Risk Management

, Volume 16, Issue 2, pp 63–87

Preparing for extraterrestrial contact

  • Mark Neal
Original Article

Abstract

This article introduces the issue of extraterrestrial life to the study of disasters, their prevention and their management. Up until now, major journals in the field of risk and disaster research have ignored the potential threats posed by the existence of extraterrestrial life. With increasing scientific support for the existence of planets able to support life, and the rapid development of scientific disciplines such as astrobiology, the article argues that limiting the scope of disaster research to terrestrial matters is increasingly intellectually untenable. In order to rectify this situation, and begin a debate within the field, the article develops five theoretical scenarios concerning the likelihood of, and the threats posed by, extraterrestrial life forms. Doing so highlights possible new themes in disaster and risk management research. It is thus hoped that subsequent researchers may close the gap between scholarly discourse about risk management, and the scientific findings of disciplines such as astrobiology.

Keywords

SETI extraterrestrial risks risk management extraterrestrial intelligence (ETI) 

References

  1. Adie, W. et al (2005) Safety culture and accident risk control: Perceptions of professional divers and offshore workers. Safety Science 43 (2): 131–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Agassi, J. (2007) What collapse, exactly? Philosophy of the Social Sciences 37 (1): 74–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Alexander, D. (1997) The study of natural disasters, 1977–97: Some reflections on a changing field of knowledge. Disasters 21 (4): 284–304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Almár, I. (1995) The consequences of a discovery: Different scenarios. In: S. Shostak (ed.) Progress in the Search for Extraterrestrial Life. Vol. 74, San Francisco, California, USA: Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series, pp. 499–505.Google Scholar
  5. Almár, I. (2011) SETI and astrobiology: The Rio scale and the London scale. Acta Astronautica 69 (9): 899–904.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Almár, I. and Race, M.S. (2011) Discovery of extra-terrestrial life: Assessment by scales of its importance and associated risks. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences 369 (1936): 679–692.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Archer, M.S. (1995) Realist Social Theory: The Morphogenetic Approach. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Atkinson, N. (2013) 22% of sun-like stars have earth-sized planets in the habitable zone, Universe Today, http://www.universetoday.com/106121/22-of-sun-like-stars-have-earth-sized-planets-in-the-habitable-zone/#ixzz2lN7bgedZ.
  9. Atri, D., DeMarines, J. and Haqq-Misra, J. (2011) A protocol for messaging to extraterrestrial intelligence. Space Policy 27 (3): 165–169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Austin, P. (2010) Man, the State, and aliens: An investigation of unifying threats in structural realism. Unpublished Senior Thesis, Claremont McKenna College: Claremont, CA, http://www.claremontmckenna.edu/keck/research/AustinThesis2010[1].pdf.
  11. Bainbridge, W.S. (2011) Cultural beliefs about extraterrestrials: A questionnaire study. In: D.A. Vakoch and A.A. Harrison (eds.) Civilizations Beyond Earth: Extraterrestrial Life and Society. New York and Oxford: Berghahn Books, pp. 118–140.Google Scholar
  12. Bankoff, G. (2001) Rendering the world unsafe: ‘Vulnerability’ as Western discourse. Disasters 25 (1): 19–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Barbeito, P.F. (2005) ‘He’s making me feel things in my body that I don’t feel’: The body as battleground in accounts of alien abduction. The Journal of American Culture 28 (2): 201–215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Barrow, J. and Tipler, F.J. (1986) The Anthropic Cosmological Principle. New York: Oxford University.Google Scholar
  15. Baum, S.D., Haqq-Misra, J.D. and Domagal-Goldman, S.D. (2011) Would contact with extraterrestrials benefit or harm humanity? A scenario analysis. Acta Astronautica 68 (11): 2114–2129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Baxter, S. and Elliott, J. (2012) A SETI metapolicy: New directions towards comprehensive policies concerning the detection of extraterrestrial intelligence. Acta Astronautica 78: 31–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Beard, J. (1998) Science fiction films of the eighties: Fin de Siècle before its time. The Journal of Popular Culture 32 (1): 1–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Berger, P.L. and Luckmann, T. (1991) The Social Construction of Reality: A Treatise in the Sociology of Knowledge. (No. 10). London: Penguin.Google Scholar
  19. Bhaskar, R. (2008) A Realist Theory of Science. Abingdon, UK: Taylor and Francis.Google Scholar
  20. Bhattacharya, A.B., Sarkar, A. and Pandit, J. (2011) Some computations on the Drake equation to encapsulate the probable number of broadcasting civilizations. International Journal of Applied Engineering Research, Dindigul 2 (2): 590–594.Google Scholar
  21. Biba, E. (2012) Viruses from outer space: How will scientists protect the planet from extraterrestrial diseases? Take Part, http://www.takepart.com/article/2012/07/25/virus-outer-space-how-will-scientists-protect-planet-extraterrestrial-diseases.
