Advertisement

Place Branding and Public Diplomacy

, Volume 10, Issue 1, pp 35–54 | Cite as

‘Launching’ a new nation: The unfolding brand of South Sudan

  • Peter HarengelEmail author
  • Ayantunji Gbadamosi
Original Article

Abstract

In June 2011 South Sudan joined the United Nations as a new state, marking the final stage of years of struggle for independence. Its secession is witness to the potential of regions with no historic claims of statehood to achieve independence. This unique situation gives researchers the opportunity to explore how the brand of a nation comes into existence. This article traces how the brand of a new nation has unfolded in the case of South Sudan and analyzes how that brand was written into existence by international news media. This exploratory case study approach is based on inductive content analysis research processes founded on grounded theory. The research brings new insights to research of nation brands in their very early stages.

Keywords

nation brand post-crisis brand qualitative brand identity Africa South Sudan 

References

  1. Aaker, D.A. (1996) Building Strong Brands. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  2. Ahluwalia, R., Burnkrant, R.E. and Unnava, H.R. (2000) Consumer response to negative publicity: The moderating role of commitment. Journal of Marketing Research 37 (2): 203–214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ambler, T. and Styles, C. (1996) Brand development versus new product development: Towards a process model of extension decisions. Marketing Intelligence & Planning 14 (7): 10–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Angela, I.O. and Stella, E.E. (2011) A comparative analysis of channels TV and CNN’s coverage of world news. Journal of Public Affairs 11 (1): 4–24.Google Scholar
  5. Anholt, S. (2002) Foreword. Journal of Brand Management 9 (4–5): 229–239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Anholt, S. (2005) Brand New Justice: How Branding Places and Products Can Help the Developing World. Revised edn. Oxford, UK: Butterworth-Heinemann.Google Scholar
  7. Anholt, S. (2007) Competitive Identity: The New Brand Management for Nations, Cities and Regions. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Aronczyk, M. (2008) Living the brand: Nationality, globality and the identity strategies of nation branding consultants. International Journal of Communication 2 (1): 41–65.Google Scholar
  9. Ashworth, G. and Kavaratzis, M. (2007) Beyond the logo: Brand management for cities. Journal of Brand Management 16 (8): 520–531.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Badawi, Z. (2011) Somaliland hopes for international recognition. BBC. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-12279880, accessed 4 October 2012.
  11. Barbour, K.M. (1964) North and South in Sudan, A study in human contrasts. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 54 (2): 209–226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bartels, J. and Hoogendam, K. (2011) The role of social identity and attitude towards sustainability brands in buying behaviours for organic products. Journal of Brand Management 18 (9): 697–708.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Blaikie, N. (2009) Designing Social Research: The Logic of Anticipation. Cambridge, UK: Polity.Google Scholar
  14. Blumer, H. (1954) What is wrong with social theory? American Sociological Review 19 (1): 3–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Boulding, K.E. (1956) The Image; Knowledge in Life and Society. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bräutigam, D.A. and Knack, S. (2004) Foreign aid, institutions, and governance in sub-Saharan Africa. Economic Development and Cultural Change. 52 (2): 255–285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Carlile, P.R. and Christensen, C.M. (2005) The Cycles of Theory Building in Management Research. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School. Working Paper.Google Scholar
  18. Chao, P. (2001) The moderating effects of country of assembly, country of parts, and country of design on hybrid product evaluations. Journal of Advertising 30 (4): 67–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Charmaz, K. (2003) Grounded theory: Objectivist and constructivist methods. In N.K. Denzin and Y.S. Lincoln (eds.) Strategies of Qualitative Inquiry. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, pp. 249–291.Google Scholar
  20. Chomsky, N. and Herman, E.S. (2002) Manufacturing Consent: The Political Economy of the Mass Media. New York: Pantheon Books.Google Scholar
  21. Christopher, A.J. (2011) Secession and South Sudan: An African precedent for the future? South African Geographical Journal 93 (2): 125–132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Clapham, C. (1998) Discerning the new Africa. International Affairs 74 (2): 263–269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Cook, F.L. et al. (1983) Media and agenda setting: Effects on the public, interest group leaders, policy makers, and policy. Public Opinion Quarterly 47 (1): 16–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Davis, M. (1977) Interpreters for Nigeria: The Third World and International Public Relations. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press.Google Scholar
