Advertisement

Place Branding and Public Diplomacy

, Volume 14, Issue 4, pp 285–304 | Cite as

Post-place branding as nomadic experiencing

  • George Rossolatos
Original Article

Abstract

This paper introduces post-place branding in the context of the post-representationalist turn in marketing research by drawing on Deleuze and Guattari’s (A thousand plateaus: capitalism and schizophrenia, University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, 1987) theory of nomadology. By engaging critically with fundamental concepts in the place and destination branding literature, post-place branding offers an alternative perspective to entrenched definitions of subjectivity, place, and event experiencing, by effecting a paradigmatic shift from processing monad to nomad, from event as symbolic structure to micro-events, from pre-constituted place to spacing in the process of de- and reterritorializations. Post-place branding is illustrated by re-imagining the brand architectural components of the experiential events of 70,000 Tons of Metal and The Boiler Room. The analysis culminates in a metaphorical modeling exercise that draws nomadological guidelines for brandcomms’ message strategy.

Keywords

Place branding Destination branding Nomadology Territorialization Metaphorical modeling 

References

  1. Abousnnouga, G., and D. Machin. 2011. The Changing Spaces of War Commemoration: A Multimodal Analysis of the Discourses of British Monuments. Social Semiotics 21 (2): 175–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Anholt, S. 2010. Definitions of Place Branding: Working Towards a Resolution. Place Branding and Public Diplomacy 6 (1): 1–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Arnould, E., and L. Price. 1993. River Magic: Extraordinary Experience and the Extended Service Encounter. Journal of Consumer Research 20: 24–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Arrigo, Y. 2017. Festivals 2025: An Experiential Landscape. Event Special Report, Haymarket Media Group.Google Scholar
  5. Ashworth, G. 2009. The Instruments of Place Branding: How Is It Done? European Spatial Research and Policy 16 (1): 9–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Askegaard, S., and G. Ger. 1998. Product-Country Images: Towards a Contextualized Approach. European Advances in Consumer Research 3: 50–58.Google Scholar
  7. Askegaard, S. 2010. Experience Economy in the Making: Hedonism, Play and Coolhunting in Automotive Song Lyrics. Consumption Markets & Culture 13 (4): 351–371.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Baker, B. 2007. Destination Branding for Small Cities: The Essentials for Successful Place Branding. London: Creative Leap.Google Scholar
  9. Balakrishnan, M.S., and G. Kerr. 2013. The 4d Model of Place Brand Management. In Branded Spaces: Experience Enactments and Entanglements, ed. S. Sonnenburg, and L. Baker, 31–42. Amsterdam: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Baudrillard, J. 1994. Simulation and Simulacra. Michigan: Michigan University Press.Google Scholar
  11. Bjerrisgaard, S.M., D. Kjeldgaard, and A. Bengtsson. 2012. Consumer–Brand Assemblages in Advertising Practices—An Analysis of Skin, Identity and Tattoos in Ads. Consumption, Markets & Culture.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10253866.2012.738067.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Boyns, D. 2006. Emotion-Based Self Theory. In Handbook of the Sociology of Emotions, ed. J.E. Stets, and J. Turner, 254–275. Amsterdam: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Braidotti, R. 2009. Nomadic Theory. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  14. Brakus, J.J. 2008. Embodied Cognition, Affordances and Mind Modularity: Using Cognitive Science to Present a Theory of Consumer Experiences. In Handbook on Brand and Experience Management, ed. B.H. Schmitt, and D.L. Rogers, 144–162. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
  15. Brakus, J.J., B.H. Schmitt, and L. Zarantonello. 2009. Brand Experience: What Is It? How Is It Measured? Does It Affect Loyalty? Journal of Marketing 73 (3): 52–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Brennan, T. 2004. The Transmission of Affect. London: Cornwell University Press.Google Scholar
