Journal of Revenue and Pricing Management

, Volume 14, Issue 4, pp 262–275 | Cite as

On the ‘students as surrogates’ research conundrum: Insights from statistical reasoning in revenue management

  • Chih-Chien Chen
  • Zvi Schwartz
  • Xiaojuan Jady Yu
Research Article

Abstract

Research indicates that the adequacy of using students as surrogates in social science research might be situation specific; however, no consensus exists as to what the characteristics of these situations are. First to explore the question in the revenue management domain of statistical reasoning, we find no significant differences among experienced revenue managers, college students and the general public, or between students playing the roles of consumers and students playing the roles of revenue managers. It follows that in this specific revenue management domain, the use of students as surrogates for either customers or managers might be appropriate.

Keywords

student subjects revenue management statistical reasoning experimental design 

References

  1. Abdolmohammadi, M. and Wright, A. (1987) An examination of the effects of experience and task complexity on auditor judgments. The Accounting Review 62 (1): 1–13.Google Scholar
  2. Alpert, B. (1967) Non-businessmen as surrogates for businessmen in behavioral experiments. The Journal of Business 40 (2): 203–207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ankomah, P.K., Crompton, J.L. and Baker, D. (1996) Influence of cognitive distance in vacation choice. Annals of Tourism Research 23 (1): 138–150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bean, D.F. and D’Aquila, J.M. (2003) Accounting students as surrogates for accounting professionals when studying ethical dilemmas: A cautionary note. Teaching Business Ethics 7 (3): 187–204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Beltramini, R.F. (1983) Student surrogates in consumer research. Academy of Marketing Science 11 (4): 438–443.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Brase, G.L., Fiddick, L. and Harries, C. (2006) Participant recruitment methods and statistical reasoning performance. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 59 (5): 965–976.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Briggs, R.O., Balthazard, P.A. and Dennis, A.R. (1996) Graduate business students as surrogates for executives in the evaluation of technology. Journal of End User Computing 8 (4): 11–17.Google Scholar
  8. Browne, B.A. and Brown, D.J. (1993) Using students as subjects in research on stage lottery gambling. Psychological Reports 72 (3): 1295–1298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Buonomano, D. (2011) Brain Bugs: How the Brain’s Flaws Shape Our Lives. New York, NY: W. W. Norton & Company.Google Scholar
  10. Burnett, J.J. and Dune, P.M. (1986) An appraisal of the use of student subjects in marketing research. Journal of Business Research 14 (4): 329–343.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Casscells, W., Schoenberger, A. and Graboys, T.B. (1978) Interpretation by physicians of clinical laboratory results. The New England Journal of Medicine 299 (18): 999–1001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Chang, C.J. and Ho, J.L.Y. (2004) Judgment and decision making in project continuation: A study of students as surrogates for experienced managers. Abacus 40 (1): 94–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Chen, C. and Schwartz, Z. (2008) Timing matters: Travelers’ advanced-booking expectations and decisions. Journal of Travel Research 47 (1): 35–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Chen, C. and Schwartz, Z. (2013) On revenue management and last- minute booking dynamics. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management 25 (1): 7–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Chipkin, H. (2012) An independent view on revenue management. http://www.hotelnewsnow.com/Articles.aspx/9192/An-independent-view-on-revenue-management, accessed on 22 October 2012.
  16. Cole, R. (2012) Travel gamification – How to save money booking hotels. http://rockcheetah.com/blog/hotel/travel-gamification-how-to-save-money-booking-hotels/, accessed on 28 May 2012.
  17. Copeland, R.M., Francia, A.J. and Strawser, R.H. (1973) Students as subjects in behavioral business research. The Accounting Review 48 (2): 365–372.Google Scholar
  18. Crompton, J.L. and Kim, S.S. (2001) The influence of cognitive distance in vacation choice. Annals of Tourism Research 28 (2): 512–515.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Cunningham, W.H., Anderson Jr, W.T. and Murphy, J.H. (1974) Are students real people? The Journal of Business 47 (3): 399–409.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Enis, B.M., Cox, K.K. and Stafford, J.E. (1972) Students as subjects in consumer behavior experiments. Journal of Marketing Research 9 (1): 72–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Farley, J.U. (1981) Generalizing from ‘imperfect’ replication. The Journal of Business 54 (4): 597–610.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Forgacs, G. (2010) Revenue Management: Maximizing Revenue in Hospitality Operations. Lansing, MI: The American Hotel & Lodging Institute.Google Scholar
  23. Hampton, G.M. (1979) Students as subjects in international behavioral studies. Journal of International Business Studies 10 (2): 94–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hawkins, D.I., Albaum, G. and Best, R. (1977) An investigation of two issues in the use of students as surrogates for housewives in consumer behavior studies. The Journal of Business 50 (2): 216–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hayes, D.K. and Miller, A. (2011) Revenue Management for the Hospitality Industry. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.Google Scholar
