Advertisement

New product development capabilities in China: the moderating role of TMT cooperative behavior

  • Xiaoming He
  • Yaqun YiEmail author
  • Zelong Wei
Original Article
  • 14 Downloads

Abstract

While China is experiencing economic transformation, Chinese firms still lack sufficient new product development (NPD) capability. Such capability is crucial for business innovation. This study examines the impact of operational capabilities on NPD capability of Chinese firms. Acknowledging the importance of top management team (TMT) social interactions in capability development, this study also examines the moderating effect of TMT cooperative behavior (i.e., collaborative and communicative behaviors). Based on a sample of 213 firms from China, we find substantial support for our hypotheses, thus contributing to the capabilities-based view of the firm and providing managerial implications for firms in emerging economies.

Keywords

New product development capabilities TMT cooperative behavior China 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank Professor Martin Hemmert and two anonymous reviewers for their constructive comments and suggestions on the earlier version of this paper. This paper was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) under Grant Nos. 71672142, 71272135, and 71572142.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

On behalf of all authors, there is no conflict of interest.

References

  1. Ahmadi, H., & O’cass, A. (2018). Transforming entrepreneurial posture into a superior first product market position via dynamic capabilities and TMT prior start-up experience. Industrial Marketing Management, 68, 95–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ambrosini, V., Bowman, C., & Collier, N. (2009). Dynamic capabilities: An exploration of how firms renew their resource base. British Journal of Management, 20, S9–S24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Armstrong, C. E., & Shimizu, K. (2007). A review of approaches to empirical research on the resource-based view of the firm. Journal of Management, 33(6), 959–986.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Atuahene-Gima, K., & Ko, A. (2001). An empirical investigation of the effect of market orientation and entrepreneurship orientation alignment on product innovation. Organization Science, 12, 54–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Augier, M., & Teece, D. J. (2009). Dynamic capabilities and the role of managers in business strategies and economic performance. Organization Science, 20(2), 410–421.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Barney, J. (1991). Firm resources and sustained competitive advantage. Journal of Management, 17(1), 99–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Barney, J., & Felin, T. (2013). What are microfoundations? Academy of Management Perspectives, 27(2), 138–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Barney, J. B. (2001). Resource-based theories of competitive advantage: A ten-year retrospective on the resource-based view. Journal of management, 27(6), 643–650.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Barrick, M. R., Bradley, B. H., Kristof-Brown, A. L., & Colbert, A. E. (2007). The moderating role of top management team interdependence: Implications for real teams and working groups. Academy of Management Journal, 50, 544–557.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Barua, A., Konana, P., & Whinston, A. B. (2004). An empirical investigation of net-enabled business value. MIS Quarterly, 28(4), 585–620.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bridoux, F., Coeurderoy, R., & Durand, R. (2017). Heterogeneous social motives and interactions: The three predictable paths of capability development. Strategic Management Journal, 38(9), 1755–1773.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Brislin, R. W. (1970). Back-translation for cross-cultural research. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 1(3), 186–216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Buyl, T., Boone, C., & Hendriks, W. (2014). Top management team members’ decision influence and cooperative behaviour: An empirical study in the information technology industry. British Journal of Management, 25(2), 285–304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cao, Q., Simsek, Z., & Zhang, H. (2010). Modeling the joint impact of the CEO and the TMT on organizational ambidexterity. Journal of Management Studies, 47, 1272–1296.Google Scholar
  15. Carmeli, A., & Schaubroeck, J. (2006). Top management team behavioral integration, decision quality, and organizational decline. The Leadership Quarterly, 17(5), 441–453.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cepeda, G., & Vera, D. (2007). Dynamic capabilities and operational capabilities: A knowledge management perspective. Journal of Business Research, 60(5), 426–437.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Chen, C. C., Chen, X., & Meindl, J. R. (1998). How can cooperation be fostered? The cultural effects of individualism-collectivism. Academy of Management Review, 23, 285–304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Cheng, C., & Ma, Z. (2015). Innovation for sustainability: antecedents for technological innovation in China. Working Paper.Google Scholar
  19. China Daily. (2017). How to accelerate the improvement of the socialist market economy? Retrieved 23 January 2018 from http://politics.people.com.cn/n1/2017/1109/c1001-29635589.html. (in Chinese).
