A cosmopolitan–communitarian cleavage around the world? Evidence from ideological polarization and party–voter linkages
Can structural conflict over globalization be observed outside Western Europe? When does such a cosmopolitan–communitarian cleavage emerge? These questions are highly relevant as similar conflicts over open borders seem to take place in various countries. To answer these questions, we analyze electoral competition on issues related to globalization such as migration and international integration in Germany, Mexico, Poland, Turkey, and the U.S. We investigate ideological polarization on these two issues at the level of both voters and parties, as well as their linkage through structural and issue voting. At the level of the voters, we analyze preferences on the two issue dimensions with data from the World Values Survey. In order to arrive at valid measures of parties’ policy positions on the same dimensions, we combine data from electoral manifestos, public claims data, and expert surveys. Finally, we link voters’ structural positions and issue preferences with parties’ policy positions through a series of ordered logistic regressions. Our comparative analysis reveals that in our sample a cosmopolitan–communitarian cleavage can be observed only among the affluent immigration countries. We discuss potential explanations for this finding.
KeywordsCleavages Cosmopolitanism Communitarianism Comparative politics Polarization Voting behavior
The article is part of the project “The Political Sociology of Cosmopolitanism and Communitarianism” of the WZB Berlin Social Science Center. We thank fellow project members Ruud Koopmans, Onawa Lacewell, Wolfgang Merkel, Bernhard Wessels, Michael Zürn for the stimulating collaboration and feedback to drafts of this manuscript. In addition, the article has benefited from the input of (other) colleagues then affiliated to the Research Unit Migration, Integration, Transnationalization (MIT) such as Sarah Carol, Ruth Ditlmann, Marc Helbling, Ines Michalowski, Guiseppe Pietrantuono, Merlin Schaeffer, Dietlind Stolle, and Susanne Veit.
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