Journal of Public Health Policy

, Volume 38, Issue 2, pp 185–202 | Cite as

Antimicrobial resistance and antimicrobial use animal monitoring policies in Europe: Where are we ?

Viewpoint

Abstract

The World Health Organization has recognized antimicrobial resistance as one of the top three threats to human health. Any use of antibiotics in animals will ultimately affect humans and vice versa. Appropriate monitoring of antimicrobial use and resistance has been repeatedly emphasized along with the need for global policies. Under the auspices of the European Union research project, EFFORT, we mapped antimicrobial use and resistance monitoring programs in ten European countries. We then compared international and European guidelines and policies. In resistance monitoring, we did not find important differences between countries. Current resistance monitoring systems are focused on food animal species (using fecal samples). They ignore companion animals. The scenario is different for monitoring antibiotics use. Recently, countries have tried to harmonize methodologies, but reporting of antimicrobial use remains voluntary. We therefore identified a need for stronger policies.

Keywords

antimicrobial resistance (AMR) monitoring policies animals antimicrobial use (AMU) 

References

  1. 1.
    Lee, B.Y., Singh, A., David, M.Z., Bartsch, S.M., Slayton, R.B., Huang, S.S. et al (2013) The economic burden of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA). Clin Microbiol Infect 19(6): 528–36. doi:10.1111/j.1469-0691.2012.03914.x. Available from: http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1198743X14615111.
  2. 2.
    Smith, R. and Coast, J. (2013) The true cost of antimicrobial resistance. BMJ-British Medical Journal 346: f1493. doi:10.1136/bmj.f1493.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Skov, R.L. and Monnet, D.L. (2016) Plasmid-mediated colistin resistance (mcr-1 gene):three months later, the story unfolds. Eur Surveill. 21(9): 30155. doi:10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2016.21.9.30155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Smith, D.L., Harris, A.D., Johnson, J.A., Silbergeld, E.K. and Morris, J.G. (2002) Animal antibiotic use has an early but important impact on the emergence of antibiotic resistance in human commensal bacteria. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 99: 6434. 10.1073/pnas.082188899 (last accessed on 05/01/2017).
  5. 5.
    Wooldridge, M. (2012) Evidence for the circulation of antimicrobial-resistant strains and genes in nature and especially between humans and animals. Scientific and Technical Review 31(1): 231. Available from: http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/22849279.
  6. 6.
    Wang, H., McEntire, J.C., Zhang, L., Li, X. and Doyle, M. (2012) The transfer of antibiotic resistance from food to humans: facts, implications and future directions. Scientific and Technical Review 31(1): 249. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22849280.
  7. 7.
    Butaye, P., van Duijkeren, E., Prescott, J.F. and Schwarz, S. (2014)Antimicrobial resistance in bacteria from animals and the environment. Veterinary Microbiology 171(3–4): 269. Available from: http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0378113514002090.
  8. 8.
    Casey, J.A., Curriero, F.C., Cosgrove, S.E., Nachman, K.E. and Schwartz, B.S. (2013) High-density livestock operations, crop field application of manure, and risk of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection in Pennsylvania. JAMA Internal Medicine 173(21): 1980. Available from: http://archinte.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?doi=10.1001/jamainternmed.2013.10408.
  9. 9.
    Heuer, H., Schmitt, H. and Smalla, K. (2011) Antibiotic resistance gene spread due to manure application on agricultural fields. Current Opinion in Microbiology 14(3): 236. Available from: http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1369527411000579.
  10. 10.
    Nordahl Petersen, T., Rasmussen, S., Hasman, H., Carøe, C., Bælum, J., Charlotte Schultz, A. et al (2015) Meta-genomic analysis of toilet waste from long distance flights; a step towards global surveillance of infectious diseases and antimicrobial resistance. Scientific Reports 5(April): 11444. Available from: http://www.nature.com/doifinder/10.1038/srep11444.
  11. 11.
    WHO. (2014) ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE Global Report on Surveillance 2014. Available from http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/112642/1/9789241564748_eng.pdf?ua=1, last accessed 05/01/2017.