  22. Bick, I.J. (1989) Aliens among us: A representation of children in science fiction. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association 37 (3): 737–759.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Billingham, J. and Benford, J. (2011) Costs and difficulties of large-scale ‘messaging’, and the need for international debate on potential risks. arXiv:1102.1938.Google Scholar
  24. Billingham, J., Heyns, R., Milne, D. and Shostak, S. (1999) Social Implications of the Detection of an Extraterrestrial Civilization. Mountain View, CA: SETI Press.Google Scholar
  25. Billings, L. (2012) Astrobiology in culture: The search for extraterrestrial life as ‘science’. Astrobiology 12 (10): 966–975.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Bostrom, N. (2013) Existential risk prevention as global priority. Global Policy 4 (1): 15–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Capova, K.A. (2013) The detection of extraterrestrial life: Are we ready? In: D.A. Vakoch (ed.) Astrobiology, History, and Society. Berlin and Heidelberg: Springer, pp. 271–281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Chaisson, E.J. (2003) A unifying concept for astrobiology. International Journal of Astrobiology 2 (2): 91–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Cirkovic, M.M. (2004) The temporal aspect of the Drake equation and SETI. Astrobiology 4 (2): 225–231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Clavin, W. and Harrington, J.D. (2013) Planck mission brings universe into sharp focus. Jet Propulsion Laboratory: California Institute of Technology, http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/news/news.php?release=2013-109&rn=news.xml&rst=3739.
  31. Cocconi, G. and Morrison, P. (1959) Searching for interstellar communications. Nature 184 (4690): 844–846.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Comfort, L.K. (2005) Risk, security, and disaster management. Annual Review of Political Science 8: 335–356.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Crichton, M. (2003) Aliens cause global warming. Cal Tech Michelin Lecture, 17 January.Google Scholar
  34. Crowe, M.J. and Dowd, M.F. (2013) The extraterrestrial life debate from antiquity to 1900. In: D.A. Vakoch (ed.) Astrobiology, History, and Society. Berlin and Heidelberg: Springer, pp. 3–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Cukrov, C. (2010) Is space spam sending the wrong message? PSFK, http://www.psfk.com/2010/01/is-space-spam-sending-the-wrong-message.html.
  36. Dagnall, N., Drinkwater, K. and Parker, A. (2011) Alien visitation, extra-terrestrial life, and paranormal beliefs. Journal of Scientific Exploration 25 (4): 699.Google Scholar
  37. Davies, P.C.W. (2003) Does life’s rapid appearance imply a Martian origin? Astrobiology 3 (4): 673–679.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Davis, W. (2000) Heaven’s gate: A study of religious obedience. Nova Religio: The Journal of Alternative and Emergent Religions 3 (2): 241–267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Declaration of Principles Concerning Activities Following the Detection of Extraterrestrial Intelligence (1989) SETI League Policy Manual, http://www.setileague.org/general/protocol.htm, accessed 23 February 2014.
