Advertisement

What can cognitive neuroscience do for cultural sociology?

  • Omar LizardoEmail author
  • Brandon Sepulvado
  • Dustin S. Stoltz
  • Marshall A. Taylor
Original Article

Abstract

Can cognitive neuroscience contribute to cultural sociology? We argue that it can, but to profit from such contributions requires developing coherent positions at the level of ontology and coherent epistemological views concerning interfield relations in science. In this paper, we carve out a coherent position that makes sense for cultural sociology based on Sperber’s “infra-individualist” and Clark’s “extended cognition” arguments. More substantively, we take on three canonical topics in cultural sociology: language, intersubjectivity, and associational links between elements, showing that the cognitive neurosciences can make conceptual and empirical contributions to the thinking of cultural sociologists in these areas. We conclude by outlining the opportunities for further development of work at the intersection of cultural sociology and the cognitive neurosciences.

Keywords

Neuroscience Sociology Mirror neurons Language Embodiment Binding 

Notes

References

  1. Alexander, J.C. 1992a. Cultivating Differences: Symbolic Boundaries and the Making of Inequality. In Citizen and Enemy as Symbolic Classification: On the Polarizing Discourse of Civil Society, ed. M. Lamont and M. Fournier, 289–308. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  2. Alexander, J.C. 1992b. The Promise of a Cultural Sociology. Theory of Culture, 293–323. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  3. Alexander, J.C. 2003. The Meanings of Social Life: A Cultural Sociology. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Alexander, J.C. 2005. Why Cultural Sociology Is Not ‘Idealist’ A Reply to McLennan. Theory, Culture & Society 22 (6): 19–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Alexander, J.C., B. Giesen, R. Münch, et al. (eds.). 1987. The Macro-Micro Link. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  6. Alexander, J.C., and P. Smith. 2001. The Strong Program in Cultural Theory: Elements of a Structural Hermeneutics. In Handbooks of Sociological Theory, ed. Jonathan H. Turner, 135–150. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  7. Anderson, M.L. 2014. After Phrenology: Neural Reuse and the Interactive Brain. Cambridge: MIT Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Armstrong, E.A., and S.M. Crage. 2006. Movements and Memory: The Making of the Stonewall Myth. American Sociological Review 71 (5): 724–751.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Barsalou, L.W. 2003a. Abstraction in Perceptual Symbol Systems. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences 358 (1435): 1177–1187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Barsalou, L.W. 2003b. Situated Simulation in the Human Conceptual System. Language and Cognitive Processes 18 (5–6): 513–562.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Barsalou, L.W. 2016. On Staying Grounded and Avoiding Quixotic Dead Ends. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review 23 (4): 1122–1142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Becker, H., and B. Geer. 1957. Participant Observation and Interviewing: A Comparison. Human Organization 16 (3): 28–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bellah, R.N. 2005. Durkheim and Ritual. In The Cambridge Companion to Durkheim, ed. J. C. Alexander and P. Smith, 183–210. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Berger, P.L., and T. Luckmann. 1966. The Social Construction of Reality: A Treatise in the Sociology of Knowledge. London: Anchor Books.Google Scholar
  15. Biernacki, R. 2000. Language and the Shift from Signs to Practices in Cultural Inquiry. History and Theory 39 (3): 289–310.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Black, D. 2000. Dreams of Pure Sociology. Sociological Theory 18 (3): 343–367.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Bloch, M. 1991. Language, Anthropology and Cognitive Science. Man 26 (2): 183–198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bloch, M. 2008. Why Religion is Nothing Special But is Central. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences 363 (1499): 2055–2061.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bloch, M. 2012. Anthropology and the Cognitive Challenge. Anthropology and the Cognitive Challenge. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Bloch, M. 2015. In and Out of Each Other’s Bodies: Theory of Mind, Evolution, Truth, and the Nature of the Social. New York: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Blouw, P., B. Peter, S. Eugene, et al. 2015. Concepts as Semantic Pointers: A Framework and Computational Model. Cognitive Science 40 (5): 1128–1162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Boudon, R. 2011. Une approche cognitive de la rationalité. Idées économiques et sociales 165 (3): 24–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Bourdieu, P. 1990. The Logic of Practice. Palo Alto: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  24. Browne, A., and R. Sun. 1999. Connectionist Variable Binding. Expert Systems 16 (3): 189–207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Buchweitz, A., B. Augusto, S.V. Shinkareva, et al. 2012. Identifying Bilingual Semantic Neural Representations Across Languages. Brain and Language 120 (3): 282–289.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Casasanto, D., and L. Boroditsky. 2008. Time in the Mind: Using Space to Think About Time. Cognition 106 (2): 579–593.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Cassirer, E. 1957. The Philosophy of Symbolic Forms, vol. III. Durham: Duke University Press.Google Scholar
  28. Cerulo, K.A. 2010. Mining the Intersections of Cognitive Sociology and Neuroscience. Poetics 38 (2): 115–132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Chartrand, T.L., and J.A. Bargh. 1999. The Chameleon Effect: The Perception-Behavior Link and Social Interaction. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 76 (6): 893–910.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Cheng, C.M., and T.L. Chartrand. 2003. Self-Monitoring Without Awareness: Using Mimicry as a Nonconscious Affiliation Strategy. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 85 (6): 1170–1179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Clark, A. 1997. Being There: Putting Brain, Body, and World Together Again. Cambridge: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  32. Cleeremans, A.A.C.F. 2003. The Unity of Consciousness: Binding, Integration, and Dissociation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Clément, F. 2011. L’esprit de la sociologie: les sociolgues et le fonctionnement de l’esprit humain. In La Sociologie Cognitive, ed. F. Clément and L. Kaufmann, 101–133. Paris: Éditions de la Maison des Sciences de l’Homme.Google Scholar
  34. Collins, H.M. 1993. The Structure of Knowledge. Social Research 60 (1): 95–116.Google Scholar
  35. Collins, R. 2004. Interaction Ritual Chains. Princeton: Princeton University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Crossley, N. 1995. Merleau-Ponty, the Elusive Body and Carnal Sociology. Body & Society 1 (1): 43–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Damasio, A.R. 1994. Descartes’ Error: Emotion, Rationality and the Human Brain. New York: Putnam.Google Scholar
  38. Damasio, A.R. 1999. The Feeling of What Happens: Body and Emotion in the Making of Consciousness. Harvest Book: Harcourt Brace.Google Scholar
  39. De Grauwe, S., R.M. Willems, R. Shirley-Ann, et al. 2014. Embodied Language in First- and Second-Language Speakers: Neural Correlates of Processing Motor Verbs. Neuropsychologia 56: 334–349.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. de Saussure, F. 1964. Course in General Linguistics. Chicago: Open Court.Google Scholar
  41. DiMaggio, P. 1997. Culture and Cognition. Annual Review of Sociology 23: 263–287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. DiTomaso, N. 1982. ‘Sociological Reductionism’ From Parsons to Althusser: Linking Action and Structure in Social Theory. American Sociological Review 14–28.Google Scholar
  43. Douglas, M. 2002. Purity and Danger. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  44. Downey, G. 2014. ‘Habitus in Extremis’: From Embodied Culture to Bio-Cultural Development. Body & Society 20 (2): 113–117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Dreyfus, H.L., and C. Spinosa. 1999. Coping with Things-in-Themselves: A Practice-Based Phenomenological Argument for Realism. Inquiry: A Journal of Medical Care Organization, Provision and Financing 42 (1): 49–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Du Bois, W.E.B. 1897. Strivings of the Negro People. The Atlantic, 1 August. https://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/1897/08/strivings-of-the-negro-people/305446/. Accessed 1 Nov 2018.