  20. Chow, C. W., Harrison, G. L., McKinnon, J. L., & Wu, A. (1999). Cultural influences on informal information sharing in Chinese and Anglo-American organizations: An exploratory study. Accounting, Organizations and Society, 24, 561–582.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Cohen, J., & Cohen, P. (1983). Applied multiple regression/correlation analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  22. Collins, C. J., & Smith, K. G. (2006). Knowledge exchange and combination: The role of human resource practices in the performance of high-technology firms. Academy of Management Journal, 49, 544–560.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Danneels, E. (2008). Organizational antecedents of second-order competences. Strategic Management Journal, 29(5), 519–543.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. De Cremer, D., & Van Lange, P. A. (2001). Why prosocials exhibit greater cooperation than proselfs: The roles of social responsibility and reciprocity. European Journal of Personality, 15(S1), S5–S18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Den Driesch, T. V., Costa, M. E., & Flatten, T. C. (2015). How CEO experience, personality, and network affect firms’ dynamic capabilities. European Management Journal, 33(4), 245–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Didow, N. M., Keller, K. L., Barksdale, H. C., & Franke, G. R. (1985). Improving measure quality by alternating least squares optimal scaling. Journal of Marketing Research, 22(1), 30–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Drnevich, P. L., & Kriauciunas, A. P. (2011). Clarifying the conditions and limits of the contributions of ordinary and dynamic capabilities to relative firm performance. Strategic Management Journal, 32, 254–279.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Eby, L. T., & Dobbins, G. H. (1997). Collectivistic orientation in teams: An individual and group-level analysis. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 18(3), 275–295.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Eisenhardt, K. M. (1989). Making fast strategic decisions in high-velocity environments. Academy of Management Journal, 32(3), 543–576.Google Scholar
  30. Eisenhardt, K. M., & Martin, J. A. (2000). Dynamic capabilities: What are they? Strategic Management Journal, 21, 1105–1121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Ernst, D. (2008). Can Chinese IT firms develop innovative capabilities within global knowledge networks. In M. G. Hamcock, H. S. Rowen, & W. F. Miller (Eds.), China’s quest for independent innovation. Hawaii: Shorenstein Asia Pacific Research Center and Brookings Institution Press.Google Scholar
  32. Fehr, E., & Gachter, S. (2000). Cooperation and punishment in public goods experiments. American Economic Review, 90(4), 980–994.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Felin, T., Foss, N. J., Heimeriks, K. H., & Madsen, T. L. (2012). Microfoundations of routines and capabilities: Individuals, processes, and structure. Journal of Management Studies, 49(8), 1351–1374.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Foo, M. D., Sin, H. P., & Yiong, L. P. (2006). Effects of team inputs and intrateam processes on perceptions of team viability and member satisfaction in nascent ventures. Strategic Management Journal, 27(4), 389–399.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Friedman, Y., Carmeli, A., & Tishler, A. (2016). How CEOs and TMTs build adaptive capacity in small entrepreneurial firms. Journal of Management Studies, 53(6), 996–1018.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Gittell, J. H., Seidner, R., & Wimbush, J. (2010). A relational model of how high-performance work systems work. Organization Science, 21(2), 490–506.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Gravetter, F. J., & Forzano, L. B. (2012). Research methods for the behavioral sciences (4th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.Google Scholar
  38. Griffin, A., & Page, A. L. (1993). An interim report on measuring product development success and failure. Journal of Product Innovation Management, 10(4), 291–308.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Gruber, M., Heinemann, F., Brettel, M., & Hungeling, S. (2010). Configurations of resources and capabilities and their performance implications: An exploratory study on technology ventures. Strategic Management Journal, 31(12), 1337–1356.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Gruenfeld, D. H., Mannix, E. A., Williams, K. Y., & Neale, M. A. (1996). Group composition and decision making: How member familiarity and information distribution affect process and performance. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 67(1), 1–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Hatcher, L. (1994). A step-by-step approach to using the SAS system for factor analysis and structural equation modeling. Cary, NC: SAS Institute.Google Scholar
  42. Helfat, C. E., Finkelstein, S., Mitchell, W., Peteraf, M. A., Singh, H., Teece, D. J., et al. (2007). Dynamic capabilities: Understanding strategic change in organizations. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.Google Scholar