  40. De la Torre, G.G. (2014) Toward a new cosmic consciousness: Psychoeducational aspects of contact with extraterrestrial civilizations. Acta Astronautica 94 (2): 577–583.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. de Vladar, H.P. (2013) The game of active search for extra-terrestrial intelligence: Breaking the ‘great silence’. International Journal of Astrobiology 12 (1): 53–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. De Wit, J. and Seager, S. (2013) Constraining exoplanet mass from transmission spectroscopy. Science 342 (6165): 1473–1477.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Dick, S. (1995) Consequences of success in SETI: Lessons from the history of science. In: S. Shostak (ed.) Progress in the Search for Extraterrestrial Life. Vol. 74, Bioastronomy Symposium; 16–20 August 1993, San Francisco, CA: Astronomical Society of the Pacific, p. 521.Google Scholar
  44. Dick, S.J. (1984) Plurality of Worlds: The Origins of the Extraterrestrial Life Debate from Democritus to Kant. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  45. Dominik, M. and Zarnecki, J.C. (2011) The detection of extra-terrestrial life and the consequences for science and society. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences 369 (1936): 499–507.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Ellis, G.F. and Brundrit, G.B. (1979) Life in the infinite universe. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society 20: 37–41.Google Scholar
  47. Finney, B., Lytkin, V. and Finney, L. (2000) Tsiolkovsky and extraterrestrial intelligence. Acta Astronautica 46 (10): 745–749.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Gardner, J. (2007) The Intelligent Universe: AI, ET, and the Emerging Mind of the Cosmos. New Jersey: New Page Books.Google Scholar
  49. Goldberg, C. (2000) The general’s abduction by aliens from a UFO: Levels of meaning of alien abduction reports. Journal of Contemporary Psychotherapy 30 (3): 307–320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Gross, M. (2012) The search for life on earth and other planets. Current Biology 22 (7): R207–R211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Grossman, L. (2013) Drake equation gets a reboot based on planet hunter’s bounty. New Scientist 218 (2918): 6–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Halley, J.W. (ed.) (2012) Colonization and panspermia. In: How Likely is Extraterrestrial Life? Berlin and Heidelberg: Springer, pp. 67–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Haqq-Misra, J., Busch, M.W., Som, S.M. and Baum, S.D. (2013) The benefits and harm of transmitting into space. Space Policy 29 (1): 40–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Harrison, A.A. (2002) After Contact: The Human Response to Extraterrestrial Life. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  55. Harrison, A.A. (2005) Overcoming the image of little green men: astrosociology and SETI. Astrosociology.com, http://www.astrosociology.com/library/pdf/submissions/overcoming%20lgm_harrison.pdf.
  56. Harrison, A.A. (2011) Fear, pandemonium, equanimity and delight: Human responses to extra-terrestrial life. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences 369 (1936): 656–668.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Harrison, A.A. (2014) Cosmic evolution, reciprocity, and interstellar tit for tat. In: D.A. Vakoch (ed.) Extraterrestrial Altruism. Berlin and Heidelberg: Springer, pp. 3–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Harrison, A.A. and Dick, S.J. (2000) Contact: Long-term implications for humanity. In: A. Tough (ed.) When SETI Succeeds: The Impact of High-Information Contact. Bellevue, Washington DC: Foundation for the Future, Section II, pp. 7–31.Google Scholar
  59. Harrison, A.A. and Elms, A.C. (1990) Psychology and the search for extraterrestrial intelligence. Behavioral Science 35 (3): 207–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Hart, M.H. (1975) Explanation for the absence of extraterrestrials on earth. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society 16: 128–135.Google Scholar
  61. Hawking, S. (2010) Transcript for Stephen Hawking asks big questions about the universe, http://dotsub.com/view/b27cafe0-10b1-4160-8f56-59f630033228/viewTranscript/eng, accessed 23 February 2014.
  62. Hickman, L. (2010) Stephen Hawking takes a hard line on aliens, The Guardian, http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2010/apr/26/stephen-hawking-issues-warning-on-aliens.