  47. Durkheim, E. 1974. Individual and Collective Representations. In Sociology and Philosophy, ed. E. Durkheim. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  48. Durkheim, E. 1982. Rules of Sociological Method. New York: The Free Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Duster, T. 2006. Comparative Perspectives and Competing Explanations: Taking on the Newly Configured Reductionist Challenge to Sociology. American Sociological Review 71 (1): 1–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Edelman, G.M. 1992. Bright Air, Brilliant Fire: On the Matter of the Mind. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  51. Eliasmith, C. 2013. How to Build a Brain. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Elliott, A. 2019. Social Theory and Psychoanalysis in Transition. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  53. Emirbayer, M., and A. Mische. 1998. What is Agency? American Journal of Sociology 103 (4): 962–1023.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Engman, A., and C. Cranford. 2016. Habit and the Body: Lessons for Social Theories of Habit from the Experiences of People with Physical Disabilities. Sociological Theory 34 (1): 27–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Evans, V. 2009. How Words Mean: Lexical Concepts, Cognitive Models, and Meaning Construction. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Feldman, J. 2013. The Neural Binding Problem(s). Cognitive Neurodynamics 7 (1): 1–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Ferrari, P.F., and V. Gallese. 2007. Mirror Neurons and Intersubjectivity. Advances in Consciousness Research 68: 73–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Foster, J.G. 2018. Culture and Computation: Steps to a Probably Approximately Correct Theory of Culture. Poetics 68: 144–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Franks, D.D. 2013. Why We Need Neurosociology as Well as Social Neuroscience. In Handbook of Neurosociology, ed. D.D. Franks and J.H. Turner, 27–32. New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Freud, S. 1966. Project for a Scientific Psychology (1950 [1895]), pp. 281–391 in The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud, Volume I (1886-1899): Pre-Psycho-Analytic Publications and Unpublished Drafts.Google Scholar
  61. Gallese, V. 1998. Mirror Neurons and the Simulation Theory of Mind-Reading. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 2 (12): 493–501.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Gallese, V., and G. Lakoff. 2005. The Brain’s Concepts: The Role of the Sensory-Motor System in Conceptual Knowledge. Cognitive Neuropsychology 22 (3): 455–479.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Gallese, V., and T. Metzinger. 2003. Motor Ontology: The Representational Reality of Goals, Actions and Selves. Philosophical Psychology 16 (3): 365–388.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Garfinkel, H. 1967. Studies in Ethnomethodology. Upper Saddle River: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  65. Geertz, C. 1973. The Interpretation of Cultures: Selected Essays. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  66. Gentner, D. 1983. Structure-Mapping: A Theoretical Framework for Analogy. Cognitive Science 7 (2): 155–170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Giddens, A. 1979. Central Problems in Social Theory: Action, Structure, and Contradiction in Social Analysis. Berkeley: University of California Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Glenberg, A.M. 1997. What Memory is for: Creating Meaning in the Service of Action. The Behavioral and Brain Sciences 20 (01): 41–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Glenberg, A.M., and M.P. Kaschak. 2002. Grounding Language in Action. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review 9 (3): 558–565.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Goldberg, A., and S.K. Stein. 2017. Beyond‘Social Contagion’: Associational Diffusion and the Emergence of Cultural Variation. Palo Alto: Stanford University, Graduate School of Business.Google Scholar
  71. Heiskala, R. 2011. The Meaning of Meaning in Sociology. The Achievements and Shortcomings of Alfred Schutz’s Phenomenological Sociology. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 41 (3): 231–246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Hertz, R. 2013[1960]. Death and the Right Hand. New York: RoutledgeGoogle Scholar
  73. Hertz, R. 2013. Death and the Right Hand. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  74. Hutchins, E. 1995. Cognition in the Wild. Cambridge: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  75. Iacoboni, M. 2009. Imitation, Empathy, and Mirror Neurons. Annual Review of Psychology 60: 653–670.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Ignatow, G. 2007. Theories of Embodied Knowledge: New Directions for Cultural and Cognitive Sociology? Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 37 (2): 115–135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Ignatow, G. 2012. Mauss’s Lectures to Psychologists: A Case for Holistic Sociology. Journal of Classical Sociology 12 (1): 3–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Ignatow, G. 2014. Ontology and Method in Cognitive Sociology. Sociological Forum 29 (4): 990–994.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Ignatow, G. 2015. Theoretical Foundations for Digital Text Analysis. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 46 (1): 104–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Johnson, M. 2012. The Meaning of the Body: Aesthetics of Human Understanding. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  81. Johnson, M., and G. Lakoff. 2002. Why Cognitive Linguistics Requires Embodied Realism. Cognitive Linguistics 13 (3): 245–264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Kaidesoja, T. 2013. Naturalizing Critical Realist Social Ontology. Milton Park: Taylor & Francis.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Kaufmann, L., and L. Cordonier. 2011. Vers un naturalisme social. À la croisée des sciences sociales et des sciences cognitives. SociologieS.Google Scholar
  84. Kovecses, Z. 2006. Language, Mind, and Culture: A Practical Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  85. Kunda, Z., and P. Thagard. 1996. Forming Impressions from Stereotypes, Traits, and Behaviors: A Parallel-Constraint-Satisfaction Theory. Psychological Review 103 (2): 284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Lakin, J.L., V.E. Jefferis, C.M. Cheng, et al. 2003. The Chameleon Effect as Social Glue: Evidence for the Evolutionary Significance of Nonconscious Mimicry. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior 27 (3): 145–162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Lakoff, G. 1993. The Contemporary Theory of Metaphor. In Metaphor and Thought, ed. A. Ortony, 202–251. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Lakoff, G. 2009. The Neural Theory of Metaphor.  https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.1437794.
