Advertisement

A metabolic self in contemporary Japan: a cultural reading

  • Genaro Castro-Vázquez
Original Article

Abstract

Framed by international concerns about obesity and overweight, Japanese officials highlight rising trends of men aged between 40 and 60 suffering from metabolic syndrome. Theoretically grounded in symbolic interactionism and the concept of ‘biopedagogy’ Wright (Biopolitics and the ‘obesity epidemic’ governing bodies, Routledge, London and New York, 2009), this article explores the symbolism attached to a metabolic self through a textual and iconographic analysis of 805 media reports and Internet sites produced between 2009 and 2017. Definition, guidance and gender are three axes that orient the analysis, whose outcomes suggest that from a definitional viewpoint a medical and ‘scientifically valid’ causal link between a metabolic self and disease cannot be established, but the origin of metabolic syndrome is allegedly ignorance and indolence, suggesting that metabolic syndrome is presocial. Guidance is largely underpinned by the formula dieting + exercise = bodyweight control, the retrieval of traditional Japanese food and the commodification of a metabo self. The case history of a married older man grappling with metabolic syndrome challenges the presociality thesis, and at the same time points up the feminisation of care. To conclude, the paper underscores that a metabo self has been largely scripted as a Westernised, commodified, weak-willed, male self largely depending on women.

Keywords

BMI Obesity Sedentariness Visceral fat Westernisation Lifestyle disease 

References

  1. AERA. 2016. “‘Nihon’ wo eigo de hanasemasuka? [Can you say ‘Japan’ in English?].” 29 March, 17–20.Google Scholar
  2. Akatsu, Ryota, and Akihiko Kano. 2016. “9 million people estimated to have yase-metabo.” Yomiuri Shimbun, 5 November. http://the-japan-news.com/news/article/0003317138.
  3. Allan, Kenneth. 2013. Explorations in Classical Sociological Theory: Seeing the Social World. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage.Google Scholar
  4. Bacon, Linda. 2008. Health at Every Size: The Surprising Truth About Your Weight. Dallas: BenBella Books.Google Scholar
  5. Bardsley, 2011. The Oyaji Gets a Makeover. Guides for Japanese Salaryman in the New Millennuium. In Manners and Mischief. Gender, Power, and Etiquette in Japan, edited by Jan Bardsley and Laura Miller, 114–135. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  6. Bernstein, Basil. 2001. From Pedagogies to Knowledges. In Towards a sociology of pedagogy: the contribution of Basil Bernstein to research, ed. Ana Morais, Isabel Neves, Brian Davies, and Harry Daniels, 363–368. London and New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  7. Bestor, Theodore C. 2006. Kaiten-zushi and Konbini: Japanese Food Culture in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction. In Fast Food/Slow Food: The Cultural Economy of the Global Food System, ed. Richard Wilk, 115–130. Lanham, Maryland: AltaMira Press.Google Scholar
  8. Bliss, Joan, Martin Monk, and Jon Ogborn (eds.). 1983. Qualitative Data Analysis for Educational Research: A Guide to Uses of Systemic Networks. London: Croom Helm.Google Scholar
  9. Boero, Natalie. 2012. Killer Fat: Media, Medicine, and Morals in the American “Obesity Epidemic”. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.Google Scholar
  10. Boero, Natalie. 2013. Obesity in the Media: Social Science Weighs in. Critical Public Health 23 (3): 371–380.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Borovoy, Amy, and Christina A. Roberto. 2015. Japanese and American Public Health Approaches to Preventing Population Weight Gain: A Role for Paternalism? Social Science and Medicine 143: 62–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Boulter, Liz. 2014. “The good life in Japan: a traditional farm stay. https://www.theguardian.com/travel/2014/jun/01/japan-traditional-farm-stay-inn. Accessed 25 Aug 2014.