  63. Huang, S.S. (1959) Occurrence of life in the universe. American Scientist 47 (3): 397–402.Google Scholar
  64. Impey, C., Lunine, J. and Funes, J. (eds.) (2012) Frontiers of Astrobiology. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Irwin, L.N. and Schulze-Makuch, D. (eds.) (2011) Biocomplexity in the Cosmos. In: Cosmic Biology. New York: Springer, pp. 273–294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Jones, M. (2013) Mainstream media and social media reactions to the discovery of extraterrestrial life. In: D.A. Vakoch (ed.) Astrobiology, History and Society. Berlin and Heidelberg: Springer, pp. 313–328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Joseph, R. and Schild, R. (2010) Biological cosmology and the origins of life in the universe. Journal of Cosmology 5: 1040–1090.Google Scholar
  68. Jung, C.G. (1981) The Archetypes and The Collective Unconscious. Vol. 9. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  69. Kaiser, R.I., Stockton, A.M., Kim, Y.S., Jensen, E.C. and Mathies, R.A. (2013) On the formation of dipeptides in interstellar model ices. The Astrophysical Journal 765 (2): 111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Karon, B.P. (1996) On being abducted by aliens. Psychoanalytic Psychology 13 (3): 417.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Kasting, J.F., Whitmire, D.P. and Reynolds, R.T. (1993) Habitable zones around main sequence stars. Icarus 101 (1): 108–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Kaveney, R. (2005) From Alien to The Matrix: Reading Science Fiction Film. London: IB Tauris.Google Scholar
  73. Kelley-Romano, S. (2006) The modern mythmaking of alien abductions. Communication Quarterly 54 (3): 383–406.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Khan, A. (2010) Scientists weigh in on Hawking’s alien warning, Los Angeles Times, http://articles.latimes.com/2010/may/07/science/la-sci-hawking-aliens-20100508.
  75. Korbitz, A. (2014) The precautionary principle: Egoism, altruism, and the active SETI debate. In: D.A. Vakoch (ed.) Extraterrestrial Altruism. Berlin and Heidelberg: Springer, pp. 111–127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Kuhn, T.S. (2012) The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Leake, J. (2010) Don’t talk to aliens, warns Stephen Hawking. The Sunday Times, p. 25, http://www.thesundaytimes.co.uk/sto/news/uk_news/Science/article272392.ece.
  78. Lemarchand, G.A. (2000) Detectability of intelligent life in the Universe: A search based in our knowledge of the laws of nature. In: J. Chela-Flores, G.A. Lemarchand, and J. Oró (eds.) Astrobiology: Origins from the Big-Bang to Civilisation Proceedings of the Iberoamerican School of Astrobiology Caracas, Venezuela, 28 November–8 December 1999. New York: Springer. pp. 13–32.Google Scholar
  79. Lettieri, E., Masella, C. and Radaelli, G. (2009) Disaster management: Findings from a systematic review. Disaster Prevention and Management 18 (2): 117–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Lineweaver, C.H., Fenner, Y. and Gibson, B.K. (2004) The galactic habitable zone and the age distribution of complex life in the milky way. Science 303 (5654): 59–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Lubick, N. (2012) Alien encounters. Nature 484 (7394): 405–406.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Luokkala, B.B. (ed.) (2014) What lies ahead? In: Exploring Science Through Science Fiction. New York: Springer, pp. 177–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Maccone, C. (2011) SETI and SEH (statistical equation for habitables). Acta Astronautica 68 (1): 63–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Manyena, S.B. (2006) The concept of resilience revisited. Disasters 30 (4): 434–450.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. McGettigan, T. (2013) On the wings of a fantasy. Contexts 12 (2): 55–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Moorbath, S. (2005) Palaeobiology: Dating earliest life. Nature 434 (7030): 155–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Morrow, B.H. (1999) Identifying and mapping community vulnerability. Disasters 23 (1): 1–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Musso, P. (2012) The problem of active SETI: An overview. Acta Astronautica 78: 43–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. NASA (1996) President Clinton Statement Regarding Mars Meteorite Discovery, http://www2.jpl.nasa.gov/snc/clinton.html, accessed 20 March 2014.