  89. Lakoff, G., and M. Johnson. 1980. Conceptual Metaphor in Everyday Language. The Journal of Philosophy 77 (8): 453–486.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Lakoff, G., and M. Johnson. 1999. Philosophy in the Flesh: The Embodied Mind and Its Challenge to Western Thought. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  91. Lamont, M., M.L. Small, D. Harris, et al. 2008. Culture Matters. The Role of Culture in Explaining Poverty. In The Colors of Poverty: Why Racial and Ethnic Disparities Persist, ed. A.L. David Harris, 76–102. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
  92. Lempert, M. 2014. Imitation. Annual Review of Anthropology 43 (1): 379–395.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Lende, D.H., and G. Downey. 2012. The Encultured Brain: An Introduction to Neuroanthropology. Cambridge: MIT Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Levi-Strauss, C. 1966. The Savage Mind. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  95. Lizardo, O. 2007. ‘Mirror Neurons’, Collective Objects and the Problem of Transmission: Reconsidering Stephen Turner’s Critique of Practice Theory. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 37 (3): 319–350.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Lizardo, O. 2009a. Is a ‘Special Psychology’ of Practice Possible? From Values and Attitudes to Embodied Dispositions. Theory & Psychology 19 (6): 713–727.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Lizardo, O. 2009b. Taking Cognitive Dualism Seriously: Revisiting the Durkheim-Spencer Debate on the Rise of Individualism. Sociological Perspectives 52 (4): 533–555.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Lizardo, O. 2014. Beyond the Comtean Schema: The Sociology of Culture and Cognition Versus Cognitive Social Science. Sociological Forum 29 (4): 983–989.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Lizardo, O. 2015. Culture, Cognition and Embodiment. International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences, 576–581. New York: Elsevier.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Lizardo, O. 2016a. Cultural Symbols and Cultural Power. Qualitative Sociology 39 (2): 199–204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Lizardo, O. 2016b. Cultural theory. In Handbook of Contemporary Sociological Theory, ed. S. Abrutyn, 99–120. Switzerland: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Lizardo, O., and M. Strand. 2010. Skills, Toolkits, Contexts and Institutions: Clarifying the Relationship Between Different Approaches to Cognition in Cultural Sociology. Poetics 38 (2): 205–228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Lukes, S. 2003. The Grand Dichotomy of the Twentieth Century. In The Cambridge History of Twentieth Century Though, ed. Terence Ball, 602–626. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Machamer, P., and J. Sytsma. 2007. Neuroscience and Theoretical Psychology: What’s to Worry About? Theory & Psychology 17 (2): 199–216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Marcuse, H. 2012. Eros and Civilization. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  106. Martin, A. 2007. The Representation of Object Concepts in the Brain. Annual Review of Psychology 58: 25–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Martin, J.L. 2010. Life’s a Beach But You’re an ant, and Other Unwelcome News for the Sociology of Culture. Poetics 38 (2): 229–244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. McCauley, R.N., and W. Bechtel. 2001. Explanatory Pluralism and Heuristic Identity Theory. Theory & Psychology 11 (6): 736–760.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. McNeill, W.H. 1997. Keeping Together in Time. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  110. Mead, G.H. 1922. A Behavioristic Account of the Significant Symbol. The Journal of Philosophy 19 (6): 157–163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Mears, A. 2014. Seeing Culture Through the Eye of the Beholder: Four Methods in Pursuit of Taste. Theory and Society 43 (3–4): 291–309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Mellor, P.A., and C. Shilling. 2010. Body Pedagogics and the Religious Habitus: A New Direction for the Sociological Study of Religion. Religion 40 (1): 27–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Meloni, M. 2014. Biology Without Biologism: Social Theory in a Postgenomic Age. Sociology 48 (4): 731–746.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Merleau-Ponty, M. 1962. Phenomenology of Perception. London: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
  115. Merleau-Ponty, M. 1968. The Visible and the Invisible. Evanston: Northwestern University Press.Google Scholar
