Advertisement

Psychoanalysis, Culture & Society

, Volume 23, Issue 4, pp 437–454 | Cite as

Applying psychoanalysis to community mediation: An alternative to racist criminalization by the courts

  • Christine Schmidt
Article
  • 18 Downloads

Abstract

The author, a racial justice activist, psychoanalyst, and community mediator, applies intersubjective systems theory and a transformative mediation approach to a felony case in a criminal court mediation. She assesses the benefits and limitations of the two relational models that inform her work. Racial self-awareness is a critical feature for the author, a white mediator, working with families entangled in the racially biased criminal justice system.

Keywords

transformative mediation applied psychoanalysis racism intersubjectivity 

References

  1. Alexander, M. (2011) The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness. New York: The New Press.Google Scholar
  2. Alleyne, A. (2005) Invisible injuries and silent witnesses: The shadow of racial oppression in workplace contexts. Psychodynamic Practice 11(3): 283–299.  https://doi.org/10.1080/14753630500232222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Altman, N. (2010) The Analyst in the Inner City: Race, Class, and Culture Through a Psychoanalytic Lens. New York: Routledge Press.Google Scholar
  4. Altman, N. (2006) Whiteness. Psychoanalytic Quarterly 75(1): 45–72.  https://doi.org/10.1002/j.2167-4086.2006.tb00032.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Altman, N. (2015) Psychoanalysis in an Age of Accelerating Cultural Change: Spiritual Globalization. Hove, East Sussex; New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
  6. Aron, L. (2013) A Psychotherapy for the People: Toward a Progressive Psychoanalysis. New York, London: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Benjamin, J. (1998) Shadow of the Other: Intersubjectivity and Gender in Psychoanalysis. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  8. Benjamin, J. (2002) Terror and guilt: Beyond them and us. Psychoanalytic Dialogues 12(3): 473–484.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Benjamin, J. (2004) Beyond doer and done to. Psychoanalytic Quarterly 73(1): 5–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Benjamin, J. (2011) Acknowledgment of collective trauma in light of dissociation and dehumanization. Psychoanalytic Perspectives 8(2): 207–214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bion, W.R. (1989) Experiences in Groups, and Other Papers. London: Tavistock/Routledge.Google Scholar
  12. Biss, E. (2015) White debt: Reckoning with what is owed—and can never be repaid—for racial privilege. The New York Times, 2 December.Google Scholar
  13. Bush, R.A.B. and Folger, J.P. (2005) The Promise of Mediation: The Transformative Approach to Conflict (Rev. ed). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  14. Bush, B. and Pope, S.G. (2002) Changing the quality of conflict interaction: The principles and practice of transformative mediation. Pepperdine Dispute Resolution Law Journal 3(1): 67–96.Google Scholar
  15. Carter, R.T. (2007) Racism and psychological and emotional injury: Recognizing and assessing race-based traumatic stress. The Counseling Psychologist 35(1): 13–105.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0011000006292033.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cash, W.J. (1991) The Mind of the South. New York: Vintage Books.Google Scholar
  17. Coates, T-N. (2014) The case for reparations. The Atlantic, June 2014. https://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2014/06/the-case-for-reparations/361631/, accessed 20 March 2018.
  18. Coates, T-N. (2015) The black family in the age of mass incarceration. The Atlantic, October 2015. https://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2015/10/the-black-family-in-the-age-of-mass-incarceration/403246/, accessed 20 March 2018.
  19. Coburn, W. (2002) A world of systems: The role of systemic patters of experience in the therapeutic process. Psychoanalytic Inquiry 22(5): 655–677.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Collins, P.H. (2006) Black Sexual Politics: African Americans, Gender, and the New Racism. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  21. Cushman, P. (1995) Constructing the Self, Constructing America: A Cultural History of Psychotherapy. Cambridge, MA: Perseus Pub.Google Scholar