  90. Nield, T. (2007) Ten Billion Years in the Life of Our Planet. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  91. Offit, P.A. and Coffin, S.E. (2003) Communicating science to the public: MMR vaccine and autism. Vaccine 22 (1): 1–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Paglen, T. (2013) Friends of space, how are you all? Have you eaten yet? Or, why talk to aliens even if we can’t. Afterall: A Journal of Art, Context, and Enquiry 32 (1): 8–19.Google Scholar
  93. Patomaki, H. (2006) Realist ontology for futures studies. Journal of Critical Realism 5 (1): 1–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Paton, D. and Johnston, D. (2001) Disasters and communities: Vulnerability, resilience and preparedness. Disaster Prevention and Management 10 (4): 270–277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Perry, R.W. and Lindell, M.K. (2003) Preparedness for emergency response: Guidelines for the emergency planning process. Disasters 27 (4): 336–350.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Peters, T. (2013) Would the discovery of ETI provoke a religious crisis? In: D.A. Vakoch (ed.) Astrobiology, History, and Society. Berlin and Heidelberg: Springer, pp. 341–355.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Petigura, E.A., Howard, A.W. and Marcy, G.W. (2013) Prevalence of Earth-Size Planets Orbiting Sun-Like Stars. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 110 (48): 19273–19278.Google Scholar
  98. Petigura, E.A. and Marcy, G.W. (2011) Carbon and oxygen in nearby stars: Keys to protoplanetary disk chemistry. The Astrophysical Journal 735 (1): 41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Pinotti, R. (1990) Contact: Releasing the news. Acta Astronautica 21 (2): 109–115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Prantzos, N. (2013) A joint analysis of the Drake equation and the fermi paradox. International Journal of Astrobiology 12 (03): 246–253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Reijnen, G.C.M. (1990) Basic elements of an international terrestrial reply following the detection of a signal from extraterrestrial intelligence. Acta Astronautica 21 (2): 143–148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Removing the Shackles (2013) Transcription of Paul Hellyer testimony: People’s Disclosure, http://removingtheshackles.blogspot.co.uk/2013/05/transcription-of-paul-hellyer-testimony.html, accessed 20 March 2014.
  103. Rose, A. (2004) Defining and measuring economic resilience to disasters. Disaster Prevention and Management 13 (4): 307–314.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Roy, K.I., Kennedy, III R.G. and Fields, D.E. (2012) Shell worlds. Acta Astronautica 82 (2): 238–245.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Ruppersburg, H. (1987) The alien messiah in recent science fiction films. Journal of Popular Film and Television 14 (4): 158–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Sagan, C. and Drake, F. (1975) The search for extraterrestrial intelligence. Scientific American 232: 80–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Sala, M. (2009) Reagan’s extraterrestrial fixation – Will records reveal UFO briefing? Examiner.com, http://www.examiner.com/article/reagan-s-extraterrestrial-fixation-will-records-reveal-ufo-briefing.