  13. Charlebois, Justin. 2013. Japanese Femininities. New York and London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  14. Connell, R.W. 1987. Gender and Power Society, the Person and Sexual Politics. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  15. Connell, R.W. 1995. Masculinities. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  16. Connell, R.W., Jeff Hearn, and Michael S. Kimmel. 2005. “Introduction.” In Handbook of Studies on Men and Masculinities, edited by Michael S. Kimmel, Jeff Hearn and Connell R.W., 1–12. Thousand Oaks, CA and London: Sage.Google Scholar
  17. Connell, Raewyn. 2009. Gender. In Short Introductions, ed. World Perspective. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  18. Cook, Emma E. 2016. Reconstructing Adult Masculinities Part-Time Work in Contemporary Japan. London and New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  19. Dasgupta, Romit. 2013a. Re-reading the salaryman in Japan: crafting masculinities. In Routledge/Asian Studies Association of Australia (ASAA) East Asia series 13. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  20. Dasgupta, Romit. 2013b. Re-reading the Salaryman in Japan: Crafting Masculinities. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  21. Davidson, Kate. 2007. Tackling weight problems in older men. In Hazardous Waist. Tacking Male Weight Problems, edited by Alan White and Maggie Pettifer, 125–134. Oxford and New York: Radcliffe Publishing.Google Scholar
  22. De Brún, Aoife, Mary McCarthy, Kenneth McKenzie, and Aileen McGloin. 2013. “‘Fat is your fault’’. Gatekeepers to Health, Attributions of Responsibility and the Portrayal of Gender in the Irish Media Representation of Obesity. Appetite 62:17–26.Google Scholar
  23. Delpeuch, Francis, Bernard Maire, Emmanuel Monnier, and Michelle Holdsworth. 2009. Globesity. A Planet Out of Control? London: Earthscan.Google Scholar
  24. Foucault, Michael. 1994. The Order of Things. An Archeology of Human Sciences. New York: Vintage books.Google Scholar
  25. Foucault, Michael. 1995. Discipline and Punish. Vintage: The Birth of the Prison. New York.Google Scholar
  26. Fukumitsu, Aya. 2015. Karada kanri, isogashikutemo dekiru [Even if busy, you can keep your body under control]. AERA, 20 July, 20.Google Scholar
  27. Gagnon, John H. 2004. An Interpretation of Desire: Essays in the Study of Sexuality, Worlds of Desire. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  28. Gagnon, John H., and William Simon. 2005. Sexual Conduct. The Social Sources of Human Sexuality. Second, Edition ed. New Brunswick: AldeniTransaction.Google Scholar
  29. Gillon, Ewan, and Kerri McPherson. 2007. Using body image to help men manage weight problems. In Hazardous Waist. Tackling Male Weight Problems, edited by Alan White and Maggie Pettifer, 36–47. Abingdon, Oxon: Radcliff Publishing.Google Scholar
  30. Goffman, Erving. 1976. Gender Advertisements. Hong Kong: Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Goldstein-Gidoni, Ofra. 2012. Housewives of Japan. An Ethnography of Real Lives and Consumerized Domesticity. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  32. Hall, Matthew. 2015. Metrosexual Masculinities. Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Halliwell, Emma, and Helga Dittmar. 2004. Does Size Matter? The Impact of Model’s Body Size on Advertising Effectiveness and Women’s Body-Focused Anxiety. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology 23 (1): 104–122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Harwood, Valerie. 2009. Theorizing Biopedagogies. In Biopolitics and the ‘Obesity Epidemic’ Governing Bodies, ed. Jan Wright and Valerie Harwood, 15–30. London and New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  35. Ingraham, Chrys. 1996. The Heterosexual Imaginary: Feminist Sociology and Theories of Gender. In Queer Theory/Sociology, ed. Steven Seidaman, 168–193. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers.Google Scholar
