J., and P. Cozens. 2011. Making Communities Safer from Crime: An Undervalued Element in Impact Assessment. Environmental Impact Assessment Review 31: 25–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Grabosky, P.N. 1995. Fear of crime and fear reduction strategies. Canberra: Canberra ACT.Google Scholar
  55. Greenwood, D., Stephen Lockley, Oliver Jones, and Paul Jones. 2011. The Efficacy of Realistic Virtual Environments in Capturing User Experience of Buildings. CIB W78-W102 2011: International conference, 26–28 October. Paris: Sophia Antipolis.Google Scholar
  56. Guerry, A.-M. 1833. Essai sur la statistique morale de la France: Crochard.Google Scholar
  57. Hanyu, K. 1997. Visual Properties and Affective Appraisals in Residential Areas After Dark. Journal of Environmental Psychology 17: 301–315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Hanyu, K. 2000. Visual Properties and Affective Appraisals in Residential Areas in Daylight. Journal of Environmental Psychology 20: 273–284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Heft, H., and J.L. Nasar. 2000. Evaluating Environmental Scenes Using Dynamic Versus Static Displays. Environment and Behavior 32: 301–322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Hensworth, S. 2011. Building Information Modeling and Security Design. The Australian Building Services Journal 2: 44–45.Google Scholar
  61. Herzog, T.R., and J.A. Flynn-Smith. 2001. Preference and Perceived Danger as a Function of the Perceived Curvature, Length, and Width of Urban Alleys. Environment and Behavior 33: 653–666.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Heydarian, A., J.P. Carneiro, D. Gerber, B. Becerik-Gerber, T. Hayes, and W. Wood. 2015. Immersive Virtual Environments Versus Physical Built Environments: A Benchmarking Study for Building Design and User-Built Environment Explorations. Automation in Construction 54: 116–126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Houtkamp, J.M., and A. Toet. 2012. Who's afraid of virtual darkness: Affective appraisal of night-time virtual environments. In Digital landscape architecture 2011/2012: Geodesign and teaching, 508–515. Offenbach: Wichmann Verlag.Google Scholar
  64. Howell, I., and B. Batcheler. 2005. Building Information Modeling Two Years Later–Huge Potential, Some Success and Several Limitations.Google Scholar
  65. Huang, S.C.L. 2004. An Exploratory Approach for Using Videos to Represent Dynamic Environments. Landscape Research 29: 205–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Jackson, J., and M. Stafford. 2009. Public Health and Fear of Crime: A Prospective Cohort Study. The British Journal of Criminology 49: 832–847.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Johnson, S.D., and K.J. Bowers. 2010. Permeability and Burglary Risk: Are Cul-de-Sacs Safer? Journal of Quantitative Criminology 26: 89–111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Jung, Y., and M. Joo. 2011. Building Information Modelling (BIM) Framework for Practical Implementation. Automation in Construction 20: 126–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Knights, B., T. Pascoe, and A. Henchley. 2002. Sustainability and Crime: Managing and Recognising the Drivers of Crime and Security. Garston: Building Research Establishment.Google Scholar
  70. Lee, H., J.-K. Lee, S. Park, and I. Kim. 2016. Translating Building Legislation into a Computer-Executable Format for Evaluating Building Permit Requirements. Automation in Construction, 71, Part 1: 49–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Lorenz, W.E., M. Bicher, and G.X. Wurzer. 2015. Adjacency in Hospital Planning. IFAC-PapersOnLine 48: 862–867.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Lottier, S. 1938. Distribution of Criminal Offenses in Sectional Regions. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology 1931–1951 (29): 329–344.Google Scholar
  73. Lynch, K. 1960. The image of the city, vol. 11. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  74. Maguire, M. 1997. Crime Statistics, Patterns and Trends: Changing Perceptions and Their Implications. The Oxford Handbook of Criminology 2: 135–219.Google Scholar