  25. De Mooij, M. and Hofstede, G. (2002) Convergence and divergence in consumer behavior: Implications for international retailing. Journal of Retailing 78 (1): 61–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Dichter, E. (1962) The world consumer. Harvard Business Review 40 (4): 112–118.Google Scholar
  27. Dinnie, K. (2004) Country-of-origin 1965–2004: A literature review. Journal of Customer Behaviour 3 (2): 165–213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Dinnie, K. (2007) Nation Branding: Concepts, Issues, Practice. 1st edn. Oxford, UK: Butterworth-Heinemann.Google Scholar
  29. Dinnie, K., Melewar, T.C., Seidenfuss, K. and Musa, G. (2010) Nation branding and integrated marketing communications: An ASEAN Perspective. International Marketing Review 27 (4): 388–403.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Endzina, I. and Luneva, L. (2004) Development of a national branding strategy: The case of Latvia. Place Branding and Public Diplomacy 1 (1): 94–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Fan, Y. (2006) Branding the nation: What is being branded? Journal of Vacation Marketing 12 (1): 5–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Fessy, T. (2012) Mali rebel independence rejected. BBC. Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-17640223, accessed 17 June 2012.
  33. Gbadamosi, A. (2012) Exploring children, family, and consumption behaviour: Empirical evidence from Nigeria. Thunderbird International Business Review 54 (4): 591–605.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Gbadamosi, A., Hinson, R., Eddy, T.K. and Ingunjiri, I. (2012) Children’s attitudinal reactions to TV advertisements: The African experience. International Journal of Market Research 54 (4): 543–566.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Geier, P. (1986) Global products, localized messages. Marketing Communications 11 (2): 23–27.Google Scholar
  36. Ghodeswar, B.M. (2008) Building brand identity in competitive markets: A conceptual model. Journal of Product and Brand Management 17 (1): 4–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Glaser, B.G. (1978) Theoretical Sensitivity: Advances in the Methodology of Grounded Theory. Mill Valley, CA: The Sociology Press.Google Scholar
  38. Glaser, B.G. and Strauss, A. (1967) The Discovery of Grounded Theory; Strategies for Qualitative Research. Chicago, IL: Aldine Pub.Google Scholar
  39. Gonzenbach, W.J., Arant, M.D. and Stevenson, R.L. (1992) The world of U.S. network television news: Eighteen years of international and foreign news coverage. International Communication Gazette 50 (1): 53–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Gould, M. and Skinner, H. (2007) Branding on ambiguity? Place branding without a national identity: Marketing northern Ireland as a post-conflict society in the USA. Place Branding and Public Diplomacy 3 (1): 100–113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Grindle, M.S. (2004) Good enough governance: Poverty reduction and reform in developing countries. Governance 17 (4): 525–548.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Gudykunst, W.B. (1997) Cultural variability in communication an introduction. Communication Research 24 (4): 327–348.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Gudykunst, W.B. and Ting-Toomey, S. (1988) Culture and affective communication. American Behavioral Scientist 31 (3): 384–400.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Gummesson, E. (2003) All research is interpretive! Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing 18 (6/7): 482–492.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Hall, D. (2002) Brand development, tourism and national identity: The re-imaging of former Yugoslavia. Journal of Brand Management 9 (4): 323–334.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Hankinson, G. (2009) Managing destination brands: Establishing a theoretical foundation. Journal of Marketing Management 25 (1-2): 97–115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Hankinson, G. (2010) Place branding theory: A cross-domain literature review from a marketing perspective. In: G.J. Ashworth and M. Kavaratzis (eds.) Towards Effective Place Brand Management: Branding European Cities and Regions. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing, pp. 15–35.Google Scholar
  48. Hanzich, R. (2011) Struggles in South Sudan: Five months to resolve 55 years of structural violence. Harvard International Review 33 (1): 38–41.Google Scholar
  49. Herbig, P. and Milewicz, J. (1995) The relationship of reputation and credibility to brand success. Journal of Consumer Marketing 12 (4): 5–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Hofstede, G.H. (1984) Culture’s Consequences: International Differences in Work-related Values. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  51. Hofstede, G.H. (2001) Culture’s Consequences: Comparing Values, Behaviors, Institutions, and Organizations Across Nations. 2nd edn. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  52. Hofstede, G.J. and Hofstede, G.H. (2005) Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind. Rev. and expanded 2nd. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  53. Hussey, M. and Duncombe, N. (1999) Projecting the right image: Using projective techniques to measure brand image. Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal 2 (1): 22–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Illia, L. and Rekom, J. (2012) Identity concerns or functional concerns? High vs low identifiers reaction to brand identity change. Corporate Reputation Review 15 (1): 52–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Insch, G.S. and McBride, J.B. (1998) Decomposing the country-of-origin construct: An empirical test of country do design, country of parts and country of assembly. Journal of International Consumer Marketing 10(4), pp. 69–91.Google Scholar
