Advertisement

Journal of International Business Studies

, Volume 39, Issue 5, pp 814–832 | Cite as

Perceived career opportunities from globalization: globalization capabilities and attitudes towards women in Iran and the US

  • William NewburryEmail author
  • Liuba Y Belkin
  • Paradis Ansari
Article

Abstract

As competition for human capital intensifies, understanding how employees perceive their fit in a company can assist companies in harnessing the knowledge and skills needed to achieve competitive advantage. Building on the person–organization fit theoretical framework, we suggest that individual employee perceptions of globalization-related career opportunities represent a fit between individual and company capabilities and values. We find both similarities and differences between the relationships of individual- and company-level globalization capabilities and attitudes towards women (an important capability source) and globalization-related career perceptions within samples of 96 Iranian and 210 US employees.

Keywords

career globalization women gender Iran US 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors thank Maboud Ansari (William Paterson University), Esmat Ansari and Ismail Ansari (University of Isfahan) for assistance in questionnaire development, translation and data gathering. The authors also thank JIBS Departmental Editor Terri Scandura, three anonymous reviewers, members of the Rutgers Management & Global Business Department, Danielle Warren (Rutgers), Naomi Gardberg (Baruch), Pooja Thakur (Rutgers), and Terri Kurtzberg (Rutgers) for comments on previous manuscript versions. Please address correspondence to William Newburry.