  12. 12.
    World Health Organization. (2013) Integrated surveillance of antimicrobial resistance: Guidance from a WHO Advisory Group. Available from: http://www.who.int/foodsafety/publications/agisar_guidance/en/.
  13. 13.
    European Commission. (2003) Directive 2003/99/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council on the monitoring of zoonoses and zoonotic agents. Available from: http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/HTML/?uri=CELEX:32003L0099&from=EN14. European Commission. (2007) Decision 2007/407/EC. On a harmonised monitoring of antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella in poultry and pigs OJ L153/26. Off J Eur Union. 26–29. Available from: http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/HTML/?uri=CELEX:32007D0407&from=EN.
  14. 14.
    European Commission. (2013) Decision on the monitoring and reporting of antimicrobial resistance in zoonotic and commensal bacteria. Available from: http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/HTML/?uri=CELEX:32013D0652&from=EN, last accessed on 05/01/201716. European Food Safety Authority (EFSA).(2014) Technical specifications on randomised sampling for harmonised monitoring of antimicrobial resistance in zoonotic and commensal bacteria. EFSA J. 12(5):3686. Available from: https://www.efsa.europa.eu/en/efsajournal/pub/3686.
  15. 15.
    Office International des Epizooties (OIE, World Organisation for Animal Health). (2015) Monitoring of the quantities and usage patterns of antimicrobial agents used in aquatic animals. Aquatic Animal Health Code, chapter 6.4. Available from: http://www.oie.int/fileadmin/Home/eng/Internationa_Standard_Setting/docs/pdf/chapitre_1.6.4.pdf18. Office International des Epizooties (OIE, World Organisation for Animal Health). (2015) Monitoring of the quantities and usage patterns of antimicrobial agents used in food-producing animals. Terrestrial Animal Health Code, Chapter 6.8. Available from: http://www.oie.int/fileadmin/Home/eng/Our_scientific_expertise/docs/pdf/A_Update%202012_Chapter%206.8._Antibioresistance.pdf19. Grave K, Torren J, Mackay D.(2009) Summary of Terms of reference from the Commission. Available from: http://www.ema.europa.eu/docs/en_GB/document_library/Presentation/2010/02/WC500070801.pdf, last accessed 05/01/2017.
  16. 16.
    Park, Y.H., Hwang, S.Y., Hong, M.K. and Kwon, K.H. (2012) Use of antimicrobial agents in aquaculture. Revue scientifique et technique (International Office of Epizootics) 31(1): 189.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Vahjen, W., Pietruszy’nska, D., Starke, I.C. and Zentek, J. (2015) High dietary zinc supplementation increases the occurrence of tetracycline and sulfonamide resistance genes in the intestine of weaned pigs. Gut Pathogens 7(1):1. doi:10.1186/s13099-015-0071-3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Cock, I.E. (2015) Novel natural products: Therapeutic effects in pain, arthritis and gastro-intestinal diseases. Progress in Drug Research, pp. 179–235. Available from: http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?eid=2-s2.0-84938514452&partnerID=tZOtx3y1.
  19. 19.
    Speksnijder, D.C., Mevius, D.J., Bruschke, C.J.M. and Wagenaar, J.A. (2014) Reduction of veterinary antimicrobial use in the Netherlands. The Dutch success model. Zoonoses Public Health 62: 79. doi:10.1111/zph.12167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    European Medicines Agency. (2013) Sales of veterinary antimicrobial agents in 25 EU/EEA countries in Third ESVAC report. Available from: http://www.ema.europa.eu/docs/en_GB/document_library/Report/2013/10/WC500152311.pdf, last accessed 05/01/201721. Providing a new generation of methodologies and tools for cost-effective risk-based animal health surveillance systems for the benefit of livestock producers, decision makers and consumers [Internet]. [cited 2016 Dec 2]. Available from: www.fp7-risksur.eu.
  21. 21.
    Aarestrup, F.M., Jensen, V.F., Emborg, H.D., Jacobsen, E. and Wegener, H.C. (2010) Changes in the use of antimicrobials and the effects on productivity of swine farms in Denmark. American Journal of Veterinary Research 71(7):726–33. doi:10.2460/ajvr.71.7.726.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Macmillan Publishers Ltd 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.SAFOSOLiebefeldSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations