Advertisement

Place Branding and Public Diplomacy

, Volume 6, Issue 4, pp 300–315 | Cite as

Place branding research: A cross-disciplinary agenda and the views of practitioners

  • Graham HankinsonEmail author
Original Article

Abstract

After years of separate development, there has recently been a convergence between the academic domains of urban policy, tourism and mainstream branding resulting in the emergence of a new domain of place branding. This convergence has, in part, been assisted by developments in the mainstream branding domain associated with corporate and services brands. At the same time, at least one book and several articles have been published, setting out agendas for future research. However, these might be regarded as deficient in two ways. First, they take no account of the conceptual development of mainstream branding theory, and second they take no account of the views of practitioners. In both these cases, further opportunities for research might be identified. This article addresses these deficiencies by supplementing the recently published research agendas with a thematic review of the mainstream branding and place branding literatures, and field interviews with 25 senior managers in place branding organisations. The identified themes are compared with recently published place branding research agendas and a cross-disciplinary agenda for future research is discussed.

Keywords

place branding place branding practice mainstream branding research agenda 

References

  1. Aaker, D. (1991) Managing Brand Equity: Capitalizing on the Value of a Brand. New York: The Free Press.Google Scholar
  2. Aaker, D. (1996) Building Strong Brands. New York: The Free Press.Google Scholar
  3. Aaker, D. and Joachimstaler, E. (2000) Brand Leadership. New York: The Free Press.Google Scholar
  4. Aaker, D. and Keller, K.L. (1990) Consumer evaluations of brand extensions. Journal of Marketing 54 (January): 27–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. American Marketing Association. (1960) Marketing Definitions: A Glossary of Marketing Terms. Chicago, IL: American Marketing Association.Google Scholar
  6. Ashworth, G. and Voogd, H. (1990) Can places be sold for tourism? In: G. Ashworth and B. Goodall (eds.) Marketing Tourism Places. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  7. Balakrishnan, M. (2009) Strategic branding of destinations: A framework. European Journal of Marketing 43 (5/6): 611–629.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Balmer, J. and Soenen, G. (1999) The acid test™ of corporate identity management. Journal of Marketing Management 15 (1–3): 69–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Borchert, J. (1994) Urban marketing: A review. In: G. Braun (ed.) Managing and Marketing of Urban Development and Urban Life. Berlin, Germany: Dietrich, Reimer, Verlag.Google Scholar
  10. Boulding, K. (1956) The Image. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Burgess, J. (1982) Selling places: Environmental images for the executive. Regional Studies 32 (1): 1–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Burmann, C. and Zeplin, S. (2005) Building brand commitment: A behavioural approach to internal brand management. Journal of Brand Management 12 (4): 279–300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. de Chernatony, L. and Dall'Olmo Riley, F. (1998) Defining a brand: Beyond the literature with the views of experts. Journal of Marketing Management 14 (5): 417–444.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. de Chernatony, L. and Segal-Horn, S. (2001) Building on services’ characteristics to develop successful services brands. Journal of Marketing Management 17 (7–8): 645–670.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Dinnie, K. (2004) Place Branding: Overview of an Emerging Literature, Place Branding 1 (1): 106–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Dinnie, K. (2008) Nation Branding Concepts, Issues, and Practice. London: Butterworth-Heinemann.Google Scholar
  17. Doyle, P. (1989) Building successful brands: The strategic options. Journal of Marketing Management 5 (1): 77–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Ewing, M. and Napoli, J. (2004) Developing and validating a multidimensional nonprofit brand orientation scale. Journal of Business Research 58 (6): 841–853.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Flagestad, A. and Hope, C. (2001) Scandinavian winter: Antecedents, concepts and empirical observations underlying destination umbrella branding models. Tourism Review 56 (1–2): 5–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Gardner, B. and Levy, S. (1955) The product and the brand. Harvard Business Review (March/April): 33–39.Google Scholar
  21. Gold, J. and Ward, S. (eds.) (1994) Place Promotion: The Use of Publicity and Marketing to Sell Places. Chichester, UK: John Wiley and Sons.Google Scholar
  22. Grangsjo, Y. (2003) Destination networking: Co-opetition in peripheral surroundings. International Journal of Distribution and Logistics Management 33 (5): 427–448.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hankinson, G. (2001) Location branding: A study of twelve English cities. Journal of Brand Management 9 (2): 127–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hankinson, G. (2004) Relational network brands: Towards a conceptual model of place brands. Journal of Vacation Marketing 10 (2): 109–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hankinson, G. (2007) The management of destination brands: Five guiding principles based on recent developments in corporate branding. Journal of Brand Management 14 (3): 240–254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hankinson, G. (2009) Managing destination brands: Establishing a theoretical foundation. Journal of Marketing Management 25 (1–2): 97–115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hankinson, G. and Cowking, P. (1993) Branding in Action. Maidenhead, UK: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  28. Hankinson, P. (2000) Brand orientation in charity organisations: Qualitative research into key charity sectors. International Journal of Non-profit and Voluntary Sector Marketing 5 (4): 207–219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Hankinson, P. (2001) Brand orientation in the charity sector: A framework for discussion. International Journal of Non-profit and Voluntary Sector Marketing 6 (3): 231–242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Hankinson, P. (2004) The internal brand in leading UK charities. Journal of Product and Brand Management 13 (2): 84–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Hanna, S. and Rowley, J (2007) An analysis of terminology use in place branding. Journal of Place Branding and Public Diplomacy 4 (1): 622–675.Google Scholar
  32. Hatch, M.J. and Schulz, M. (2003) Bringing the corporation into corporate branding. European Journal of Marketing 37 (7/8): 1041–1064.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hunt, J.D. (1975) Image as a factor in tourism development. Journal of Travel Research 13 (January): 1–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Ind, N. (1997) The Corporate Brand. London: MacMillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Ind, N. (2001) Living the Brand. London: Kogan Page.Google Scholar
  36. Iversen, N. and Hem, L. (2008) Provenance associations as core values of place umbrella brands: A framework of characteristics. Journal of European Marketing 42 (5–6): 603–626.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Jankowicz, A. (2000) Business Research Projects, 3rd edn. London: Thompson Learning.Google Scholar
  38. Kapferer, J.-N. (1997) Strategic Brand Management. London: Kogan Page.Google Scholar
  39. Kavaratzis, M. (2004) From city marketing to city branding: Towards a theoretical framework for developing city brands. Journal of Place Branding 1 (1): 58–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Kavaratzis, M. (2005) Place branding: A review of trends and conceptual models. The Marketing Review 5 (4): 329–342.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Kavaratzis, M. and Ashworth, G. (2008) Place marketing: How did we get here and where are we going? Journal of Place Management and Development 1 (2): 150–165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Kearns, G. and Philo, C. (eds.) (1993) Selling Places: The City as Cultural Capital, Past and Present. Oxford, UK: Pergamon.Google Scholar
  43. Keller, K.L. (1993) Conceptualising, measuring and managing customer-based brand equity. Journal of Marketing 57 (1): 1–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Keller, K.L. (2003) Building, Measuring, and Managing Brand Equity, 2nd edn. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.Google Scholar
  45. Keller, K.L. and Aaker, D. (1992) The effect of sequential introduction of brand extensions. Journal of Marketing Research 29 (February): 35–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. King, S. (1991) Building brands in the 1990s. Journal of Marketing Management 7 (1): 3–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Knox, S. and Bickerton, D. (2003) The six conventions of corporate branding. European Journal of Marketing 37 (7/8): 998–1016.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Konecnik, M. (2006a) Croatian-based brand equity for Slovenia as a tourism destination. Economic and Business Review 8 (1): 83–108.Google Scholar
  49. Konecnik, M. (2006b) Slovenia: New challenges in enhancing the value of the tourism destination brand. In: D. Hall, M. Smith and B. Marciszewska (eds.) Tourism in the New Europe: The Challenges and Opportunities of EU. Enlargement, Wallingford, UK: CABI.Google Scholar
  50. Konecnik, M. and Gartner, W. (2007) Customer-based brand equity for a destination. Annals of Tourism Research 34 (2): 400–421.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Kotler, P., Asplund, C., Rein, I. and Haider, D. (1999) MarketingPlaces – Europe. Harlow, UK: Pearson Education.Google Scholar
  52. Kotler, P. and Levy, S. (1969) Broadening the concept of marketing. Journal of Marketing 33 (January): 10–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Langeard, E., Bateson, J., Lovelock, C. and Eiglier, P. (1981) Marketing of Services: New Insights from Consumers and Managers. Report No. 81-104. Cambridge, MA: Marketing Sciences Institute.Google Scholar
  54. Louro, M. and Cunha, P. (2001) Brand management paradigms. Journal of Marketing Management 17 (7–8): 849–902.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Low, G. and Fullerton, R. (1994) Brands, brand management and the brand manager system: A critical-historical evaluation. Journal of Marketing Research 31 (May): 173–190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Merrilees, B., Getz, B. and O'Brien, D. (2005) Marketing stakeholder analysis: Branding the Brisbane Goodwill games. European Journal of Marketing 39 (9–10): 1066–1077.Google Scholar