  17. Campelo, A. 2015. Rethinking Sense of Place: Sense of One and Sense of Many. In Rethinking Place Branding: Comprehensive Brand Development for Cities and Regions, ed. M. Kavaratzis, G. Warnaby, and G.J. Ashworth, 51–60. London: Springer.Google Scholar
  18. Canniford, R., and D. Bajde. 2016. ASSEMBLING Consumption. In Assembling Consumption: Researching Actors, Networks And Markets, ed. R. Canniford, and D. Bajde, 1–19. Oxon: Routledge.Google Scholar
  19. Caru, A., and B. Cova. 2003. Revisiting Consumption Experience: A More Humble But Complete View of the Concept. Marketing Theory 3 (2): 267–286.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Da Silva Oliveira, E.H. 2016. Place Branding as a Strategic Spatial Planning Instrument: A Theoretical Framework to Branding Regions with References to Northern Portugal. Journal of Place Management and Development 9 (1): 47–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Delanda, M. 2006a. Deleuzian Social Ontology and Assemblage Theory. In Deleuze and the Social, ed. M. Fuglsang, and B.M. Sørensen, 250–266. Edinburgh: University of Edinburgh Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Delanda, M. 2006b. A New Philosophy of Society. London: Continuum.Google Scholar
  23. Deleuze, G., and F. Guattari. 1987. A Thousand Plateaus: Capitalism and Schizophrenia. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  24. Dholakia, N., and I. Reyes. 2013. Virtuality as Place and Process. Journal of Marketing Management 29: 1580–1591.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Dinnie, K. 2004. Place Branding: Overview of an Emerging literature. Place Branding and Public Diplomacy 1 (1): 106–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Egan, D. 2006. Resistance Under the Black Light Exploring the Use of Music in Two Exotic Dance Clubs. Journal of Contemporary Ethnography 35 (2): 201–219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Fairclough, N. 2004. Analysing Discourse: Textual Analysis For Social Research. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  28. Firat, F., and A. Venkatesh. 1995. Postmodernism and the Re-enchantment of Consumption. Journal of Consumer Research 22 (3): 239–267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Firat, F., S. Pettigrew, and R.W. Belk. 2011. Themed Experiences and Spaces. Consumption Markets & Culture 14 (2): 123–124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Forceville, C. 2009. Non-verbal and Multimodal Metaphor in a Cognitivist Framework: Agendas for Research. In Multimodal Metaphor, ed. C.J. Forceville, and E. Urios-Aparisi, 19–44. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Fournier, S., M.R. Solomon, and B.G. Englis. 2008. When brands resonate. In Handbook on Brand and Experience Management, ed. B.H. Schmitt, and D.L. Rogers, 35–57. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
  32. Fredriksen, A. 2014. Assembling Value(s): What a Focus on the Distributed Agency of Assemblages can Contribute to the Study of Value. LCSV Working Paper Series.Google Scholar
  33. Govers, R., and F. Go. 2009. Place Branding: Glocal, Virtual and Physical Identities, Constructed, Imagined and Experienced. London: Palgrave.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Gustaffson, C. 2015. Sonic Branding: A Consumer-Oriented Literature Review. Journal of Brand Management 22 (1): 20–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hallward, P. 2006. Deleuze and the Philosophy of Creation. New York: Verso.Google Scholar
  36. Hankinson, G. 2009. Managing Destination Brands: Establishing a Theoretical Foundation. Journal of Marketing Management 25 (1/2): 97–115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Hankinson, G. 2015. Rethinking the Place Branding Construct. In Rethinking Place Branding: Comprehensive Brand Development for Cities and Regions, ed. M. Kavaratzis, G. Warnaby, and G.J. Ashworth, 13–31. London: Springer.Google Scholar