  36. Iphofen, Ron. 2001. Strong Words, Strong Minds, Strong Bodies: an Analysis of the Narrative Structure of Affirmatory Metaphors in Personal Development Programmes. In Reframing the Body, ed. Nick Watson and Sarah Cunningham-Burley, 29–46. New York: Palgrave.Google Scholar
  37. Jackson, Stevi. 2005. Sexuality, Heterosexuality and Gender Hierarchy: Getting Our Priorities Straight. In Thinking Straight The Power, the Promise, and the Paradox of Heterosexuality, ed. Chrys Ingraham, 15–38. London and New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  38. Jackson, Stevi. 2007. The Sexual Self in Late Modernity. In The Sexual Self. The Construction of Sexual Scripts, edited by Michael Kimmel, 3–15. Nashville: Vanderbilt University Press.Google Scholar
  39. Jackson, Stevi, and Sue Scott. 2010a. Rehabilitating Interactionism for a Feminist Sociology of Sexuality. Sociology 44 (5): 811–826.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Jackson, Stevi, and Sue Scott. 2010b. Theorizing Sexuality. Berkshire: Open University Press.Google Scholar
  41. Japan Society for the Study of Obesity. 2002. New criteria for ‘obesity disease’ in Japan. Examination Committee of Criteria for ‘Obesity Disease’ in Japan; Japan Society for the Study of Obesity. Circulation Journal 66 (11): 987–992.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Jensen, Klaus Bruhn. 1995. The Social Semiotics of Mass Communication. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  43. Kinsella, Sharon. 2012. Narratives and Statistics. How compensated dating (enjo kōsai) was sold. In A Sociology of Japanese Youth. From Returnees to NEETs, edited by Yuki Imoto Roger Goodman, Tuukka Toivonen, 54–80. Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon and New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  44. Kondo, Dorinne K. 1990. Crafting Selves: Power, Gender, and Discourses of Identity in a Japanese Workplace. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  45. Laumann, Edward O, and John H Gagnon. 1995. A Sociological Perspective on Sexual Action. In Conceiving Sexuality. Approaches to Sex Research in a Postmodern World, edited by Richard G. Parker and John H. Gagnon, 183–213. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  46. Li, G., X. Chen, Y. Jang, J. Wang, X. Xing, W. Yang, and Y. Hu. 2002. Obesity, Coronary Heart Disease Risk Factors and Diabetes in Chinese: An Approach to the Criteria of Obesity in the Chinese Population. Obesity Reviews 3 (3): 183–190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Lupton, Deborah. 1998. The Emotional Self. A Sociocultural Exploration. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  48. Lupton, Deborah. 1999. Editorial: Health, Illness and Medicine in the Media. Health 3 (3): 259–262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Lupton, Deborah. 2013. Fat. London and New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  50. Lyons, Antonia C. 2000. Examining Media Representations: Benefits for Health Psychology. Journal of Health Psychology 5 (3): 349–358.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Maclaren, Kim. 2009. Emotional Metamorphoses: The Role of Others in Becoming a Subject. In Embodiment and Agency, ed. Sue Campbell, Letitia Meynell, and Susan Sherwin, 25–45. Pennsylvania: The Pennsylvania State University Press.Google Scholar
  52. Mainichi Shimbun. 2009a. Bentōbako: danshi chūbō de bentō tsukuru [Lunchbox: young men prepare lunch in the kitchen]. 26 February, 1.Google Scholar
  53. Mainichi Shimbun. 2009b. Metabo: shibōritsu to no kankei chōsa. Himan denakutemo kikenseidai. Kōrōshō kenkyū han [Metabo: no relationship to mortality rates, survey. Ministry of health research group]. 16 April, 1.Google Scholar
  54. Mainichi Shimbun. 2009c. Mitsukan: osu nonde metabo kaishō [Mistukan: drinking vinegar the solution to metabo]. 15 May, 23.Google Scholar
  55. Mainichi Shimbun. 2009d. Onna no kimochi: otto, notamau [Women’s feelings: My dandy husband]. 30 April, 11.Google Scholar