  56. Kapferer, J. (2012) The New Strategic Brand Management: Advanced Insights and Strategic Thinking. 5th edn. London, UK: Kogan Page.Google Scholar
  57. Kapferer, J.-N. (2008) The New Strategic Brand Management: Creating and Sustaining Brand Equity Long Term. 4th edn. London, UK: Kogan Page.Google Scholar
  58. Kavaratzis, M. (2005) Place branding: A review of trends and conceptual models. The Marketing Review 5 (4): 329–342.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Keegan, W.J. (1995) Global Marketing Management. 5th edn. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  60. Keller, K.L. (1993) Conceptualizing, measuring, and managing customer-based brand equity. The Journal of Marketing 57 (1): 1–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Keller, K.L. (2008) Strategic Brand Management: Building, Measuring, and Managing Brand Equity. 3rd edn. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  62. Kevlihan, R. (2007) Beyond creole nationalism? Language policies, education and the challenge of state building in post-conflict Southern Sudan. Ethnopolitics 6 (4): 513–543.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Kim, J., Yoon, H.J. and Lee, S.Y. (2010) Integrating advertising and publicity: A theoretical examination of the effects of exposure sequence, publicity valence, and product attribute consistency. Journal of Advertising 39 (1): 97–114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Kotler, P. and Gertner, D. (2002) Country as brand, product, and beyond: A place marketing and brand management perspective. Journal of Brand Management 9 (4): 249–261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Kotler, P. and Levy, S.J. (1969) Broadening the concept of marketing. The Journal of Marketing 33 (1): 10–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Lee, R. and Lockshin, L. (2012) Reverse country-of-origin effects of product perceptions on destination image. Journal of Travel Research 51 (4): 502–511.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Leedy, P.D. and Ormrod, J.E. (2005) Practical Research: Planning and Design. 8th edn. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  68. Lepp, A., Gibson, H. and Lane, C. (2011) Image and perceived risk: A study of Uganda and its official tourism website. Tourism Management 32 (3): 675–684.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Low, G.S. and Lamb Jr, C.W. (2000) The measurement and dimensionality of brand associations. Journal of Product & Brand Management 9 (6): 350–370.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Mailer, G. (2007) Anglo-American and European Missionary Encounters in Southern Sudan, 1898–Present. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  71. Mills, J. and Birks, M. (2011) Grounded Theory: A Practical Guide. Los Angeles, CA: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  72. Mennen, T. (2007) Legal pluralism in Southern Sudan: Can the rest of Africa show the way? Africa Policy Journal 3 (1): 49–73.Google Scholar
  73. Morgan, N. and Pritchard, A. (2002) Contextualizing destination branding. In: N. Morgan, A. Pritchard and R. Pride (eds.) Destination Branding: Creating the Unique Destination Proposition. Oxford, UK: Butterworth-Heinemann, pp. 11–41.Google Scholar
  74. Mueller, B. (1992) Standardization vs. Specialization: An examination of westernization in Japanese advertising. Journal of Advertising Research 32 (1): 15–24.Google Scholar
  75. Muhr, T. (1991) Atlas/ti – A prototype for the support of text interpretation. Qualitative Sociology 14 (4): 349–371.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Nathan, D. (2011) The South Sudan referendum. Economic & Political Weekly 46 (11): 25–27.Google Scholar
  77. Nedelcheva, M. (2011) Southern Sudan on the road to independence and democracy. European View 10 (1): 73–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. O’Shaughnessy, J. and Jackson, N. (2000) Treating the nation as a brand: Some neglected issues. Journal of Macromarketing 20 (1): 56–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Olins, W. (2002) Branding the nation – The historical context. Journal of Brand Management 9 (4): 241–248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Osei, C. and Gbadamosi, A. (2011) Re-branding Africa. Marketing Intelligence & Planning 29 (3): 284–304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Packer, C.A. and Rukare, D. (2002) The new African Union and its constitutive act. American Journal of International Law 96 (2): 365–379.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Padgett, D.K. (ed.) (2004) Coming of age: Theoretical thinking, social responsibility, and a global perspective in qualitative research. In: The Qualitative Research Experience. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Thomson Learning, pp. 297–315.Google Scholar