  38. Hanna, S., and J. Rowley. 2011. Towards a Strategic Place Brand-Management Model. Journal of Marketing Management 27 (5–6): 458–476.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Hanna, S., and J. Rowley. 2013. A Practitioner-Led Strategic Place Brand-Management Model. Journal of Marketing Management 29 (15-16): 1782–1815.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Hesmondhalgh, D. 2008. Towards a Critical Understanding of Music, Emotion and Self-Identity. Consumption Markets & Culture 11 (4): 329–343.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Hess-Luttich, E.W.B. 2016. Urban Discourse—City Space, City Language, City Planning: Eco-semiotic Approaches to the Discourse Analysis of Urban Renewal. Sign Systems Studies 44 (1/2): 12–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Hill, T., R. Canniford, and J. Mol. 2014. Non-representational Marketing Theory. Marketing Theory 14 (4): 377–394.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Hirschman, E.C. 2007. Metaphor in the Marketplace. Marketing Theory 7 (3): 227–248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Hogg, M., and E. Banister. 2000. The Structure and Transfer of Cultural Meaning: A Study of Young Consumers and Pop Music. Advances in Consumer Research 27: 19–23.Google Scholar
  45. Holbrook, M.B., and E.C. Hirschman. 1982. The Experiential Aspects of Consumption: Consumer Fantasies, Feelings, and Fun. Journal of Consumer Research 9: 132–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Holbrook, M.B. 2008. Music Meanings in Movies: The Case of the Crime-Plus-Jazz Genre. Consumption Markets & Culture 11 (4): 307–327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Hung, K. 2001. Framing Meaning Perceptions with Music: The Case of Teaser Ads. Journal of Advertising XXX (3): 39–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Hughes, J. 2008. Deleuze and the Genesis of Representations. London: Continuum.Google Scholar
  49. Jackson, D.M. 2003. Sonic Branding: An Introduction. New York: Palgrave-Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Kavaratzis, M., and A. Kalandides. 2015. Rethinking the Place Brand: The Interactional Formation of Place Brands and the Role of Participatory Place Branding. Environment and Planning 47 (6): 1368–1382.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Kitchen, P. (ed.). 2008. Marketing Metaphors and Metamorphosis. London: Palgrave.Google Scholar
  52. Kotarba, J.A. 2003. Review Essay: Popular Music and Everyday Life: Three Styles of Scholarly Appreciation. Journal of Contemporary Ethnography 32: 360–368.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Lagopoulos, A.P. 2009. The Social Semiotics of Space: Metaphor, Ideology, and Political Economy. Semiotica 173 (1/4): 169–213.Google Scholar
  54. Lakoff, G. 1993. The Contemporary Theory of Metaphor. In Metaphor and Thought, ed. D. Ortony, 202–251. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Lakoff, G., and M. Johnson. 1980. The Metaphorical Structure of the Human Conceptual System. Cognitive Science 4: 195–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Lakoff, G., and M. Johnson. 2003. Metaphors We Live By. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Latour, B. 2005. Reassembling the Social: An Introduction to Actor-Network Theory. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  58. Lichrou, M., L. O’Malley, and M. Patterson. 2014. On the Marketing Implications of Place Narratives. Journal of Marketing Management 30 (9–10): 832–856.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Lorraine, T. 2005. Ahab and Becoming-Whale: The Nomadic Subject in Smooth Space. In Deleuze and Space, ed. I. Buchanan, and G. Lambert, 159–175. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Malbon, B. 1999. Clubbing: Dancing, Ecstasy and Vitality. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  61. Massumi, B. 1996. A Reader’s Guide to Capitalism and Schizophrenia: Deviations from Deleuze & Guattari. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  62. Massumi, B. 2002. Parable for the Virtual: Movement, Affect, Sensation. Durham: Duke University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. McIlvenny, P., and C. Noy. 2011. MULTIMODAL Discourse in Mediated Spaces. Social Semiotics 21 (2): 147–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Moilanen, T., and S. Rainisto. 2009. How to Brand Nations, Cities and Destinations: A Planning Book for Place Branding. London: Palgrave.