Journal of International Business Studies

, Volume 40, Issue 1, pp 58–70 | Cite as

Formalizing internationalization in the eclectic paradigm

  • Peter J BuckleyEmail author
  • Niron Hashai


The paper presents a simple general equilibrium model that formalizes internationalization in the eclectic paradigm based on a reconfiguration of concepts taken from the new classical economics literature. The model enables us to address simultaneously the role of ownership, location and internalization advantages, and their interaction, in the emergence of the multinational enterprise (MNE) through a set of mathematical inequalities. Our model offers a bridge between the detached perceptions of the MNE often held by international trade economists and international business scholars, and makes specific aspects of the eclectic paradigm empirically testable.


multinational enterprise eclectic paradigm internationalization entry mode 



We thank Editor-in-Chief Arie Y Lewin and two anonymous JIBS reviewers for their guidance. Niron Hashai thanks the Asper Center for Entrepreneurship at the Hebrew University for its financial support.


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Copyright information

© Academy of International Business 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Centre for International Business, Leeds University Business SchoolUK
  2. 2.Jerusalem School of Business Administration, The Hebrew UniversityIsrael

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