Advertisement

Distributing dollars for democracy: changing foreign policy contexts and the shifting determinants of US democracy aid, 1975–2010

  • James M. Scott
  • Ralph G. Carter
Original Article
  • 26 Downloads

Abstract

In the late 20th century, the United States adapted to changes in the international arena and initiated innovative strategies of democracy promotion by providing assistance to governments, political parties, and non-governmental organisations all over the world. Through the lens of foreign policy change, this analysis examines the factors shaping US democracy aid decisions in the context of two major paradigm shifts—the end of the Cold War (1989) and the 9/11 episode (2001)—which establish three distinct US foreign policy contexts: Cold War, post-Cold War, and Global War on Terror. Examining democracy aid allocations; ideational goals; US interests; and economic, political and social factors, we argue that the external foreign policy context of each time period generates a different blend of determinants that shape democracy aid allocations, with ideational factors more consequential in the post-Cold War and Global War on Terror contexts, and interest-based factors more significant in the Cold War and Global War on Terror contexts. Evidence from the period between 1975 and 2010 provides support for our argument. We conclude with a discussion of the implications of these findings.

Keywords

Democracy aid Democratisation Foreign aid Foreign policy change 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank Sarah Bush, Brandy Jolliff Scott, and the anonymous reviewers for their comments and suggestions.