  75. Malsane, S., J. Matthews, S. Lockley, P.E.D. Love, and D. Greenwood. 2015. Development of an Object Model for Automated Compliance Checking. Automation in Construction 49: 51–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Mawby, R.I. 2007. Crime, Place and Explaining Rural Hotspots. International Journal of Rural Crime 1: 21–43.Google Scholar
  77. Mayhew, H. 1862. London labour and the London poor: Those that will not work: Comprising prostitutes, thieves, swindlers, beggars: With introductory essay on the agencies at present in operation in the metropolis for the suppression of vice and crime. Extra volume. Bohn: Griffin.Google Scholar
  78. Mayhew, P., and G. Adkins. 2003. Counting the Costs of Crime in Australia. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology.Google Scholar
  79. McCollister, K.E., M.T. French, and H. Fang. 2010. The Cost of Crime to Society: New Crime-Specific Estimates for Policy and Program Evaluation. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 108: 98–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. McKechnie, G.E. 1977. Simulation Techniques in Environmental Psychology. In Perspectives on environment and behavior: Theory, research and applications, ed. D. Stokols, 169–189. New York: Plenum.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Meehan, M., B. Insko, M. Whitton, P. Frederick, and J. Brooks. 2002. Physiological Measures of Presence in Stressful Virtual Environments. ACM Transactions on Graphics 21: 645–652.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Meerkat Gaming. (2016). Klepto. In Meerkat gaming.Google Scholar
  83. Mignard, C., and C. Nicolle. 2014. Merging BIM and GIS Using Ontologies Application to Urban Facility Management in ACTIVe3D. Computers in Industry 65: 1276–1290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Mikropoulos, T.A., and A. Natsis. 2011. Educational Virtual Environments: A Ten-Year Review of Empirical Research (1999–2009). Computers and Education 56: 769–780.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Mirrlees-Black, C., and J. Allen. 1998. Concern about crime: Findings from the 1998 British crime survey: Great Britain. England: Home Office, Research, Development and Statistics Directorate London.Google Scholar
  86. Moore, S., and J.P. Shepherd. 2006. The Cost of Fear: Shadow Pricing the Intangible Costs of Crime. Applied Economics 38: 293–300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Morgan, F. 2001. Repeat Burglary in a Perth Suburb: Indicator of Short-Term or Long-Term Risk? In Crime prevention studies, vol. 12, ed. K.A.K.P. Farrell, 83–188. Monsey: Criminal Justice Press.Google Scholar
  88. Murphy, P. 1999. Visual Ecologies, Optic Flow and VR Panoramas: Some Notes. In (Vol. 2004). Sydney.Google Scholar
  89. Murray, S. 2005. High Art/Low Life: The Art of Playing Grand Theft Auto. PAJ: A Journal of Performance and Art 27: 91–98.Google Scholar
  90. Nasar, J.L. 2008. Assessing Perceptions of Environments for Active Living. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 34: 357–363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Nasar, J.L., C. Holloman, and D. Abdulkarim. 2015. Street Characteristics to Encourage Children to Walk. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice 72: 62–70.Google Scholar
  92. Nee, C., and A. Meenaghan. 2006. Expert Decision Making in Burglars. The British Journal of Criminology 46: 935–949.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Nee, C., and M. Taylor. 2000. Examining Burglars’ Target Selection: Interview, Experiment or Ethnomethodology? Psychology, Crime and Law 6: 45–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Nee, C., M. White, K. Woolford, T. Pascu, L. Barker, and L. Wainwright. 2015. ‘New Methods for Examining Expertise in Burglaring Natural and Simulated Environments: Preliminary Findings’. Psychology, Crime and Law 21: 507–513.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Newman, O. 1972. Defensible space: Crime prevention through urban design. New York: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  96. Newton, S., Russell Lowe, and P.X.W. Zou. 2010. Learning and Teaching Domestic Construction Competence Using Serious Video Game Technology. In Koji Makanae, N. Yabuki and K. Kashiyama (Eds.), 10th international conference on construction applications of virtual reality, November 45, 2010 (pp. 189–198). Sendai, Miyagi.Google Scholar
  97. Nicholas, S., D. Povey, A. Walker, and C. Kershaw. 2005. Crime in England and wales 2004/2005. London.Google Scholar