  56. Mainichi Shimbun. 2009e. Sararīman Kawayanagi: Satogaeri, ofukuro no aji, itsutsu hoshi [Salaryman Kawayanagi: returning to hometown, taste of home cooking, five stars]. 25 October, 4.Google Scholar
  57. Mainichi Shimbun. 2010a. Genen menyū: hiromeyō Niigataken ya nūyōku shi, eikoku de senshinteki na katsudō [Let’s propagate low salt menus, a movement in Niigata, NYC and England]. 9 December, 13.Google Scholar
  58. Mainichi Shimbun. 2010b. Manichi Shimbunsha no moyooshi Dai 31 kai kenkō seminā ‘seikatsu shūkanbyō kara mi wo mamoru ni ha’ [Manichi newspaper publishing event. 31th health seminar ‘how to protect yourself from lifestyle related diseases’]. 28 May, 5.Google Scholar
  59. Mainichi Shimbun. 2010c. Sonna ni debu ha warukunainoka!? ‘Futome ga nagaiki’ tōkei mo [Is it that bad to be chubby!? Statistics also show that ‘Plump people live longer’. 11 March, 2.Google Scholar
  60. Mainichi Shimbun. 2010d. Tokushū waido: futoranai aki wo sugosu tameni chotto matta! Dasei de tabeteimasenka [Special issue: to spend autumn without gaining weight, wait a minute! Are you used to eat this?]. 6 October, 2.Google Scholar
  61. Mainichi Shimbun. 2010e. Tōnyōbyō: yaseta hito ‘naranai’ 40–60 dai no san nin ni hitori gokai—seiyakugaisha chōsa [Diabetes: a mistake that aged 40-60 slim people wont become diabetic—pharmaceutical company’s survey]. January 23, 27.Google Scholar
  62. Mainichi Shimbun. 2011a. Otoko no kimichi: Kobutorare jiisan [Men’s feelings: An old man who got rid of his lump]. 3 September, 13.Google Scholar
  63. Mainichi Shimbun. 2011b. Yūrakuchō: Mote ganbō [Notes of happiness and grief: willing to be liked]. 1 September, 11.Google Scholar
  64. Mainichi Shimbun. 2012. Bintēji: ojisan datte kireini. Menzu esute, riyōsha kyūzō [Vintage: middle-aged men willing to become handsome. Users of beauty salons for men increasing rapidly]. 17 February, 21.Google Scholar
  65. Mainichi Shimbun. 2013a. ‘Chōju’ no kuni shizuoka [Shizuoka the country of longevity]. 1 January, 29.Google Scholar
  66. Mainichi Shimbun. 2013b. Kisha no me: metabo kenshin, kadai [The journalist eye: Topic, metabo checkup]. 2 April, 10.Google Scholar
  67. Mainichi Shimbun. 2013c. Shokkatsu: ‘gekkan gaishoku kurabu’ kuremakatarāna/shita hatesinaku hirogaru suītsu no sekai amatō danshi yo kesoku seyo [Eating habits: ‘monthly eating-out club’. The world of sweets spreads without limits. Sweet teeth guys let’s gather]. 4 November, 24.Google Scholar
  68. Mainichi Shimbun. 2014a. Hiroiyomi, koten bungaku no tabi, 5 gatsu Yutakani nareba kaiki suru [Reading here and there, a trip to classic literature. May, if you become rich you return]. 15 May, 4.Google Scholar
  69. Mainichi Shimbun. 2014b. Kafe: Shizenshoku tuuji kōryū fukame [Café: deepening the understating of natural foods]. 18 December, 25.Google Scholar
  70. Malson, Helen. 2008. Deconstructing Un/Healthy Body-weight and Weight Management. In Critical Bodies Representations, Identities and Practices of Weight and Body Management, ed. Sarah Riley, Maree Burns, Hannah Frith, Sally Wiggins, and Pirkko Markula, 27–42. New York: Palgrave.Google Scholar
  71. Manzenreiter, Wolfram. 2014. Sport and Body Politics in Japan. London and New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  72. McCurry, Justin. 2007. Japan battles with obesity. The Lancet 369 (9560): 451–452.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. McNay, Lois. 2000. Gender and Agency. Reconfiguring the Subject in Feminist and Social Theory. Cambridge, UK: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  74. McVeigh, Brian J. 1997. Life in a Japanese Women’s College: Learning to be ladylike. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  75. Miller, Laura. 2006. Beauty Up: Exploring Contemporary Japanese body Aesthetics. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  76. Miller, Laura, and Jan Bardsley. 2005. Bad Girls of Japan. New York: Palgrave.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Ministry of Agriculture Forestry and Fisheries. 2015. ““What is shokuiku (Food Education)”?”, accessed 5 May. http://www.maff.go.jp/e/pdf/shokuiku.pdf.