  116. Michaelian, K. 2011. Is Memory a Natural Kind? Memory Studies 4 (2): 170–189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Molnar-Szakacs, I., M.-S. Istvan, A.D. Wu, et al. 2007. Do You See What I Mean? Corticospinal Excitability During Observation of Culture-Specific Gestures. PLoS ONE 2 (7): e626.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Mukerji, C. 2014. The Cultural Power of Tacit Knowledge: Inarticulacy and Bourdieu’s Habitus. American Journal of Cultural Sociology 2 (3): 348–375.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Pagis, M. 2010. From Abstract Concepts to Experiential Knowledge: Embodying Enlightenment in a Meditation Center. Qualitative Sociology 33 (4): 469–489.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Parsons, T. 1937. The Structure of Social Action. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  121. Parsons, T. 1938. The Role of Ideas in Social Action. American Sociological Review 3 (5): 652–664.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Parsons, T. 1964. Social Structure and Personality. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  123. Parsons, T. 1991. The Early Essays. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  124. Patterson, O. 2014. Making Sense of Culture. Annual Review of Sociology 40 (1): 1–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Peirce, C.S. 1974. Collected Papers of Charles Sanders Peirce. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  126. Pitts-Taylor, V. 2003. In the Flesh: The Cultural Politics of Body Modification. New Yrok: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Pitts-Taylor, V. 2014. Cautionary Notes on Navigating the Neurocognitive Turn. Sociological Forum 29 (4): 995–1000.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Pitts-Taylor, V. 2015. A Feminist Carnal Sociology?: Embodiment in Sociology, Feminism, and Naturalized Philosophy. Qualitative Sociology 38 (1): 19–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Potter, D., A. Mashburn, and D. Grissmer. 2013. The Family, Neuroscience, and Academic Skills: An Interdisciplinary Account of Social Class Gaps in Children’s Test Scores. Social Science Research 42 (2): 446–464.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Pribram, K.H., and M. Gill. 1976. Freud’s Project Reassessed. London: Hutchinson Radius.Google Scholar
  131. Quilley, S., T. Schröder, and P. Thagard. 2013. A Complex Systems Approach to the Study of Ideology: Cognitive-Affective Structures and the Dynamics of Belief Systems. Journal of Social and Political Psychology 1 (1): 337–363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Reed, I.A. 2013. Power: Relational, Discursive, and Performative Dimensions. Sociological Theory 31 (3): 193–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Ricoeur, P. 1973. The Model of the Text: Meaningful Action Considered as a Text. Social Research 38 (3): 529–562.Google Scholar
  134. Ridgeway, C. 1991. The Social Construction of Status Value: Gender and Other Nominal Characteristics. Social Forces: A Scientific Medium of Social Study and Interpretation 70 (2): 367–386.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Rizzolatti, G., R. Camarda, L. Fogassi, et al. 1988. Functional Organization of Inferior area 6 in the Macaque Monkey. Experimental Brain Research 71 (3): 491–507.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Robinson, D.T., L. Smith-Lovin, and A.K. Wisecup. 2006. Affect Control Theory. In Handbook of the Sociology of Emotions. Handbooks of Sociology and Social Research, ed. J.E. Stets and J.H. Turner, 179–202. New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Russell, B. 1905. On Denoting. Mind: A Quarterly Review of Psychology and Philosophy 14 (56): 479–493.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Ryle, G. 1971. The Thinking of Thoughts: What is ‘le Penseur’ Doing? In Collected Papers, ed. S. Freeman. London: Hutchinson & Co.Google Scholar
  139. Ryle, G. 2002[1949]. The Concept of Mind. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  140. Sakreida, K., S. Katrin, S. Claudia, et al. 2013. Are abstract action words embodied? An fMRI investigation at the interface between language and motor cognition. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7: 125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Sawyer, R.K. 2002. Durkheim’s Dilemma: Toward a Sociology of Emergence. Sociological Theory 20 (2): 227–247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Schubert, T.W. 2005. Your Highness: Vertical Positions as Perceptual Symbols of Power. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 89 (1): 1–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Schutz, A. 1962. Collected Papers. Netherlands: Springer.Google Scholar
