Psychoanalysis, Culture & Society

, Volume 23, Issue 1, pp 28–42 | Cite as

International societal movements, the other, psychological borders, and large-scale voter behavior during the 2016 United States presidential election

  • Vamık D. Volkan


The present world has evolved as a global neighborhood. Cultural and religious confrontations, floods of refugees, and acts of terrorism have increased concerns regarding large-group identities. The metaphorical question “Who are we now?” has spread worldwide. This paper explores how this question has influenced a large number of American voters during the recent presidential election.


non-sameness chosen traumas chosen glories entitlement ideology White Nativism narcissistic leader 


  1. Akhtar, S. (1992) Broken Structures: Severe Personality Disorders and Their Treatment. Northvale, NJ: Jason Aronson.Google Scholar
  2. Alpert, J.L. and Goren, E.R. (eds.) (2017) Psychoanalysis, Trauma, and Community: History and Contemporary Reappraisals. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  3. Çevik, A. (2003) Globalization and Identity. In: S. Varvin & V.D. Volkan (eds.), Violence or Dialogue: Psychoanalytic Insights to Terror and Terrorism. London: International Psychoanalysis Library, pp. 91–98.Google Scholar
  4. Connor, P. and Krogstad, J. M. (2017) U.S. on Track to Reach Obama Administration’s Goal of Resettling 110,000 Refugees This Year., 20 January, Accessed 26 December 2017.
  5. Economist (2016) “The New Nationalism,” 19 November.Google Scholar
  6. Erikson, E.H. (1956) The Problem of Ego Identity. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association 4(1): 56–121.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Erikson, E.H. (1966) Ontogeny of Ritualization. In: R.M. Lowenstein, L.M. Newman, M. Schur and A.J. Solnit (eds.) Psychoanalysis: A General Psychology. New York: International Universities Press, pp. 601–621.Google Scholar
  8. Farina, M. (2017) White Nativism, Ethnic Identity and U.S. Immigration Policy Reforms. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  9. Freud, S. (1921/1955) Group Psychology and the Analysis of the Ego. Standard Edition 18. London: Hogarth Press, pp. 65–143.Google Scholar
  10. Harle, V. (2000) The Enemy with a Thousand Faces: The Tradition of the Other in Western Political Thought and History. Westport, CT: Praeger.Google Scholar
  11. Howell, W.N. (1997) Islamic Revivalism: A Cult Phenomenon? Mind and Human Interaction 5: 97–103.Google Scholar
  12. Kakar, S. (1996) The Colors of Violence: Cultural Identities, Religion, and Conflict. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  13. Kedourie, E. (1970) The Chatham House Version: And Other Middle Eastern Studies. London: Weidenfeld & Nicholson.Google Scholar
  14. Kernberg, O.F. (1975) Borderline Conditions and Pathological Narcissism. New York: Jason Aronson.Google Scholar
  15. Keval, N. (2016) Racist States of Mind: Understanding of the Perversion of Curiosity and Concern. London: Karnac.Google Scholar
  16. Lewis, B. (1990) The Roots of Moslem Rage. The Atlantic Monthly, 20 September, pp. 47–60.Google Scholar
  17. Liu, J.H. and Mills, D. (2006) Modern Racism and Neo-Liberal Globalization: The Discourses of Plausible Deniability and Their Multiple Functions. Journal of Community and Applied Social Psychology 16(2): 83–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Loewenberg, P. (1995) Fantasy and Reality in History. London: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  19. Morton, T.L. (2005) Prejudice in an Era of Economic Globalization and International Interdependence. In: J.L. Chin (ed.) The Psychology of Prejudice and Discrimination: Disability, Religion, Physique, and Other Traits. Vol. 4. Westport, CT: Praeger, pp. 135–160.Google Scholar
  20. Naso, R.C. and Mills, J. (eds.) (2016) Humanizing Evil: Psychoanalytic, Philosophical and Clinical Perspectives. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  21. Ofer, G. (ed.) (2017) Bridge Over Troubled Waters: Conflicts and Reconciliation in Groups and Societies. London: Karnac.Google Scholar
  22. Parsons, T. (1967) The Structure of Social Action. 2 vols. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  23. Shengold, L. (1991) Soul Murder: The Effects of Childhood Abuse and Deprivation. New York: Ballantine.Google Scholar
  24. Suistola, J. and Volkan, V.D. (2017) Gods Do Negotiate: International Terror and Religious Knives. Durham, NC: Pitchstone.Google Scholar
  25. Tweedy, R. (ed.) (2017) The Political Self: Understanding the Social Context for Mental Illness. London: Karnac.Google Scholar
  26. Volkan, V.D. (1988) The Need to Have Enemies and Allies: From Clinical Practice to International Relationships. Northvale, NJ: Jason Aronson.Google Scholar
  27. Volkan, V.D. (1991) On Chosen Trauma. Mind and Human Interaction 4: 3–19.Google Scholar
  28. Volkan, V.D. (1996) Bosnia–Herzegovina: Ancient Fuel of a Modern Inferno. Mind and Human Interaction 7: 110–127.Google Scholar
  29. Volkan, V.D. (1997) Bloodlines: From Ethnic Pride to Ethnic Terrorism. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.Google Scholar
  30. Volkan, V.D. (1999) Das Versagen der Diplomatie: Zur Psychoanalyse Nationaler, Ethnischer und Religiöser Konflikte. Giessen: Psychosozial-Verlag.Google Scholar
  31. Volkan, V.D. (2004) Blind Trust: Large Groups and Their Leaders in Times of Crises and Terror. Charlottesville, VA: Pitchstone.Google Scholar
  32. Volkan, V.D. (2006a) Killing in the Name of Identity: A Study of Bloody Conflicts. Charlottesville, VA: Pitchstone.Google Scholar
  33. Volkan, V.D. (2006b) Grossgruppen und ihre Politischen Führer mit Narzisstischer Personlichkeitsorganisation. In: O.F. Kernberg and H.-P. Hartmann (eds.) Narzißmus: Grundlagen-StőrungsbilderTherapie. Stuttgart: Schattauer, pp. 205–227.Google Scholar
  34. Volkan, V.D. (2013) Enemies on the Couch: A Psychopolitical Journey through War and Peace. Durham, NC: Pitchstone.Google Scholar
  35. Volkan, V.D. (2014) Psychoanalysis, International Relations, and Diplomacy: A Sourcebook on Large-Group Psychology. London: Karnac.Google Scholar
  36. Volkan, V.D. (2017) Immigrants and Refugees: Trauma, Perennial Mourning, and Border Psychology. London: Karnac.Google Scholar
  37. Volkan, V.D. and Ast, G. (1994) Spektrum des Narziβmus. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck and Ruprecht.Google Scholar
  38. Volkan, V.D. and Itzkowitz, N. (1994) Turks and Greeks: Neighbors in Conflict. Cambridgeshire, England: Eothen Press.Google Scholar
  39. Weigert, E. (1967) Narcissism: Benign and Malignant Forms. In: R.W. Gibson (ed.) Crosscurrents in Psychiatry and Psychoanalysis. Philadelphia: Lippincott, pp. 222–238.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Macmillan Publishers Ltd., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Vamık D. Volkan
    • 1
  1. 1.CharlottesvilleUSA

Personalised recommendations