  78. Ministry of Health Labour and Welfare. 2008. Annual Health, Labour and Welfare Report 2007-2008. http://www.mhlw.go.jp/english/wp/wp-hw2/part2/p2c1s3.pdf. Accessed 22 May.
  79. Ministry of Health Labour and Welfare. 2010a. Annual Health, Labour and Welfare Report 2009-2010. http://www.mhlw.go.jp/english/wp/wp-hw4/dl/health_and_medical_services/P68.pdf. Accessed 22 May.
  80. Ministry of Health Labour and Welfare. 2010b. Changes in National Health Promotion Measures. http://www.mhlw.go.jp/english/wp/wp-hw3/dl/2-062.pdf. Accessed 6 May.
  81. Ministry of Health Labour and Welfare. 2016. Health Japan 21 (the second term) > Annual changes in current data.Google Scholar
  82. Monaghan, Lee F. 2008. Men and the War on Obesity: A Sociological Study. London and New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  83. Moon, O.R., N.S. Kim, S.M. Jang, T.H. Yoon, and S.O. Kim. 2002. The Relationship Between Body Mass Index and the Prevalence of Obesity Related Diseases Based on the 1995 National Health Interview Survey in Korea. Obesity Reviews 3 (3): 191–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Muta, Kazue. 2008. The Making of Sekuhara: Sexual Harrasment in Japanese Culture. In East Asian Sexualities. Modernity, Gender and New Sexual Cultures, edited by Stevi Jackson, Jieyu Liu and Juhyun Woo, 52–68. London: Zed Books.Google Scholar
  85. Nagano, Hiroko. 2011. Collective Maturation: The Construction of Masculinity in Early Modern Villages. In Recreating Japanese Men, ed. Sabine Frühstück and Anne Walthall, 203–219. Berkeley and Los Angeles, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  86. Nettleton, Sarah. 2006. The Sociology of Health and Illness. Cambridge: Polity.Google Scholar
  87. Ohnuki-Tierney, Emiko. 1993. Rice as Self: Japanese Identities Through Time. New Jersey: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  88. Okano, Kaori H. 2009. Young Women in Japan. Transitions to Adulthood. Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon and New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  89. Plummer, Ken. 1995. Telling Sexual Stories: Power, Change, and Social Worlds. New York: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Rakuten blog. 2009. Futorisugi? Metaborikku shindorōmu? [Too fat? Metabolic syndrome?]. http://plaza.rakuten.co.jp/qianduo/diary/200911190000/. Accessed 26 August.
  91. Rich, Emma, and John Evans. 2005. ‘Fat Ethics’—The Obesity Discourse and Body Politics. Social Theory & Health 3: 341–358.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Rich, Emma, Lee F Monaghan, and Lucy Aphramor. 2011. Introduction: Contesting Obesity Discourse and Presenting an Alternative. In Debating Obesity. Critical Perspectives, edited by Emma Rich, Lee F Monaghan and Lucy Aphramor, 1–35. Hampshire: Palgrave MacMillan.Google Scholar
  93. Roberson, James E., and Nobue Suzuki. 2003. Men and Masculinities in Contemporary Japan: Dislocating the Salaryman Doxa. London and New York: RoutledgeCurzon.Google Scholar
  94. Rosenfeld, Dana, and Christopher A. Faircloth. 2006. Medicalized Masculinities. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.Google Scholar
  95. Saguy, Abigail C. 2012. What’s Wrong with Fat?. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  96. Saito, Hiroko, and Yasuhiko Shima. 2009. Weekend: Some Men Prefer to be Boys. Asahi Shimbun. http://www.asahi.com/english/Herald-asahi/TKY200911200115.html. Accessed 23 December 2013.