References

  1. Adler, N. J. 1999. Global leaders: Women of influence. In G. N. Powell (Ed.), Handbook of gender & work: 239–261. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Adler, N. J., & Bartholomew, S. 1992. Managing globally competent people. Academy of Management Executive, 6 (3): 52–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aiken, L. S., & West, S. G. 1991. Multiple regression: Testing and interpreting interactions. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  4. Ashford, L. 2005. Taking stock of women's progress. Population Reference Bureau. http://www.prb.org/pdf05/TakingStockWomens.pdf. Accessed 27 March 2007.
  5. Assaad, R., & Arntz, M. 2005. Constrained geographical mobility and gendered labor market outcomes under structural adjustment: Evidence from Egypt. World Development, 33 (3): 431–454.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bahramitash, R. 2004. Market fundamentalism vs religious fundamentalism: Women's employment in Iran. Critique: Critical Middle Eastern Studies, 13 (1): 33–46.Google Scholar
  7. Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A. 1986. The moderator-mediator variable distinction in social psychology research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51 (6): 1173–1182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bartlett, C. A., & Ghoshal, S. 2002. Building competitive advantage through people. MIT Sloan Management Review, 43 (2): 34–41.Google Scholar
  9. Brett, J. M., & Stroh, L. K. 1999. Women in management: How far have we come and what needs to be done as we approach 2000? Journal of Management Inquiry, 8 (4): 392–398.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Brewster, C. 1991. The management of expatriates. London: Kogan Page.Google Scholar
  11. Cable, D. M., & Judge, T. A. 1996. Person–organization fit, job choice decisions, and organizational entry. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 67 (3): 294–311.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Chatman, J. A. 1989. Improving interactional organizational research: A model of person–organization fit. Academy of Management Review, 14 (3): 333–349.Google Scholar
  13. Contractor, F. J., Kundu, S. K., & Hsu, C. -C. 2003. A three-stage theory of international expansion: The link between multinationality and performance in the service sector. Journal of International Business Studies, 34 (1): 5–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Darr, E. D., & Kurtzberg, T. 2000. An investigation of partner similarity dimensions on knowledge transfer. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 82 (1): 28–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Dastmalchian, A., Javidan, M., & Alam, K. 2001. Effective leadership and culture in Iran: An empirical study. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 50 (4): 532–538.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Deephouse, D. L. 1996. Does isomorphism legitimate? Academy of Management Journal, 39 (4): 1024–1039.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Devinney, T. M., Midgley, D. F., & Venaik, S. 2000. The optimal performance of the global firm: Formalizing and extending the integration-responsiveness framework. Organization Science, 11 (6): 674–695.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Eagle, B. W., Miles, E. W., & Icenogle, M. L. 2001. Male and female interpretations of bidirectional work-family conflict scales. In C. A. Schriesheim & L. L. Neider (Eds), Equivalence in measurement: 5–23. Greenwich, CT: Information Age.Google Scholar
  19. The Economist 2003. God's rule or man's? A survey of Iran. Special Section, 366 (8307): 1–16.Google Scholar
  20. Emrich, C. G., Denmark, F. L., & Den Hartog, D. N. 2004. Cross-cultural differences in gender egalitarianism. In R. J. House, P. J. Hanges, M. Javidan, P. W. Dorfman & V. Gupta (Eds), Culture, leadership, and organizations: The GLOBE study of 62 societies: 343–394. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  21. Erdogan, B., & Bauer, T.N. 2005. Enhancing career benefits of employee proactive personality: The role of fit with jobs and organizations. Personnel Psychology, 58 (4): 859–891.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Ganzach, Y. 1998. Intelligence and job satisfaction. Academy of Management Journal, 41 (5): 526–539.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Gibson, C. B. 1995. An investigation of gender differences in leadership across four countries. Journal of International Business Studies, 26 (2): 255–279.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Graf, A. 2004. Screening and training inter-cultural competencies: Evaluating the impact of national culture on inter-cultural competencies. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 15 (6): 1124–1128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Gupta, A. K., & Govindarajan, V. 2002. Cultivating a global mindset. Academy of Management Executive, 16 (1): 116–126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Gutek, B. A. 1985. Sex and the workplace: The impact of sexual behavior and harassment on women, men, and organizations. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  27. Hair, J. F., Anderson, R. E., Tatham, R. L., & Black, W. C. 1998. Multivariate analysis. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  28. Harrison, A. E., & McMillan, M. S. 2006. Dispelling some myths about offshoring. Academy of Management Perspectives, 20 (4): 6–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Hausmann, R., Tyson, L. D., & Zahidi, S. 2006. The global gender gap report 2006. World Economic Forum, Geneva. http://www.weforum.org/pdf/gendergap/report2006.pdf. Accessed 28 March 2007.
  30. Helgesen, S. 1990. The female advantage: Women's ways of leadership. New York: Doubleday.Google Scholar
  31. Hitt, M. A., Bierman, L., Shimizu, K., & Kochhar, R. 2001. Direct and moderating effects of human capital on strategy and performance in professional service firms: A resource-based perspective. Academy of Management Journal, 44 (1): 13–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. House, R. J., Hanges, P. J., Javidan, M., Dorfman, P. W., & Gupta, V. 2004. Culture, leadership and organizations: The GLOBE study of 62 societies. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  33. Hultin, M., & Szulkin, R. 1999. Wages and unequal access to organizational power: An empirical test of gender discrimination. Administrative Science Quarterly, 44 (3): 453–472.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Izraeli, D. N., & Adler, N. J. 1994. Competitive frontiers: Women managers in a global economy. In D. N. Izraeli and N. J. Adler (Eds), Competitive frontiers: Women managers in a global economy: 3–21. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  35. Javidan, M., & Dastmalchian, A. 2003. Culture and leadership in Iran: The land of individual achievers, strong family ties, and powerful elite. Academy of Management Executive, 17 (4): 127–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Kahn, R., Wolfe, D., Quinn, R., Snock, J., & Rosenthal, R. 1964. Organizational stress: Studies in role conflict and ambiguity. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  37. Kanter, R. M. 1978. Men and women of the corporation. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  38. Kent, R. L., & Moss, S. E. 1994. Effects of sex and gender role on leader emergence. Academy of Management Journal, 37 (5): 1335–1346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Kobrin, S. J. 1994. Is there a relationship between a geocentric mind-set and multinational strategy? Journal of International Business Studies, 25 (3): 493–511.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Kristof, A. L. 1996. Person–organization fit: An integrative review of its conceptualizations, measurement, and implications. Personnel Psychology, 49 (1): 1–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Lee, P. M., & James, E. H. 2007. She'-E-Os: Gender effects and investor reactions to the announcements of top executive appointments. Strategic Management Journal, 28 (3): 227–241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Levin, D. Z., & Cross, R. 2004. The strength of weak ties you can trust: The mediating role of trust in effective knowledge transfer. Management Science, 50 (11): 1477–1490.