  57. Miles, M.B. and Huberman, M.A. (1994) Qualitative Data Analysis. Thousand Island Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  58. Morgan, N. and Pritchard, A. (1999) Editorial. Journal of Vacation Marketing 5 (3): 213–214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Morgan, N., Pritchard, A. and Pride, R. (2002) Destination Branding: Creating the Unique Destination Proposition. Oxford, UK: Butterworth-Heinemann.Google Scholar
  60. Napoli, J. (2006) The impact of non-profit brand orientation on organisational performance. Journal of Marketing Management 22 (7): 673–694.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Olutayo, B. and Melewar, T (2008) Corporate brand differentiation in the financial services industry – Applying the highest central common factor concept to nation branding. In: K. Dinnie (ed.) Nation Branding Concepts, Issues, and Practice. London: Butterworth-Heinemann.Google Scholar
  62. Park, C.W., Jaworski, B. and McInnis, D. (1986) Strategic brand concept management. Journal of Marketing 50 (October): 135–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Pechlaner, H., Raich, F. and Zehrer, A. (2007) The Alps: Challenges and potentials of a brand management. Tourism Analysis 12 (5–6): 359–370.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Pike, S. (2007) Consumer-based brand equity for destinations: Practical DMO performance measures. Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing 22 (1): 51–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Pike, S. (2009) Destination brand positions of a competitive set of near-home destinations. Tourism Management 30: 857–866.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Pocock, D. and Hudson, R (1978) Images of the Urban Environment. London: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  67. Rainisto, S. (2003) Success factors of place marketing: A study of place marketing practices in Northern Europe and the United States. PhD thesis, Helsinki University of Technology, Institute of Strategy and International Business.Google Scholar
  68. Ries, A. and Trout, J. (1972) The positioning era. Advertising Age 24 (April): 35–38.Google Scholar
  69. Ries, A. and Trout, J. (1981) Positioning: The Battle for your Mind, 1st edn. Maidenhead, UK: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  70. Ritchie, B and Ritchie, R. (1998) The Branding of Tourism Destinations: Past Achievements and Future Challenges. Report presented to the 1998 Annual Congress of the International Association of Scientific Experts in Tourism, Marrakech, Morocco, pp. 1–31.Google Scholar
  71. Rust, R., Zeithaml, V. and Lemon, K. (2000) Driving Customer Equity. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  72. Schein, E. (1992) Organisational Culture and Leadership, 2nd edn. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  73. Sheth, J., Newmann, B. and Gross, B. (1991) Why we buy what we buy: A theory of consumption values. Journal of Business Research 22: 159–170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Sirgy, J. (1982) Self-concept in consumer behaviour: A critical review. Journal of Consumer Research 9: 287–300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Sirgy, J. and Su, C. (2000) Destination image, self-congruity, and travel behaviour: Towards an integrative model. Journal of Travel Research 38 (May): 340–352.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Skinner, H. (2008) The emergence and development of place marketing's confused identity. Journal of Marketing Management 24 (9–10): 915–928.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Swaminathan, V., Fox, R. and Reddy, S. (2001) The impact of brand extension introduction on choice. Journal of Marketing 65 (4): 1–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Tauber, E. (1981) Brand franchise extensions: New products benefit from existing brand names. Business Horizons 24 (2): 36–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Tilley, C. (1999) Built-in branding: How to engineer a leadership brand. Journal of Marketing Management 15 (1–3): 181–191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Trueman, M., Klemm, M., Giroud, A. and Lindley, T. (2001) Bradford in the Premier League: A Multi-Disciplinary Approach to Positioning a City. Bradford University School of Management, Working Paper Series, No. 01/04.Google Scholar
  81. Trueman, M., Klemm, M. and Giroud, A. (2004) Can a city communicate? Bradford as a corporate brand. Corporate Communications: An International Journal 9 (4): 317–330.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Urde, M. (1994) Brand orientation – A strategy for survival. Journal of Consumer Marketing 11 (3): 18–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Urde, M. (1999) Brand orientation: A mindset for building brands into strategic resources. Journal of Marketing Management 15 (1–3): 117–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. van den Berg, L., Klaasen, L. and van der Meer, J. (1990) Marketing Metropolitan Regions. Rotterdam, the Netherlands: European Institute of Comparative Urban Research.Google Scholar
  85. Warnaby, G. and Davies, B. (1997) Commentary: Cities as service factories? Using the Servuction system for marketing cities as shopping destinations. International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management 25 (6): 204–210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Ward, S. (1998) Selling Places: The Marketing of Towns and Cities, 1850–2000. London: Routledge.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Palgrave Macmillan, a division of Macmillan Publishers Ltd 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.London Metropolitan University Business School, London Metropolitan UniversityLondonUK

Personalised recommendations