  43. Helfat, C. E., & Peteraf, M. A. (2009). Understanding dynamic capabilities: Progress along a developmental path. Strategic Organization, 7(1), 91–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Helfat, C. E., & Peteraf, M. A. (2015). Managerial cognitive capabilities and the microfoundations of dynamic capabilities. Strategic Management Journal, 36(6), 831–850.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Helfat, C. E., & Raubitschek, R. S. (2000). Product sequencing: Co-evolution of knowledge, capabilities and products. Strategic Management Journal, 21, 961–979.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Helfat, C. E., & Winter, S. G. (2011). Untangling dynamic and operational capabilities: Strategy for the (n)ever-changing world. Strategic Management Journal, 32(11), 1243–1250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Hofstede, G., & Hofstede, G. J. (2005). Cultures and organizations. Software of the mind (2nd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  48. Hoopes, D. G., & Madsen, T. L. (2008). A capability-based view of competitive heterogeneity. Industrial and Corporate Change, 17(3), 393–426.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Hoopes, D. G., Madsen, T. L., & Walker, G. (2003). Guest editors’ introduction to the special issue: Why is there a resource-based view? Toward a theory of competitive heterogeneity. Strategic Management Journal, 24, 889–902.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Hu, J., & Liden, R. C. (2015). Making a difference in the team work: linking team prosocial motivation to team processes and effectiveness. Academy of Management Journal, 58(4), 1102–1127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Hyatt, D. E., & Ruddy, T. M. (1997). An examination of the relationship between work group characteristics and performance: Once more into the breech. Personnel Psychology, 50(3), 553–585.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Kale, P., & Singh, H. (2007). Building firm capabilities through learning: The role of the alliance learning process in alliance capability and firm-level alliance success. Strategic Management Journal, 28(10), 981–1000.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Karna, A., Richter, A., & Riesenkampff, E. (2016). Revisiting the role of the environment in the capabilities-financial performance relationship: A meta-analysis. Strategic Management Journal, 37(6), 1154–1173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Kim, N., & Atuahene-Gima, K. (2010). Using exploratory and exploitative market learning for new product development. Journal of Product Innovation Management, 27(4), 519–536.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Knight, D., Pearce, C. L., Smith, K. G., Olian, J. D., Sims, H. P., Smith, K. A., et al. (1999). Top management team diversity, group process, and strategic consensus. Strategic Management Journal, 20(5), 445–465.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Lai, F., Li, D., Wang, Q., & Zhao, X. (2008). The information technology capability of third-party logistics providers: A resource-based view and empirical evidence from China. Journal of Supply Chain Management, 44(3), 22–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Lawshe, C. H. (1975). A quantitative approach to content validity. Personnel Psychology, 28, 563–575.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Leiblein, M. J., & Madsen, T. (2009). Unbundling competitive heterogeneity: Incentive structures and capability influences on technological innovation. Strategic Management Journal, 30(7), 711–735.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Li, Y., Wei, Z., & Liu, Y. (2010). Strategic orientations, knowledge acquisition, and firm performance: The perspective of the vendor in cross-border outsourcing. Journal of Management Studies, 47, 1457–1482.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Liao, J., Kickul, J., & Ma, H. (2009). Organizational dynamic capability and innovation: An empirical examination of internet firms. Journal of Small Business Management, 47(3), 263–286.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Likert, R. (1932). A technique for the measurement of attitudes. Archives of Psychology, 140, 44–53.Google Scholar
  62. Lin, C., Lin, P., & Song, F. (2010). Property rights protection and corporate R&D: Evidence from China. Journal of Development Economics, 93(1), 49–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Liu, J., Chen, J., & Tao, Y. (2015). Innovation performance in new product development teams in China’s technology ventures: The role of behavioral integration dimensions and collective efficacy. Journal of Produc Innovation Management, 32(1), 29–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Lundin, N., & Schwaag Serger, S. (2007). Globalization of R&D and China: Empirical observations and policy implications (No. 710). IFN Working Paper.Google Scholar
  65. Lynch, P., O’Toole, T., & Biemans, W. (2016). Measuring involvement of a network of customers in NPD. Journal Production Innovation Management, 33(2), 166–180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Ma, Y., Pang, C., Chen, H., Chi, N., & Li, Y. (2014). Interdisciplinary cooperation and knowledge creation quality: A perspective of recombinatory search. Systems Research and Behavioral Science, 31(1), 115–126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Ma, S., & Seidl, D. (2018). New CEOS and their collaborators: Divergence and convergence between the strategic leadership constellation and the top management team. Strategic Management Journal, 39(3), 606–638.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Maghzi, A., Gudergan, S. P., Wilden, R., & Lin, N. (2015). Dynamic capabilities and top management cognitions. Academy of Management Proceedings, 1, 16327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Makadok, L. (2001). Toward a synthesis of the resource-based and dynamic-capability views of rent creation. Strategic Management Journal, 22(5), 387–401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Marks, M. A., Mathieu, J. E., & Zaccaro, S. J. (2001). A temporally based framework and taxonomy of team processes. Academy of Management Review, 26(3), 356–376.