Journal of International Business Studies

, Volume 14, Issue 2, pp 75–89

The Cultural Relativity of Organizational Practices and Theories

  • Geert Hofstede


This paper summarizes the author's recently published findings about differences in people's work-related values among 50 countries. In view of these differences, ethnocentric management theories (those based on the value system of one particular country) have become untenable. This concept is illustrated for the fields of leadership, organization, and motivation.

Copyright information

© Academy of International Business 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • Geert Hofstede
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute for Research on Intercultural Cooperation (IRIC)

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