  98. Orland, B. 1993. Synthetic Landscapes. In Environmental simulation: Research and policy issues, ed. R.W. Marans, and D. Stokols, 213–250. Boston, MA: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Park, A.J., T.W. Calvert, P.L. Brantingham, and P.J. Brantingham. 2008. The Use of Virtual and Mixed Reality Environments for Urban Behavioural Studies. PsychNology Journal 6: 119–130.Google Scholar
  100. Park, A.J., E. Hwang, V. Spicer, C. Cheng, P.L. Brantingham, and A. Sixsmith. 2011. Testing Elderly People’s Fear of Crime Using a Virtual Environment. In 2011 European intelligence and security informatics conference (pp. 63–69).Google Scholar
  101. Park, A. J., V. Spicer, M. Guterres, P.L. Brantingham, and G. Jenion. 2010. Testing Perception of Crime in a Virtual Environment. In 2010 IEEE international conference on intelligence and security informatics (pp. 7–12).Google Scholar
  102. Park, R.E. 1925. Community Organization and Juvenile Delinquency. The City, 99–112.Google Scholar
  103. Patacas, J., Nashwan Dawood, Vladimir Vukovic, and Mohamad Kassem. 2015. BIM for Facilities Management: Evaluating BIM Standards in Asset Register Creation and Service Life Planning. Journal of Information Technology in Construction 20: 313–331.Google Scholar
  104. Portland State University. Criminology and Criminal Justice Senior Capstone. (2010). Prevention of Residential Burglary: A Review of the Literature (Vol. Paper 3).Google Scholar
  105. Poyner, B. 1983. Design against crime: Beyond defensible space. Canada: Butterworths Limited.Google Scholar
  106. Purcell, A.T., and J.L. Nasar. 1992. Experiencing Other People’s Houses: A Model of Similarities and Differences in Environmental Experience. Journal of Environmental Psychology 12: 199–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Pyle, G.F., and E.W. Hanten. 1974. The Spatial Dynamics of Crime. University of Chicago, Dept. of Geography.Google Scholar
  108. Quetelet, A. 1842. A treatise on man and the development of his faculties. Edinburgh: Chambers.Google Scholar
  109. Robles, R.M.M., and A. Al-Attili. 2015. Virtual Environments as an Experimental Tool for Studies of Surveillance. Blucher Design Proceedings 2: 355–362.Google Scholar
  110. Rockstar Games. (2004). Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas. In Grand Theft Auto. Rockstar Games: New York.Google Scholar
  111. Rundle, A.G., M.D.M. Bader, C.A. Richards, K.M. Neckerman, and J.O. Teitler. 2011. Using Google Street View to Audit Neighborhood Environments. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 40: 94–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Sampson, R.J., and S.W. Raudenbush. 1999. Systematic Social Observation of Public Spaces: A New Look at Disorder in Urban Neighborhoods. American Journal of Sociology 105: 603–651.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Schmid, C.F. 1960. Urban Crime Areas: Part I. American Sociological Review, 527–542.Google Scholar
  114. Sebastian, R. 2010. Integrated Design and Engineering Using Building Information Modelling: A Pilot Project of Small-Scale Housing Development in The Netherlands. Architectural Engineering and Design Management 6: 103–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Shaw, K.T., and R. Gifford. 1994. Residents’ and Burglars’ Assessment of Burglary Risk from Defensible Space Cues. Journal of Environmental Psychology 14: 177–194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Smith, R. G., P. Jorna, J. Sweeny, and G. Fuller. 2014. Counting the Costs of Crime in Australia: A 2011 Estimate. Canberra.Google Scholar
  117. Smith, S.P., and T. Carter. 2010. A Virtual Environment to Test Police and Public Awareness of Anti-Social Behaviour Indicators. International Journal of Police Science and Management 12: 548–566.Google Scholar
  118. Stamps, A.E. 2000. Psychology and the Aesthetics of the Built Environment. Boston: Kluwer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Stamps, A.E. 2010. Use of Static and Dynamic Media to Simulate Environments: A Meta-Analysis. Perceptual and Motor Skills 111: 355–364.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Stamps, A.E., and J.L. Nasar. 1997. Design Review and Public Preferences: Effects of Geographical Location, Sensation Seeking, and Architectural Styles. Journal of Environmental Psychology 17: 11–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Stamps, A.E., and S. Smith. 2002. Environmental Enclosure in Urban Settings. Environment and Behavior 34: 781–794.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. The Economist. (2014). Why Video Games are so Expensive to Develop.Google Scholar