References

  1. Alesina, Alberto, and David Dollar. 2000. Who Gives Foreign Aid to Whom and Why. Journal of Economic Growth 5: 33–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Apodaca, Clair, and Michael Stohl. 1999. United States Human Rights Policy and Foreign Assistance. International Studies Quarterly 43: 185–198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Balla, Eliana, and Gina Reinhardt. 2008. Giving and Receiving Foreign Aid: Does Conflict Count? World Development 36: 2566–2585.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Barbieri, Katherine and Omar Keshk 2012 Correlates of War Project Trade Data Set Codebook, version 3.0, http://correlatesofwar.org.
  5. Baumgartner, Frank, and Bryan Jones. 1993. Agendas and Instability in American Politics. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  6. Bearce, David, and Daniel Tirone. 2010. Foreign Aid Effectiveness and the Strategic Goals of Donor Governments. Journal of Politics 72: 837–851.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bell, Sam, Chad Clay, and Carla M. Machain. 2016. The Effect of US Troop Deployments on Human Rights. Journal of Conflict Resolution, OnlineFirst. doi: 10.1177/0022002716632300.Google Scholar
  8. Blanton, Shannon L. 2005. Foreign Policy in Transition: Human Rights, Democracy, and US Arms Exports. International Studies Quarterly 49: 647–667.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Boschini, Anne, and Anders Olofsgard. 2007. Foreign Aid: An Instrument for Fighting Communism. Journal of Development Studies 43: 622–648.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Boutton, Andrew, and David Carter. 2014. Fair-Weather Allies? Terrorism and the Allocation of US Foreign Aid. , Journal of Conflict Resolution 58: 1144–1173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bush, George W. 2002. The National Security Strategy of the United States of America. Washington: White House.Google Scholar
  12. Bridoux, Jeff, and Milja Kurki. 2014. Democracy Promotion: A Critical Introduction. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  13. Cingranelli, David L., and Thomas E. Pasquarello. 1985. Human Rights Practices and the Distribution of US Foreign Aid to Latin American Countries. American Journal of Political Science 3: 539–563.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Clinton, William. 1995. A National Security Strategy of Engagement and Enlargement. Washington: White House.Google Scholar
  15. Collins, Stephen D. 2009. Can America Finance Freedom? Assessing US Democracy Promotion via Economic Statecraft. Foreign Policy Analysis 5: 367–389.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cox, Michael, G. John Ikenberry, and Takashi Inoguchi (eds.). 2000. American Democracy Promotion: Impulses, Strategies, and Impacts. London: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  17. de Mesquita, Bruce Bueno, and Alastair Smith. 2007. Foreign Policy and Policy Concessions. Journal of Conflict Resolution 51: 251–284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Demirel-Pegg, Tiljen, and James Moskowitz. 2009. US Aid Allocation: The Nexus of Human Rights, Democracy, and Development. Journal of Peace Research 46: 181–198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Diehl, Paul F., and Gary Goertz. 2000. War and Peace in International Rivalry. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Doyle, Michael W. 1986. Liberalism and World Politics. American Political Science Review 80: 1151–1169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Drury, A.Cooper, Richard Olson, and Doug Van Belle. 2005. The CNN Effect, Geo-strategic Motives and the Politics of US Foreign Disaster Assistance. Journal of Politics 67: 454–473.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Dueck, Colin. 2008. Reluctant Crusaders: Power, Culture, and Change in American Grand Strategy. Princeton: Princeton University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Fariss, Christopher. 2010. The Strategic Substitution of United States Foreign Aid. Foreign Policy Analysis 6 (2): 107–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Fink, Gunther, and Silvia Redaelli. 2011. Determinants of International Emergency Aid—Humanitarian Need Only? World Development 39 (5): 741–757.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Fleck, Robert K., and Christopher Kilby. 2010. ‘Changing Aid Regimes? US Foreign Aid from the Cold War to the War on Terror. Journal of Development Economics 91: 185–197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Gibler, Douglas M. 2009. International Military Alliances, 1648–2008. Washington: CQ Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Gibney, Mark, Linda Cornett, Reed Wood and Peter Haschke 2013 Political Terror Scale 19762012, http://www.politicalterrorscale.org/.
  28. Goldmann, Kjell. 1988. Change and Stability in Foreign Policy. Princeton: Princeton University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Gustavsson, Jakob. 1999. How Should We Study Foreign Policy Change? Cooperation and Conflict 34 (1): 73–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Heckman, James J. 1976. The Common Structure of Statistical Models of Truncation, Sample Selection and Limited Dependent Variables and a Sample Estimator for Such Models. Annals of Economic and Social Measurement 5: 475–492.Google Scholar
  31. Heckman, James J. 1979. Sample Selection Bias as a Specification Error. Econometrica 47: 153–161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Heinrich, Tobias. 2013. When is Foreign Aid Selfish, When is it Selfless? Journal of Politics 75 (2): 422–435.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hermann, Charles F. 2015. Frameworks and Theories of Change in Foreign Policy Analysis, paper presented at the International Studies Association Annual Conference, New Orleans, 18–21 February.Google Scholar