  97. Sakuta, Hidenari, and Takashi Suzuki. 2008. Overweight Male Personnel of the Japan Self-Defense Forces with Body Mass Indices of 23.0–24.9 and Obesity-Related Metabolic Disorders. Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine 13 (2): 116–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Seaman, Amanda C. 2011. Making and Marketing Mothers. Guides to Pregnancy in Modern Japan. In Manners and Mischief. Gender, Power and Etiquette in Japan, edited by Jan Bardsley and Laura Miller, 156–177. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  99. Shapiro, Sherry B. 2005. Pedagogy and the Politics of the Body a Critical Praxis. London and New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  100. Shokuji anzen. 2008. Orokashii metabo kenshin [Stupid metabo checkup]. http://rockyriverromance.com/foodsafety/magmag105.html. Accessed 26 August.
  101. Waskul, Dennis, and Pamela van der Riet. 2002. The Abject Embodiment of Cancer Patients: Dignity, Selfhood, and the Grotesque. Body Symbolic Interaction 25 (4): 487–513.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Waskul, Dennis, and Phillip Vannini. 2006. Introduction: The Body in Symbolic Interaction. In Body/Embodiment. Symbolic Interaction and the Sociology of the Body, edited by Dennis D. Waskul and Phillip Vannini, 1–18. Hampshire, England: Ashgate Publishing.Google Scholar
  103. World Health Organization. 2000. Obesity: Preventing and Managing the Global Epidemic. Geneva: World Health Organization.Google Scholar
  104. World Health Organization. 2016. BMI classification. http://apps.who.int/bmi/index.jsp?introPage=intro_3.html. Accessed 12 May.
  105. Wright, 2009. Biopower, Biopedagogies and the Obesity Epidemic. In Biopolitics and the ‘Obesity Epidemic’ Governing Bodies, ed. Jan Wright and Valerie Harwood, 1–30. London and New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  106. Yagibori, Eiko. 2016. Toshishitsu seigen de kinniku ga teika [Limiting to carbohydrates, muscle atrophy]. Aera, 25 July, 14–15.Google Scholar
  107. Yazaki, Yoshio, and Takashi Kadowaki. 2006. Combating Diabetes and Obesity in Japan. Nature Medicine 12 (1): 73–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Yomiuri Shimbun. 2009a. ‘Kurōzuappu’ kiju mukae jūryō age no taikai ni shutsujō [‘Close-up’ Becoming 77 years old I participate in a weightlifting tournament]. 18 February, 25.Google Scholar
  109. Yomiuri Shimbun. 2009b. Metabo ‘fukui’ honcho ni igi kōrōshōhan ‘kanren tsuyokunai’ [Metabo and ‘abdominal girth’ preponderance ‘not strong relationship’ Ministry of Health group objection]. 1 March, 1.Google Scholar
  110. Yomiuri Shimbun. 2009c. ‘Sukyanā’ Metobo kenshin kijun ni iron hyakushutsu otoko 85, onna 90 cm. Sokutei fuyō mo [‘Scanner’ Objections to Metabo Check-Up Standards Arise in Great Numbers. The Useless Men 82, women 90 cm measurement is discussed too]. 3 June.Google Scholar
  111. Yomiuri Shimbun. 2014a. ‘Kenkō bizinesu saizensen’ [The Forefront of Health Business]. 12 August, 9.Google Scholar
  112. Yomiuri Shimbun. 2014b. ‘Kōkishin’ Oyji yo utsubesi ‘datsu metabo’ he nūmon [‘Happyness’ Pushing Old-Men. Fighting Metabo]. Accessed 25 November 14.Google Scholar
  113. Yomiuri Shimbun. 2016. ‘Kakure metabo’ 914 man nin … himansha dōyō ni risuku [‘Hidden metabo’ 9140,000 people… at the same risk of the obese]. http://www.yomiuri.co.jp/science/20160307-OYT1T50092.html?from=ytop_main2. Accessed 7 March.
  114. Yomiuri Shimbun. 2009d. Saitama kenkō seminā Datsu metabo, kazoku to kichō ni. Ishi, eiyōshi, gutairei majie [Saitama health seminar, patiently (instructing) families to eliminate metabo. Doctors and Dieticians Offer Concrete Examples]. 12 April, 36.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Limited 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Asian Studies ProgrammeKansai Gaidai UniversityHirakata CityJapan

Personalised recommendations