  144. Schwartz, B. 1981. Vertical Classification: A Study in Structuralism and the Sociology of Knowledge. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  145. Sewell Jr., W.H. 2005. Logics of History: Social Theory and Social Transformation. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Shastri, L. 1996. Temporal Synchrony, Dynamic Bindings, and SHRUTI: A Representational but Nonclassical Model of Reflexive Reasoning. The Behavioral and Brain Sciences 19 (2): 331–337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Shepherd, H. 2011. The Cultural Context of Cognition: What the Implicit Association Test Tells Us About How Culture Works. Sociological Forum 26 (1): 121–143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Shore, B. 1996. Culture in Mind: Cognition, Culture, and the Problem of Meaning. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  149. Shotter, J. 1993. Conversational Realities: Constructing Life Through Language. Thousand Oaks: SAGE.Google Scholar
  150. Smelser, N.J. 1999. The Social Edges of Psychoanalysis. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  151. Sørensen, J. 2007. A Cognitive Theory of Magic. Cognitive Science of Religion Series. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield Pub Incorporated.Google Scholar
  152. Sperber, D. 1996. Explaining Culture: A Naturalistic Approach. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  153. Sperber, D. 1987. Les sciences cognitives, les sciences sociales et le matérialisme. Le Débat 47 (5):103–115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Sperber, D. 1997. Individualisme méthodologique et cognitivisme. In Cognition et Sciences Sociales: La Dimension Cognitive Dans L’analyse Sociologique, ed. Raymond Boudon, Alban Bouvier, and François Chazel, 123–136. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.Google Scholar
  155. Squire, L.R. 2004. Memory Systems of the Brain: A Brief History and Current Perspective. Neurobiology of Learning and Memory 82 (3): 171–177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Srivastava, S.B., and M.R. Banaji. 2011. Culture, Cognition, and Collaborative Networks in Organizations. American Sociological Review 76 (2): 207–233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Steele, C.M. 2011. Whistling Vivaldi: How Stereotypes Affect Us and What We Can Do. W. W: Norton.Google Scholar
  158. Stoltz, D.S. 2018. Relations and Relationships: Clarifying the Terms of the ‘New’ Relational Economic Sociology. The American Sociologist 49 (1): 64–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Stoltz, D.S., and O. Lizardo. 2018. Deliberate Trust and Intuitive Faith: A Dual-Process Model of Reliance. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 48 (2): 230–250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Stoltz, D.S., and M.A. Taylor. 2017. Paying with Change: The Purposeful Enunciation of Material Culture. Poetics 62: 26–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Strand, M., and O. Lizardo. 2015. Beyond World Images: Belief as Embodied Action in the World. Sociological Theory 33 (1): 44–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Strauss, C., and N. Quinn. 1997. A Cognitive Theory of Cultural Meaning. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  163. Suddendorf, T. 2013. Mental Time Travel: Continuities and Discontinuities. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 17 (4): 151–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Summers-Effler, E. 2004. A Theory of the Self, Emotion, and Culture. In Theory and Research on Human Emotions, ed. J.H. Turner, 273–308. Emerald: Advances in Group Processes.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Summers-Effler, E. 2010. Laughing Saints and Righteous Heroes. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Summers-Effler, E., J. Van Ness, and C. Hausmann. 2014. Peeking in the Black Box Studying, Theorizing, and Representing the Micro-Foundations of Day-to-Day Interactions. Journal of Contemporary 44 (4): 450–479.Google Scholar