  34. Hermann, Charles F. 1990. Changing Course: When Governments Choose to Redirect Foreign Policy. International Studies Quarterly 34: 3–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Ikenberry, G.John. 2012. Liberal Leviathan: The Origins, Crisis, and Transformation of the American World Order. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  36. Kang, Seonjou, and James Meernik. 2004. Determinants of Post-Conflict Economic Assistance. Journal of Peace Research 41 (2): 149–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Kupchan, Charles A. 2012. No One’s World: The West, the Rising Rest, and the Coming Global Turn. New York: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Lai, Brian. 2003. Examining the Goals of US Foreign Assistance in the Post-Cold War Period, 1991–96. Journal of Peace Research 40: 103–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Lake, David A. 1999. Entangling Relations: American Foreign Policy in its Century. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  40. Lavenex, Sandra, and Frank Schimmelfennig (eds.). 2013. Democracy Promotion in the EU’s Neighborhood: From Leverage to Governance?. Abingdon: Routledge.Google Scholar
  41. Lebovic, James H. 1988. National Interests and US Foreign Aid: The Carter and Reagan Years. Journal of Peace Research 25: 115–135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Levitsky, Steven, and Lucan Way. 2006. Linkage versus Leverage: Rethinking the International Dimension of Regime Change. Comparative Politics 38 (4): 379–400.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Levitsky, Steven, and Lucan Way. 2005. International Linkage and Democratization. Journal of Democracy 16 (3): 20–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Lipset, Seymour M. 1996. American Exceptionalism. New York: W. W. Norton.Google Scholar
  45. Marshall, Monty. 2016. Major Episodes of Political Violence (MEPV) and Conflict Regions, 1946–2015, Center for Systemic Peace, www.systemicpeace.org.
  46. Marshall, Monty and Keith Jaggers 2012 Polity IV Project: Political Regime Characteristics and Transitions, 18002011, http://www.systemicpeace.org/polity/polity4.htm.
  47. McKinlay, R.D., and R. Little. 1977. A Foreign Policy Model of US Bilateral Aid Allocation. World Politics 30: 58–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Meernik, James, Eric L. Krueger, and Steven C. Poe. 1998. Testing Models of US Foreign Policy: Foreign Aid During and After the Cold War. Journal of Politics 60: 63–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Mitchell, Lincoln A. 2016. The Democracy Promotion Paradox. Washington: Brookings Institution.Google Scholar
  50. Munck, Gerard, and James Verkuilen. 2002. Conceptualizing and Measuring Democracy: Evaluating Alternative Indices. Comparative Political Studies 35: 5–35.Google Scholar
  51. Nielson, Richard and Daniel Nielson 2010 Triage for Democracy: Selection Effects in Governance Aid, paper presented at the Department of Government, College of William & Mary, 5 February.Google Scholar
  52. Palmer, Glenn, Scott B. Wohlander, and T. Clifton Morgan. 2002. Give or Take: Foreign Aid and Foreign Policy Substitutability. Journal of Peace Research 39: 5–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Pipes, Daniel, and Adam M. Garfinkle (eds.). 1991. Friendly Tyrants: An American Dilemma. New York: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  54. Plumper, Thomas, and Eric Neumayer. 2010. The Level of Democracy During Interregnum Periods: Recoding the Polity2 Score. Political Analysis 18 (2): 206–226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Poe, Steven C. 1992. Human Rights and Economic Aid Allocation under Ronald Reagan and Jimmy Carter. American Journal of Political Science 36: 147–167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Rosati, Jerel.A., Martin W. Sampson, and Joe D. Hagan. 1994. Foreign Policy Restructuring: How Governments Respond to Global Change. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press.Google Scholar
  57. Rosenau, James. 1981. The Study of Political Adaptation. London: Francis Pinter.Google Scholar
  58. Rosenau, James. 1970. Foreign Policy as Adaptive Behavior: Some Preliminary Notes for a Theoretical Model. Comparative Politics 2: 365–387.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Rudloff, Peter, James M. Scott, and Tyra Blew. 2013. Countering Adversaries and Cultivating Friends: Indirect Rivalry Factors and Foreign Aid Allocation. Cooperation and Conflict 48 (3): 401–423.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Russett, Bruce. 1993. Grasping the Democratic Peace: Principles for a Post-Cold War World. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  61. Schraeder, Peter J., Steven W. Hook, and Brian Taylor. 1998. Clarifying the Foreign Aid Puzzle: A Comparison of American, Japanese, French, and Swedish Aid Flows. World Politics 50: 294–323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Scott, James M., and Ralph G. Carter. 2016. Promoting Democracy in Latin America: Foreign Policy Change and US Democracy Assistance, 1975–2010. Third World Quarterly 37 (2): 299–320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Scott, James M., and Carie A. Steele. 2011. Sponsoring Democracy: The United States and Democracy Aid to the Developing World, 1988–2001. International Studies Quarterly 55 (1): 47–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Snyder, Richard, H.W. Bruck, and Burton Sapin. 1954. Decision-making as an Approach to the Study of International Politics. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  65. Sprout, Harold, and Margaret Sprout. 1957. Environmental Factors in the Study of International Politics. Journal of Conflict Resolution 1 (4): 309–328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Strezhnev, Anton and Eric Voeten 2013 United Nations General Assembly Voting Data, hdl:1902.1/12379, Harvard Dataverse, V17.Google Scholar
  67. Themner, Lotta, and Peter Wallensteen. 2014. Armed Conflicts, 1946–2013. Journal of Peace Research 51 (4): 541–554.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Tierney, Michael, Daniel Nielson, J. Darren Hawkins, Timmons Roberts, Michael Findley, Ryan Powers, Bradley Parks, Sven Wilson, and Robert Hicks. 2011. More Dollars than Sense: Refining Our Knowledge of Development Finance Using AidData. World Development 39: 1891–1906.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Waltz, Kenneth N. 2008. Realism and International Politics. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  70. Welch, David. 2005. Painful Choices: A Theory of Foreign Policy Change. Princeton: Princeton University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Macmillan Publishers Ltd 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Political ScienceTexas Christian UniversityFort WorthUSA

Personalised recommendations