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Milton, L. P., & Westphal, J. D. (2005). Identity confirmation networks and cooperation in work groups. Academy of Management Journal, 48(2), 191–212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Narver, J. C., Slater, S. F., & MacLachlan, D. L. (2004). Responsive and proactive market orientation and new-product success. Journal of Product Innovation Management, 21(5), 334–347.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Ndofor, H. A., Sirmon, D. G., & He, X. (2015). Utilizing the firm’s resources: How TMT heterogeneity and resulting faultlines affect TMT tasks. Strategic Management Journal, 36, 1656–1674.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Nelson, R. R. (2005). Economic development as a catching-up process: what is different about the current environment. Working Papers.Google Scholar
  75. Newbert, S. L. (2007). Empirical research on the resource-based view of the firm: An assessment and suggestions for future research. Strategic Management Journal, 28(2), 121–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Newbert, S. L. (2008). Value, rareness, competitive advantage, and performance: A conceptual-level empirical investigation of the resource-based view of the firm. Strategic Management Journal, 29(7), 745–768.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Olson, B. J., Parayitam, S., & Bao, Y. (2007). Strategic decision making: The effects of cognitive diversity, conflict, and trust on decision outcomes. Journal of Management, 33(2), 196–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Orlikowski, W. J. (2002). Knowing in practice: Enacting a collective capability in distributed organizing. Organization Science, 13(3), 249–273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Pavlou, P. A., & El Sawy, O. A. (2011). Understanding the elusive black box of dynamic capabilities. Decision Sciences, 42(1), 239–273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Peteraf, M. A. (1993). The cornerstones of competitive advantage: A resource-based view. Strategic Management Journal, 14(3), 179–191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Piccoli, G., & Ives, B. (2005). IT-dependent strategic initiatives and sustained competitive advantage: A review and synthesis of the literature. MIS Quarterly, 29(4), 747–776.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Pierce, J. L., Boerner, C., & Teece, D. (2002). Dynamic capabilities, competence, and the behavioral theory of the firm. In M. Augier & J. G. March (Eds.), The economics of change, choice and structure: Essays in the memory of Richard M Cyert (pp. 81–95). Northampton: Edward Elgar Publishing.Google Scholar
  83. Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Lee, J.-Y., & Podsakoff, N. P. (2003). Common method biases in behavioral research: A critical review of the literature and recommended remedies common method biases in behavioral. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88, 879–903.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Podsakoff, P. M., & Organ, D. W. (1986). Self-reports in organizational research: Problems and prospects. Journal of Management, 12, 531–544.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Rock, M. T., & Toman, M. A. (2015). China’s technological catch-up strategy: Industrial development, energy efficiency, and CO 2 emissions. New York, Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Rulke, D. L., & Galaskiewicz, J. (2000). Distribution of knowledge, group network structure, and group performance. Management Science, 46(5), 612–625.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Sabherwal, R., & Becerra-Fernandez, I. (2005). Integrating specific knowledge: Insights from the Kennedy Space Center. IEEE Transaction on Engineering Management, 52, 301–315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Salvato, C., & Vassolo, R. (2018). The sources of dynamism in dynamic capabilities. Strategic Management Journal, 39, 1728–1752.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Schilke, O. (2014). On the contingent value of dynamic capabilities for competitive advantage: The nonlinear moderating effect of environmental dynamism. Strategic Management Journal, 35, 179–203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Simon, H. (1990). Reason in human affairs. Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  91. Simon, H. A. (2016). Decision making: Rational, nonrational, and irrational. Educational Administration Quarterly, 29(3), 392–411.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Simsek, Z., Veiga, J. F., Lubatkin, M. H., & Dino, R. N. (2005). Modeling the multilevel determinants of top management team behavioral integration. Academy of Management Journal, 48(1), 69–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Smith, K. G., Smith, K. A., Olian, J. D., Sims, H. P., Jr., O’Bannon, D. P., & Scully, J. A. (1994). Top management team demography and process: The role of social integration and communication. Administrative Science Quarterly, 39(3), 412–438.