  26. Kahneman, D. and Tversky, A. (1972) Subjective probability: A judgment of representativeness. Cognitive Psychology 3 (3): 430–454.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Khera, I.P. and Benson, J.D. (1970) Are students really poor substitutes for businessmen in behavioral research? Journal of Marketing Research 7 (4): 529–532.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Lamb, C.W. and Stem Jr, D.E. (1979) An evaluation of students as surrogates in marketing studies. Advances in Consumer Research 7 (1): 796–799.Google Scholar
  29. Libby, R., Bloomfield, R. and Nelson, W. (2002) Experimental research in financial accounting. Accounting, Organizations and Society 27 (8): 775–810.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Morgan, F.W. (1979) Students in marketing research: Surrogates vs. role-players. Academy of Marketing Science 7 (3): 255–264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Mortensen, T., Fisher, R. and Wines, G. (2012) Students as surrogates for practicing accountants: Further evidence. Accounting Forum 36 (4): 251–265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Park, C.W. and Lessig, V.P. (1977) Students and housewives: Differences in susceptibility to reference group influence. Journal of Consumer Research 4 (2): 102–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Peterson, R.A. (2001) On the use of college students in social science research: Insights from a second-order meta-analysis. Journal of Consumer Research 28 (3): 450–461.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Potters, J. and Winden, F. (2000) Professionals and students in a lobbying experiment: Professional rules of conduct and subject surrogacy. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization 43 (4): 499–522.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Remus, W. (1986) Graduate students as surrogates for managers in experiments on business decision making. Journal of Business Research 14 (1): 19–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Ro, H. and Kubickova, M. (2013) The use of students subjects in hospitality research: Insights from subjective knowledge. Journal of Quality Assurance in Hospitality & Tourism 14 (3-4): 295–317.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Robinson, P.B., Huefner, J.C. and Hunt, H.K. (1991) Entrepreneurial research on student subjects does not generalize to real world entrepreneurs. Journal of Small Business Management 29 (2): 42–50.Google Scholar
  38. Schwartz, Z. (2000) Changes in hotel guests’ willingness to pay as the date of stay draws closer. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Research 24 (2): 180–198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Schwartz, Z. (2006) Advanced booking and revenue management: Room rates and the consumers’ strategic zones. International Journal of Hospitality Management 25 (3): 447–462.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Schwartz, Z. (2008) Time, price and advanced booking of hotel rooms. International Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Administration 9 (2): 128–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Schwartz, Z. (2012) ‘Probability blindness’ and last-minute booking of hotel rooms: The case of Bayesian updating. International Journal of Tourism Sciences 12 (2): 63–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Schwartz, Z. and Cohen, E. (2004) Subjective estimates of occupancy forecasts uncertainty by hotel revenue managers. Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing 16 (4): 59–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Sheth, J.N. (1970) Are there differences in dissonance reduction behavior between students and housewives? Journal of Marketing Research 7 (2): 243–245.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Shuptrine, F.K. (1975) On the validity of using students as subjects in consumer behavior investigations. The Journal of Business 48 (3): 383–390.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Soley, L.C. and Reid, L.N. (1983) On the validity of students as subjects in advertising experiments. Journal of Advertising Research 23 (4): 57–59.Google Scholar
  46. Sullivan, L. (2009) How search is key to booking travel plans. http://www.mediapost.com/publications/article/110204/#axzz2XScA4eCI, accessed on 21 July 2009.
  47. Talluri, K.T. and van Ryzin, G. (2005) The Theory and Practice of Revenue Management. New York, NY: Springer.Google Scholar
  48. Trotman, K. (1996) Research Methods for Judgment and Decision Making Studies in Auditing. Melbourne, Australia: Cooper & Lybrand and Accounting Association of Australia and New Zealand.Google Scholar
  49. Trottier, K. and Gordon, I.M. (2011) Students as surrogates for managers: Evaluating the conclusions from a replicated accounting experiment. http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1928139, accessed 22 October 2012.
  50. Vinson, D.E. and Lundstrom, W.J. (1978) The use of students as experimental subjects in marketing research. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science 6 (1-2): 114–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Walters-York, L.M. and Curatola, A.P. (1998) Recent evidence on the use of students as surrogate subjects. In: J.E. Hunton (ed.) Advances in Accounting Behavioral Research, Vol. 1. USA: Elsevier Science/JAI Press, pp. 123–143.Google Scholar
  52. Wood, J.A., Longenecker, J.G., McKinney, J.A. and Moore, C.W. (1988) Ethical attitudes of students and business professionals: A study of moral reasoning. Journal of Business Ethics 7 (4): 249–257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Yavas, U. (1994) Research note: Students as subjects in advertising and marketing research. International Marketing Review 11 (4): 35–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Palgrave Macmillan, a division of Macmillan Publishers Ltd 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Chih-Chien Chen
    • 1
  • Zvi Schwartz
    • 2
  • Xiaojuan Jady Yu
    • 3
  1. 1.College of Hotel AdministrationNevadaUSA
  2. 2.Department of HotelRestaurant & Institutional ManagementNewarkUSA
  3. 3.School of Tourism ManagementGuangdongChina

Personalised recommendations