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Luthar, V. K., & Luthar, H. K. 2002. Using Hofstede's cultural dimensions to explain sexually harassing behaviours in an international context. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 13 (2): 268–284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Metcalfe, B. D. 2007. Gender and human resource management in the Middle East. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 18 (1): 54–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Muchinsky, P. M., & Monahan, C. J. 1987. What is person–environment congruence? Supplementary vs complementary models of fit. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 31 (3): 268–277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Murtha, T. P., Lenway, S. A., & Bagozzi, R. P. 1998. Global mind-sets and cognitive shift in a complex multinational corporation. Strategic Management Journal, 19 (2): 97–114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Nabil, M. K., & Véganzonès-Varoudakis, M. 2004. Reforms and growth in MENA countries: New empirical evidence. World Bank, Washington, DC. http://go.worldbank.org/75E35X8Z90. Accessed 27 March 2007.
  48. Namazie, P., & Frame, P. 2007. Developments in human resource management in Iran. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 18 (1): 159–171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Napier, N. K., & Taylor, S. 2002. Experiences of women professionals abroad: Comparisons across Japan, China and Turkey. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 13 (5): 837–851.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Newburry, W. 2000. Interoffice shared perceptions as a control method in an integrated multinational corporation, Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, New York University.Google Scholar
  51. Newburry, W. 2001. MNC interdependence and local embeddedness influences on perceptions of career benefits from global integration. Journal of International Business Studies, 32 (3): 497–507.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Newburry, W., Gardberg, N., & Belkin, L. 2006. Organizational attractiveness is in the eye of the beholder: The interaction of demographic characteristics with foreignness. Journal of International Business Studies, 37 (5): 666–686.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Ng, E. S. W., & Burke, R. J. 2005. Person–organization fit and the war for talent: Does diversity management make a difference? International Journal of Human Resource Management, 16 (7): 1195–1210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Nilakant, V. 1991. Dynamics of middle managerial roles: A study in four Indian organizations. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 6 (1): 17–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Oakley, J. G. 2000. Gender-based barriers to senior management positions: Understanding the scarcity of female CEOs. Journal of Business Ethics, 27 (4): 321–324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Oddou, G., Mendenhall, M., & Ritchie, J. B. 2000. Leveraging travel as a tool for global leadership development. Human Resource Management Journal, 39 (2/3): 159–172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Oyserman, D., & Uskul, A. (in press). Individualism and collectivism: Societal-level processes with implications for individual-level and society-level outcomes. In F. van de Vijver, D. van Hemert & Y. Poortinga (Eds), Multilevel analysis of individuals and cultures. Rahway, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  58. Parkes, L. P., Bochner, S., & Schneider, S. K. 2001. Person–organization fit across cultures: An empirical investigation of individualism and collectivism. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 50 (1): 81–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Perlmutter, H. 1969. The tortuous evolution of the multinational corporation. Columbia Journal of World Business, 4 (1): 9–18.Google Scholar
  60. Perry, L. E., Davis-Blake, A., & Kulik, C. T. 1994. Explaining gender-based selection decisions: A synthesis of contextual and cognitive approaches. Academy of Management Review, 19 (4): 786–820.Google Scholar
  61. Podsakoff, P. M., & Organ, D. W. 1986. Self-reports in organization research: Problems and prospects. Journal of Management, 12 (4): 531–544.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Powell, G. N., & Butterfield, D. A. 1994. Investigating the “glass ceiling” phenomenon: An empirical study of actual promotions to top management. Academy of Management Journal, 37 (1): 68–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Powell, G. N., Butterfield, D. A., & Parent, J. D. 2002. Gender and managerial stereotypes: Have the times changed? Journal of Management, 28 (2): 177–193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Ragins, B. R., & Sundstrom, E. 1990. Gender and perceived power in manager–subordinate relations. Journal of Occupational Psychology, 63 (4): 273–287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Riordan, C. M., & Vandenberg, R. J. 1994. A central question in cross-cultural research: Do employees of different cultures interpret work-related measures in an equivalent manner? Journal of Management, 20 (3): 643–671.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Robinson, C. J., Al-Khatib, J. A., Al-Habib, M., & Lanoue, D. 2001. Beliefs about work in the Middle East and the convergence vs divergence of values. Journal of World Business, 36 (3): 223–244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Rosener, J. B. 1995. America's competitive secret: Utilizing women as a management strategy. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  68. Scandura, T., & Dorfman, P. 2004. Leadership research in an international and cross-cultural context. The Leadership Quarterly, 15 (2): 277–307.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Scandura, T., Williams, E., & Hamilton, B. A. 2001. Measuring invariance using confirmatory factor analysis and item response theory. In C. A. Schriesheim & L. L. Neider (Eds), Equivalence in measurement: 99–130. Greenwich, CT: Information Age.Google Scholar
  70. Scarpello, V., & Campbell, J. P. 1983. Job satisfaction: Are all the parts there? Personnel Psychology, 36 (3): 577–600.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Schaffer, B. S., & Riordan, C. M. 2003. A review of cross-cultural methodologies for organizational research: A best practices approach. Organizational Research Methods, 6 (2): 169–215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Sharpe, R. 2000. As leaders, women rule. Business Week, 20 November (3708): 74–84.Google Scholar
  73. Shukri, S. J. A. 1999. Social changes and women in the Middle East: State policy, education, economics and development. Aldershot: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  74. Stroh, L. K., & Reilly, A. H. 1999. Gender and careers: Present experiences and emerging trends. In G. N. Powell (Ed.), Handbook of gender & work: 307–324. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Trank, C. Q., Rynes, S. L., & Bretz Jr., R. D. 2002. Attracting applicants in the war for talent: Differences in work preferences among high achievers. Journal of Business and Psychology, 16 (3): 331–345.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Academy of International Business 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • William Newburry
    • 1
    Email author
  • Liuba Y Belkin
    • 2
  • Paradis Ansari
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Management and International BusinessFlorida International UniversityMiamiUSA
  2. 2.Department of ManagementCollege of Business and Economics, Lehigh UniversityBethlehemUSA
  3. 3.Ortho-McNeil NeurologicsTitusvilleUSA

Personalised recommendations