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Song, M., Droge, C., Hanvanich, S., & Calantone, R. (2005). Marketing and technology resource complementarity: An analysis of their interaction effect in two environmental contexts. Strategic Management Journal, 26(3), 259–276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Takeuchi, R., Lepak, D. P., Wang, H., & Takeuchi, K. (2007). An empirical examination of the mechanisms mediating between high-performance work systems and the performance of Japanese organizations. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92, 1069–1083.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Tan, J., & Peng, M. W. (2003). Organizational slack and firm performance during economic transitions: two studies from an emerging economy. Strategic Management Journal, 24(13), 1249–1263.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Teece, D. J. (2007). Explicating dynamic capabilities: The nature and microfoundations of (sustainable) enterprise performance. Strategic Management Journal, 28(13), 1319–1350.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Teece, D. J. (2014). The foundations of enterprise performance: Dynamic and ordinary capabilities in an (economic) theory of firms. Academy of Management Perspectives, 28(4), 328–352.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Teece, D. J., & Pisano, G. (1994). The dynamic capabilities of firms: An introduction. Industrial and Corporate Change, 3(3), 537–556.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Teece, D. J., Pisano, G., & Shuen, A. (1997). Dynamic capabilities and strategic management. Strategic Management Journal, 18(7), 509–533.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Tjosvold, D., & Sun, H. F. (2003). Openness among Chinese in conflict: Effects of direct discussion and warmth on integrative decision making. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 33, 1878–1897.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Wei, Z., Yi, Y., & Guo, H. (2014). Organizational learning ambidexterity, strategic flexibility, and new product development. Journal of Product Innovation Management, 31(4), 832–847.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Wernerfelt, B. (1984). A resource-based view of the firm. Strategic Management Journal, 5(2), 171–180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Williamson, P. (2016). Building and leveraging dynamic capabilities: Insights from accelerated innovation in China. Global Strategy Journal, 6(3), 197–210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Winter, S. G. (2003). Understanding dynamic capabilities. Strategic Management Journal, 24(10), 991–995.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Wollersheim, J., Carduck, C., Barthel, E., & Welpe, I. M. (2012). Towards a better understanding of dynamic capabilities: considerations from a process management perspective. International Journal of Business Environment, 5(3), 299–317.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Yi, Y., He, X., Ndofor, H., & Wei, Z. (2015). Dynamic capabilities and the speed of strategic change: Evidence from China. IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, 62(1), 18–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Yi, Y., Li, Y., Hitt, M. A., Liu, Y., & Wei, Z. (2016). The influence of resource bundling on the speed of strategic change: Moderating effects of relational capital. Asia Pacific Journal of Management, 33(2), 435–467.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Yi, Y., Ndofor, H., He, X., & Wei, Z. (2018). Top management team tenure diversity and firm performance: The moderating role of behavioral integration. IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, 65(1), 21–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Zahra, S. A., & Nielsen, A. P. (2002). Sources of capabilities, integration and technology commercialization. Strategic Management Journal, 23, 377–398.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Zahra, S. A., Sapienza, H. J., & Davidsson, P. (2006). Entrepreneurship and dynamic capabilities: A review, model and research agenda. Journal of Management Studies, 43, 917–955.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Zhang, Y., & Marquis, C. (2015). Achieving China’s next stage of “catching-up”. China Economic Report, 1, 57–58.Google Scholar
  113. Zhang, J., & Zhang, J. (2011). A rational view on China’s “World Factory” status. International Conference on E-Business and E-Government.Google Scholar
  114. Zhao, Z., Anand, J., & Mitchell, W. (2004). Transferring collective knowledge: Teaching and learning in the Chinese auto industry. Strategic Organization, 2(2), 133–167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Zhao, W., & Arvanitis, R. (2010). The innovation and learning capabilities of Chinese firms. Chinese Sociology and Anthropology, 42, 6–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Zhao, Z. J., & Chadwick, C. (2014). What we will do versus what we can do: The relative effects of unit-level NPD motivation and capability. Strategic Management Journal, 35(12), 1867–1880.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Zhu, K., & Kraemer, K. (2002). E-commerce metrics for net-enhanced organizations: Assessing the value of e-commerce to firm performance in the manufacturing sector. Information Systems Research, 13(3), 275–295.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Zollo, M., & Winter, S. G. (2002). Deliberate learning and the evolution of dynamic capabilities. Organization Science, 13, 339–351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Limited 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Economics and ManagementBeijing Jiaotong UniversityBeijingChina
  2. 2.School of ManagementXi’an Jiaotong UniversityXi’anChina

Personalised recommendations