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Morgan, N., A. Pritchard, and R. Pride (eds.). 2011. Destination Brands: Managing Place Reputation. Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  66. Ober-Heilig, N., S. Bekmeier-Feuerhahn, and J. Sikkenga. 2014. Enhancing Museum Brands with Experiential Design to Attract Low-Involvement Visitors. Arts Marketing: An International Journal 4 (1/2): 67–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Organ, N., A. Pritchard, and R. Pride (eds.). 2011. Destination Branding: Creating the Unique Destination Proposition. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann.Google Scholar
  68. Parr, A. 2010. The Deleuze Dictionary. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.Google Scholar
  69. Patton, P. 2005. Freedom. In The Deleuze Dictionary, ed. A. Parr, 117–119. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.Google Scholar
  70. Pine, J.B., and J.H. Gilmore. 1998. Welcome to the Experience Economy. Harvard Business Review 76 (4): 97–105.Google Scholar
  71. Ritchie, D.L. 2013. Metaphor. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  72. Rokka, J., and R. Canniford. 2016. Heterotopian Selfies: How Social Media Destabilizes Brand Assemblages. European Journal of Marketing 50 (9/10): 1–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Rossolatos, G. 2013. A Methodological Framework for Conducting Multimodal Rhetorical Analyses of Advertising Films with ATLAS.ti. In Atlas.ti User Conference 2013: Fostering Dialog on Qualitative Methods, ed. S. Friese, and Y. Ringmayr, 1–52. Berlin: Berlin Technical University Press. http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2315566.
  74. Rossolatos, G. 2014. Lady Gaga as (Dis)simulacrum of Monstrosity. Celebrity Studies 6 (2): 231–246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Rossolatos, G. 2015a. Servicing a Heavy Metal Fandom Posthumously: A Sociosemiotic Account of Collective Identity Formation in Dio’s Memorial. Social Semiotics 25 (5): 633–655.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Rossolatos, G. 2015b. Taking the “Multimodal Turn” in Interpreting Consumption Experiences. Consumption, Markets & Culture 18 (5): 427–446.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Rossolatos, G., and M. K. Hogg. 2013. Fetish, Taboo, Simulacrum: An Applied Psychoanalytic/Semiotic Approach to the Experiential Consumption of Music Products. Proceedings of the 12th International Marketing Trends Conference, Paris, France, 17–19 January. http://www.marketing-trendscongress.com/archives/2013/pages/PDF/770.pdf.
  78. Smilansky, S. 2009. Experiential Marketing: A Practical Guide to Interactive Brand Experiences. London: Kogan Page.Google Scholar
  79. Sonnenburg, S., and L. Baker. 2013. Approaching Branded Spaces. In Branded Spaces: Experience Enactments and Entanglements, ed. S. Sonnenburg, and L. Baker, 9–30. Amsterdam: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Spiggle, S. 1994. Analysis and Interpretation of Qualitative Data in Consumer Research. Journal of Consumer Research 21 (3): 491–503.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Thompson, C.J., W. Locander, and H.R. Pollio. 1990. Putting Consumer Experience Back into Consumer Research: The Philosophy and Method of Existential Phenomenology. Journal of Consumer Research 16: 133–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Thornton, S. 1995. Club Cultures: Music, Media and Subcultural Capital. Cambridge: Polity.Google Scholar
  83. Voisset-Veysseyre, C. 2011. Toward a Post-Identity Philosophy: Along a Flight Line with Gilles Deleuze. Trahir 2: 1–18.Google Scholar
  84. Zaltman, G., and L.H. Zaltman. 2008. Marketing Metaphoria: What Deep Metaphors Reveal About The Minds Of Consumers. Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  85. Zenker, S., and E. Braun. 2017. Questioning a “One Size Fits All” City Brand: Developing a Branded House Strategy for Place Brand Management. Journal of Place Management and Development 10 (3): 270–287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Macmillan Publishers Ltd., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of EnglishKassel UniversityKasselGermany

Personalised recommendations