  22. Cushman, P. (2000) White guilt, political activity, and the analyst: Commentary on paper by Neil Altman. Psychoanalytic Dialogues 10(4): 607–618.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. DiAngelo, R. (2011) White fragility. International Journal of Critical Pedagogy 3(3): 54–70.Google Scholar
  24. Dunbar-Ortiz, R. (2014) An Indigenous People's History of the United States. Beacon Press, Boston.Google Scholar
  25. Folger, J.P., Bush, R.A.B., and Della Noce, D.J. (2010) Transformative Mediation: A Sourcebook: Resources for Conflict Intervention Practitioners and Programs. Reston, VA; Hempstead, NY: Association for Conflict Resolution; Institute for the Study of Conflict Transformation.Google Scholar
  26. Foster, K. (2003) A study in mediation styles: A comparative analysis of evaluative and transformative styles. www.mediate.com, accessed 14 March 2018.
  27. Grossmark, R. and Wright, F. (eds.) (2015) The One and the Many: Relational Approaches to Group Psychotherapy. New York: Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group.Google Scholar
  28. Harris, S. (2008) Lifting the veil: African American images and the European American gaze. Studies in Gender and Sexuality 9(9): 32–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Higginbotham, A.L. and Higginbotham, A.L. (1978) In the Matter of Color: The Colonial Period. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  30. hooks, b. (1997) Representing whiteness in the black imagination. In: Displacing Whiteness. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, pp. 338–346.Google Scholar
  31. Kieffer, C. (2007). Emergence and the analytic third: Working at the edge of chaos. Psychanalytic Dialogues 17(5): 683–703.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Kovel, J. (1984) White Racism: A Psychohistory. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  33. Layton, L. (2006) Racial identities, racial enactments, and normative unconscious processes. Psychoanalytic Quarterly 75(1): 237–269.  https://doi.org/10.1002/j.2167-4086.2006.tb00039.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Layton, L., Hollander, N.C. and Gutwill, S. (eds.) (2006) Psychoanalysis, Class and Politics Encounters in the Clinical Setting. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  35. Morrison, T. (1993) Playing in the Dark: Whiteness and the Literary Imagination. New York: Vintage Books.Google Scholar
  36. Nweke, C.P. (2011) A case study investigating the interpretation and implementation of the transformative mediation technique (dissertation). Denver, Colorado: Walden University.Google Scholar
  37. Rankine, C. (2015) The condition of black life is one of mourning. The New York Times Magazine, 22 June.Google Scholar
  38. Smith, L. and Gladney, M.R. (1994) Killers of the Dream. New York: Norton.Google Scholar
  39. Stevenson, B. (2015) Lynching in America: Confronting the Legacy of Racial Terror. Equal Justice Initiative. www.eji.org, accessed 9 March 2018.
  40. Stolorow, R.D. and Atwood, G.E. (1992) Contexts of Being: The Intersubjective Foundations of Psychological Life. Hillsdale, NJ: Analytic Press.Google Scholar
  41. Straker, G. (2004) Race for cover: Castrated whiteness, perverse consequences. Psychoanalytic Dialogues 14(4): 405–422.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Suchet, M. (2007) Unraveling Whiteness. Psychoanalytic Dialogues 17(6): 867–886.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Teicholz, J.G. (2006) Qualities of engagement and the analyst’s theory. International Journal of Psychoanalytic Self Psychology 1(1): 47–77.Google Scholar
  44. Tervalon, M. and Murray-Garcia, J. (1998) Cultural humility versus cultural competence: A critical distinction in defining physician training outcomes in multicultural education. Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved 9(2): 117–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Van Der Heide, N. (2009) Reflections on mirroring. International Journal of Psychoanalytic Self Psychology 4(4): 432–444.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Winnicott, D.W. (1971) Playing and Reality. London: Tavistock Publications.Google Scholar
  47. Wise, T.J. (2010) Colorblind: The Rise of Post-racial Politics and the Retreat From Racial Equity. San Francisco: City Lights Books.Google Scholar
  48. Zinn, H. (2006) A People’s History of the United States: 1492present (Reissued, [repr.]). New York: Harper Perennial.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Macmillan Publishers Ltd., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.BrooklynUSA

Personalised recommendations