  167. Tavory, I., and N. Eliasoph. 2013. Coordinating Futures: Toward a Theory of Anticipation. The American Journal of Sociology 118 (4): 908–942.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Taylor, M.A., D.S. Stoltz, and T.E. McDonnell. 2019. Binding Significance to Form: Cultural Objects, Neural Binding, and Cultural Change. Poetics 73: 1–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Thagard, P. 2008a. Hot Thought: Mechanisms and Applications of Emotional Cognition. Cambridge: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  170. Thagard, P. 2008b. How Cognition Meets Emotion: Beliefs, Desires, and Feelings as Neural Activity. In Epistemology and Emotions, ed. D. Kuenzle, G. Brun, and U. Doguoglu, 167–184. Aldershot: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  171. Thagard, P., and T.C. Stewart. 2011. The AHA! Experience: Creativity Through Emergent Binding in Neural Networks. Cognitive Science 35 (1): 1–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Todes, S. 2001. Body and World. Cambridge: MIT Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Tomasello, M. 1999. The Human Adaptation for Culture. Annual Review of Anthropology 28 (1): 509–529.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Turner, S.P. 2001. Throwing Out the Tacit Rule Book: Learning and Practices. In The Practice Turn in Contemporary Theory, ed. T.R. Schatzki, K.K. Cetina, and E. von Savigny, 129–139. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  175. Turner, S.P. 2007. Social Theory as a Cognitive Neuroscience. European Journal of Social Theory 10 (3): 357–374.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Turner, S.P., and R.A. Factor. 1994. Max Weber: The Lawyer as Social Thinker. Milton Park: Taylor & Francis.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Vaisey, S. 2009. Motivation and Justification: A Dual-Process Model of Culture in Action. The American Journal of Sociology 114 (6): 1675–1715.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. van der Velde, F., and M. de Kamps. 2006. Neural Blackboard Architectures of Combinatorial Structures in Cognition. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 29 (1): 37–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Veblen, T. 1898. The Instinct of Workmanship and the Irksomeness of Labor. The American Journal of Sociology 4 (2): 187–201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. von der Malsburg, C. 1994. The Correlation Theory of Brain Function. In Models of Neural Networks, ed. J.L. van Hemmen and E.D. Klaus Schulten, 95–119. New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. Wacquant, L.J.D. 2004. Body & Soul: Notebooks of an Apprentice Boxer. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  182. Wacquant, L.J.D. 2015. For a Sociology of Flesh and Blood. Qualitative Sociology 38 (1): 1–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Wagner-Pacifici, R., and B. Schwartz. 1991. The Vietnam Veterans Memorial: Commemorating a Difficult Past. The American Journal of Sociology 97 (2): 376–420.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Wan, P.Y. 2011. Reframing the Social: Emergentist Systemism and Social Theory. Farnham: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  185. Whitehouse, H. 2004. Modes of Religiosity: A Cognitive Theory of Religious Transmission. Cognitive Science of Religion Series. New York: AltaMira Press.Google Scholar
  186. Wierzbicka, A. 1996. Semantics: Primes and Universals. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  187. Willems, R.M., and P. Hagoort. 2007. Neural Evidence for the Interplay Between Language, Gesture, and Action: A Review. Brain and Language 101 (3): 278–289.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Willis, P.E. 1978. Profane Culture. London: Routledge & K. Paul.Google Scholar
  189. Wilson, R.A. 2004a. Boundaries of the Mind: The Individual in the Fragile Sciences-Cognition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. Wilson, R.A. 2004b. Realization: Metaphysics, Mind, and Science. Philosophy of Science 71 (5): 985–996.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. Winch, P. 2012. The Idea of a Social Science and Its Relation to Philosophy. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  192. Winchester, D. 2016. A Hunger for God: Embodied Metaphor as Cultural Cognition in Action. Social Forces: A Scientific Medium of Social Study and Interpretation 95 (2): 585–606.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. Wood, M.L., D.S. Stoltz, J. Van Ness, and M.A. Taylor. 2018. Schemas and Frames. Sociological Theory 36 (3): 244–261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. Wuthnow, R. 1989. Meaning and Moral Order: Explorations in Cultural Analysis. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Limited 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Omar Lizardo
    • 1
    Email author
  • Brandon Sepulvado
    • 2
  • Dustin S. Stoltz
    • 2
  • Marshall A. Taylor
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of SociologyUCLALos AngelesUSA
  2. 2.Department of SociologyUniversity of Notre DameNotre DameUSA
  3. 3.Department of SociologyNew Mexico State UniversityLas CrucesUSA

Personalised recommendations