  108. Sandywell, B. (2006) Monsters in cyberspace, cyberphobia and cultural panic in the information age. Information, Community and Society 9 (1): 39–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Schenkel, P. (2006) SETI requires a skeptical reappraisal. Skeptical Inquirer 30 (3): 26.Google Scholar
  110. Schipper, L. and Pelling, M. (2006) Disaster risk, climate change and international development: Scope for, and challenges to, integration. Disasters 30 (1): 19–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Seager, S. (2013) Exoplanet habitability. Science 340 (6132): 577–581.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Sharov, A.A. (2010) Genetic gradualism and the extraterrestrial origin of life. Journal of Cosmology 5: 833–842.Google Scholar
  113. Shklovskii, I.S. and Sagan, C. (1966) Intelligent Life in the Universe. San Francisco, CA: Holden-Day.Google Scholar
  114. Shostak, S. (2010) Talk to the aliens. New Scientist 207 (2767): 26–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Shostak, S. (2013) Are transmissions to space dangerous? International Journal of Astrobiology 1 (1): 1–4.Google Scholar
  116. Slater, T.F. (2006) Capturing student interest in astrobiology through dilemmas and paradoxes. Journal of College Science Teaching 35 (6): 42–45.Google Scholar
  117. Stableford, B. (1998) Science fiction in the seventies. Vector: The Critical Journal of the British Science Fiction Association 200: 21–4.Google Scholar
  118. Stupple, D. and Dashti, A. (1977) Flying saucers and multiple realities: A case study in phenomenological theory. The Journal of Popular Culture 11 (2): 479–493.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Tarter, J. (2001) The search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI). Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics 39 (1): 511–548.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Tarter, J.C. (2013) Who will speak for Earth and should they? In: C. Impey, A.H. Spitz and W. Stoeger (eds.) Encountering Life in the Universe: Ethical Foundations and Social Implications of Astrobiology. Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona Press, pp. 178–199.Google Scholar
  121. Tipler, F.J. (1981) A brief history of the extraterrestrial intelligence concept. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society 22: 133–145.Google Scholar
  122. Tough, A. (2000) When SETI Succeeds: The Impact of High-information Contact. Bellevue, Washington DC: Foundation for the Future.Google Scholar
  123. Trushell, J.M. (2004) American dreams of mutants: The X-Men – ‘Pulp’ fiction, science fiction, and superheroes. The Journal of Popular Culture 38 (1): 149–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Uitto, J.I. (1998) The geography of disaster vulnerability in megacities: A theoretical framework. Applied Geography 18 (1): 7–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Vakoch, D.A. (2013) Astrobiology, History, and Society: Life Beyond Earth and the Impact of Discovery, Advances in Astrobiology and Biogeophysics. Berlin and Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Vakoch, D.A. and Lee, Y.S. (2000) Reactions to receipt of a message from extraterrestrial intelligence: A cross-cultural empirical study. Acta Astronautica 46 (10): 737–744.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Von Daniken, E. (1970) Chariots of the Gods. London: Penguin.Google Scholar
  128. Von Daniken, E. (1973) The Gold of the Gods. London, UK: Souvenir Press.Google Scholar
  129. Walton, M. (2013) The dark side of transformational leadership: A critical perspective. Industrial and Commercial Training 45 (6): 369–370.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Waltz, K.N. (2000) Structural realism after the cold war. International Security 25 (1): 5–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Weichselgartner, J. (2001) Disaster mitigation: The concept of vulnerability revisited. Disaster Prevention and Management 10 (2): 85–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Weigel, M.M. and Coe, K. (2013) Impact of extraterrestrial life discovery for third world societies: Anthropological and public health considerations. In: D.A. Vakoch (ed.) Astrobiology, History, and Society. Berlin and Heidelberg: Springer, pp. 283–299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Welham, R. (2010) Scientists warn about attempting to contact aliens, English News. CN, http://news.xinhuanet.com/english2010/sci/2010-04/26/c_13267950.htm.
  134. Wesson, P.S. (2010) Panspermia, past and present: Astrophysical and biophysical conditions for the dissemination of life in space. Space Science Reviews 156 (1–4): 239–252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Whitehouse, D. (2007) Meet the neighbours: Is the search for aliens such a good idea? The Independent, p. 25.Google Scholar
  136. Wickramasinghe, N.C. and Wickramasinghe, J.T. (2008) On the possibility of microbiota transfer from Venus to Earth. Astrophysics and Space Science 317 (1–2): 133–137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Palgrave Macmillan, a division of Macmillan Publishers Ltd 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mark Neal
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Financial & Management StudiesSOAS, University of LondonLondonUK

Personalised recommendations