  123. Toet, A., and M.G. van Schaik. 2012. Effects of Signals of Disorder on Fear of Crime in Real and Virtual Environments. Journal of Environmental Psychology 32: 260–276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Tseloni, A., R. Thompson, L. Grove, N. Tilley, and G. Farrell. 2017. The Effectiveness of Burglary Security Devices. Security Journal 30: 646–664.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Tutt, D., and C. Harty. 2013. Journeys Through the CAVE: The Use of 3D Immersive Environments for Client Engagement Practices in Hospital Design. In 29th annual ARCOM conference, 2–4 September, ed. S.D. Smith, and D.D. Ahiaga-Dagbui, 111–121. Reading: Association of Researchers in Construction Management.Google Scholar
  126. Vandeviver, C. 2014. Applying Google Maps and Google Street View in criminological research. Crime Science 3: 13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. van Gelder, J., C. Nee, M. Otte, I. van Sintemaartensdijk, A. Demetriou, and J. van Prooijen. 2017. Virtual Burglary: Exploring the Potential of Virtual Reality to Study Burglary in Action. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 54 (1): 29–62.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0022427816663997.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Vollaard, B., and J.C. van Ours. 2011. Does Regulation of Built-in Security Reduce Crime? Evidence from a Natural Experiment*. The Economic Journal 121: 485–504.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Wan, A., A. Platten, and T. Briggs. 2013. Study of Safety Auditors’ Views on the Use of BIM for Safety in Hong Kong. International Journal of 3D Information Modelling 2: 11–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Wang, B., Haijiang Li, Yacine Rezgui, Alex Bradley, and H.N. Ong. 2014. BIM Based Virtual Environment for Fire Emergency Evacuation. The Scientific World Journal.Google Scholar
  131. Waters, J., R. Neale, S. Hutson, and K. Mears. 2005. A Perceptual Assessment of Personal Safety in Relation to University Campus Facilities. In 21st annual ARCOM conference, 7–9 September 2005, vol. 1, ed. F. Khosrowshahi, 365–374. London: University of London: Association of Researchers in Construction Management.Google Scholar
  132. Weisburd, D., and C. Lum. 2005. The Diffusion of Computerized Crime Mapping in Policing: Linking Research and Practice. Police Practice and Research 6: 419–434.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Whitaker, J., R.H.A. Neale, and P.M. Cozens. 2004. Use of ‘VR Walkthrough Panorama’ Technology to Assess Public Perceptions of Personal Safety on Railway Stations. In The cooperative research centre (CRC) for construction innovation clients driving innovation international conference (pp. 1471–4175). Brisbane, NSW.Google Scholar
  134. Whyte, W. H. (1980). The social life of small urban spaces. Washington, D.C.: Washington, D.C. : Conservation Foundation.Google Scholar
  135. Willemsen, P., and A.A. Gooch. 2002. Perceived egocentric distances in real, image-based, and traditional virtual environments. In Proceedings of the IEEE virtual reality 2002 (VR’02).Google Scholar
  136. Winchester, S., and H. Jackson. 1982. Residential burglary: The limits of prevention. London: HM Stationary Office.Google Scholar
  137. Wright, R., and R.H. Logie. 1988. How Young House Burglars Choose Targets. The Howard Journal of Criminal Justice 27: 92–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Wurzer, G. 2012. In-Process Agent Simulation for Early Stages of Hospital Planning. IFAC Proceedings Volumes 45: 358–363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Yung, P., and X. Wang. 2014. A 6D CAD Model for the Automatic Assessment of Building Sustainability. International Journal of Advanced Robotic Systems 11: 131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Macmillan Publishers Ltd., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Curtin UniversityPerthAustralia
  2. 2.GHDPerthAustralia

Personalised recommendations