  83. Paek, H.J. (2005) Understanding celebrity endorsers in cross-cultural contexts: A content analysis of South Korean and US newspaper advertising. Asian Journal of Communication 15 (2): 133–153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Patey, L.A. (2010) Crude days ahead? Oil and the resource curse in Sudan. African Affairs 109 (437): 617–636.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Patton, M.Q. (1980) Qualitative Evaluation Methods. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  86. Pike, S., Constanza, B., Kerr, G. and Patti, C. (2010) Consumer-based brand equity for Australia as a long-haul tourism destination in an emerging market. International Marketing Review 27 (4): 434–449.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Rein, I. and Kotler, P. (2005) High Visibility, Third Edition: Transforming Your Personal and Professional Brand. 3rd edn. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  88. Rhee, J. and Johnson, K.K.P. (2012) Predicting adolescents’ apparel brand preferences. Journal of Product and Brand Management 21 (4): 255–264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Robichaud, F., Richeliue, A. and Kozak, R. (2012) Branding as a communications strategy: A framework for desired brand identity. Journal of Brand Management 19 (8): 712–734.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Rolandsen, Ø.H. (2011) A false start: Between war and peace in the Southern Sudan, 1956–62. The Journal of African History 52 (01): 105–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Roth, K.P. and Diamantopoulos, A. (2009) Advancing the country image construct. Journal of Business Research 62 (7): 726–740.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Sharkey, H.J. (2008) Arab identity and ideology in Sudan: The politics of language, ethnicity, and race. African Affairs 107 (426): 21–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Sidahmed, A.S. (2010) Institutional reform and political party engagement: Challenges to democratic transformation in post-CPA Sudan. International Journal of African Renaissance Studies 5 (1): 19–35.Google Scholar
  94. Silverstein, K. (2007) Undercover, under fire. latimes.com. Available at: http://www.latimes.com/news/opinion/commentary/la-oe-silverstein30jun30,0,2313728.story, accessed 25 September 2012.
  95. Smith, P. (2006) Clash of civilizations at Hong Kong newspaper. New York Times. Available at: http://www.nytimes.com/2006/11/19/business/worldbusiness/19iht-paper20.3594627.html, accessed 11 July 2012.
  96. Soares, A.M., Farhangmehr, M. and Shoham, A. (2007) Hofstede’s dimensions of culture in international marketing studies. Journal of Business Research 60 (3): 277–284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Southall, A. (2012) Clooney is arrested at Sudan Embassy. The New York Times. Available at: http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html, accessed 10 June 2012.
  98. Srivastava, R.K. (2011) Understanding brand identity confusion. Marketing Intelligence and Planning 29 (4): 340–353.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Steenkamp, J.B.E., Hofstede, F. and Wedel, M. (1999) A cross-national investigation into the individual and national cultural antecedents of consumer innovativeness. The Journal of Marketing 63 (2): 55–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Stevenson, R.L. and Gaddy, G.D. (1984) ‘Bad news’and the third world. In: R.L. Stevenson and D.L. Shaw (eds.) Foreign News and the New World Information Order. Ames, IA: Iowa State Press, pp. 88–97.Google Scholar
  101. Strauss, A.L. and Corbin, J.M. (1990) Basics of Qualitative Research: Grounded Theory Procedures and Techniques. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  102. Suddaby R (2006) From the editors: What grounded theory is not. The Academy of Management Journal 49 (4): 633–642.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Szondi, G. (2007) Country case insight – Hungary. In: K. Dinnie (ed.) Nation Branding: Concepts, Issues, Practice. Oxford, UK: Butterworth-Heinemann, pp. 201–204.Google Scholar
  104. Traub, J. (2000) Inventing East Timor. Foreign Affairs 4(79), pp. 74–89.Google Scholar
  105. Tse, D.K., Belk, R.W. and Zhou, N. (1989) Becoming a consumer society: A longitudinal and cross-cultural content analysis of print ads from Hong Kong, the People’s Republic of China, and Taiwan. Journal of Consumer Research 15 (4): 457–472.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Usunier, J.C. (2006) Relevance in business research: The case of country-of-origin research in marketing. European Management Review 3 (1): 60–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Verlegh, P.W. and Steenkamp, J.B.E. (1999) A review and meta-analysis of country-of-origin research. Journal of Economic Psychology 20 (5): 52–546.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Wachtel, A. (1998) Making a Nation, Breaking a Nation: Literature and Cultural Politics in Yugoslavia. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  109. Zaller, J. (1996) The myth of massive media impact revived: New support for a discredited idea. In: R.A. Brody, P.M. Sniderman and D.C. Mutz (eds.) Political Persuasion and Attitude Change. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press, pp. 17–78.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Palgrave Macmillan, a division of Macmillan Publishers Ltd 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Political Science, University HagenHagenGermany

Personalised recommendations