Journal of International Business Studies

, Volume 38, Issue 5, pp 726–745

Country image and consumer-based brand equity: relationships and implications for international marketing



This paper examines the relationships between consumers’ country-level and product-level images of a country, and the equity they associate with a brand from that country, using canonical correlation analysis. Results from mallintercept surveys conducted in an Australian state capital city indicated that the consumer-based equity of a brand was significantly associated with both the macro and micro images of the country of origin of the brand. The relationship between these two sets of constructs was found to be positive as well as product category specific. Furthermore, each consumer-based brand equity dimension contributed differently to the relationship according to the product category, while the contribution of both country image dimensions (macro and micro) was also product category specific. Results also showed that cars, as a product category, are more sensitive to country image than televisions. These findings have direct and important implications for international marketers.


country image consumer-based brand equity international branding country of origin international marketing 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Aaker, D.A. (1991) Managing Brand Equity, The Free Press: New York.Google Scholar
  2. Aaker, D.A. (1996) Building Strong Brands, The Free Press: New York.Google Scholar
  3. Aaker, J.L. (1997) ‘Dimensions of brand personality', Journal of Marketing Research 36(3): 345–355.Google Scholar
  4. Agarwal, M.K. and Rao, V.R. (1996) ‘An empirical comparison of consumer-based measures of brand equity’ Marketing Letters 7(3): 237–247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Agarwal, S. and Sikri, S. (1996) ‘Country image: consumer evaluation of product category extensions’ International Marketing Review 13(4): 23–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Albaum, G. and Golden, L. (1991) ‘Alternative measurement formats for multiple comparisons across multiple image objects: a country image application’ Journal of Global Marketing 4(3): 89–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Amonini, C., Keogh, J. and Sweeney, J.C. (1998) ‘The dual nature of country-of-origin effects: a study of Australian consumers’ evaluations’ Australasian Marketing Journal 6(2): 13–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Anderson, J.C. and Gerbing, D.W. (1988) ‘Structural equation modeling practice: a review and recommended two-step approach’ Psychological Bulletin 103(3): 411–453.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Australian Bureau of Statistics (2002) Basic Community Profile, 2001 Census Community Profile Series, Cat. no. 2001.0,ABS, [www document] (accessed 11 March 2003).Google Scholar
  10. Biel, A.L. (1993) ‘Converting Image into Equity', in D.A. Aaker and A.L. Biel (eds.) Brand Equity and Advertising: Advertising's Role in Building Strong Brands, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates: London, pp: 67–81.Google Scholar
  11. Bilkey, W.J. and Nes, E. (1982) ‘Country-of-origin effects on product evaluations’ Journal of International Business Studies 13(1): 89–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cattin, P., Jolibert, A. and Lohnes, C. (1982) ‘A cross cultural study of “made-in” concepts’ Journal of International Business Studies 13(3): 131–141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Chao, P., Samiee, S. and Yip, L.S. (2003) ‘International marketing and the Asia-Pacific region: developments, opportunities, and research issues’ Journal of International Marketing 20(5): 480–492.Google Scholar
  14. Cobb-Walgren, C.J., Ruble, C. and Donthu, N. (1995) ‘Brand equity, brand preference, and purchase intent’ Journal of Advertising 24(3): 25–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cordell, V.V. (1992) ‘Effects of consumer preferences for foreign sourced products’ Journal of International Business Studies 23(2): 251–269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cowley, E. and Mitchell, A.A. (2003) ‘The moderating effect of product knowledge on the learning and organization of product information’ Journal of Consumer Research 30(3): 443–454.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Darling, J.R. and Wood, V.R. (1990) ‘A longitudinal study comparing perceptions of US and Japanese consumer products in a third/neutral country: Finland 1975 to 1985’ Journal of International Business Studies 21(3): 427–450.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Erickson, G.M., Johansson, J.K. and Chao, P. (1984) ‘Image variables in multi-attribute product evaluations: country-oforigin effects’ Journal of Consumer Research 11(2): 694–699.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Fornell, C. and Larcker, D.F. (1981) ‘Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error’ Journal of Marketing Research 18(1): 39–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Gürhan-Canli, Z. and Maheswaran, D. (2000a) ‘Cultural variations in country of origin effects’ Journal of Marketing Research 37(3): 309–317.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Gürhan-Canli, Z. and Maheswaran, D. (2000b) ‘Determinants of country-of-origin evaluations’ Journal of Consumer Research 27(1): 96–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hair Jr, J.F., Anderson, R.E., Tatham, R.L. and Black, W.C. (1998) Multivariate Data Analysis, 5th edn, Prentice-Hall: Upper Saddle River, NJ.Google Scholar
  23. Hair Jr, J.F., Black, W.C., Babin, B.J., Anderson, R.E. and Tatham, R.L. (2004) Multivariate Data Analysis, 6th edn, Prentice-Hall: Upper Saddle River, NJ.Google Scholar
  24. Han, C.M. (1989) ‘Country image: halo or summary construct?’ Journal of Marketing Research 26 (2): 222–229.Google Scholar
  25. Han, C.M. and Terpstra, V. (1988) ‘Country-of-origin effects for uni-national and bi-national products’ Journal of International Business Studies 19(2): 235–255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Harman, H.H. (1967) Modern Factor Analysis, University of Chicago Press: Chicago.Google Scholar
  27. Häubl, G. (1996) ‘A cross-national investigation of the effects of country of origin and brand name on the evaluation of a new car', International Marketing Review 13(5): 76-97.Google Scholar
  28. Häubl, G. and Elrod, T. (1999) ‘The impact of congruity between brand name and country of production on consumers' product quality Judgments’ International Journal of Research in Marketing 16(3): 199–215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Heslop, L.A. and Papadopoulos, N. (1993) ‘But Who Knows Where or When: Reflections on the Images of Countries and their Products', in N. Papadopoulos and L.A. Heslop (eds.) Product and Country Images: Impact and Role in International Marketing, The Haworth Press: New York, pp: 39–76.Google Scholar
  30. Hsieh, M.H. (2001) ‘Identifying brand image dimensionality and measuring the degree of brand globalization: a cross-national study’ Journal of International Marketing 10(2): 46–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Jacoby, J. and Chestnut, R.W. (1978) Brand Loyalty, John Wiley & Sons: New York.Google Scholar
  32. Jaffe, E.D. and Nebenzahl, I.D. (1984) ‘Alternative questionnaire formats for country image studies’ Journal of Marketing Research 21(4): 463–471.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Jaffe, E.D. and Nebenzahl, I.D. (2001) National Image and Competitive Advantage: The Theory and Practice of Country-of-Origin Effect, Copenhagen Business School Press: Copenhagen.Google Scholar
  34. Kamakura, W. and Russell, G.J. (1993) ‘Measuring brand value with scanner data’ International Journal of Research in Marketing 10(1): 9–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Kaynak, E. and Cavusgil, S.T. (1983) ‘Consumer attitudes towards products of foreign origin: do they vary across product classes?’ International Journal of Advertising 2(2): 147–157.Google Scholar
  36. Keller, K.L. (1993) ‘Conceptualizing, measuring and managing customer-based brand equity’ Journal of Marketing 57(1): 1–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Kim, C.K. (1995) ‘Brand popularity and country image in global competition: managerial implications’ Journal of Product and Brand Management 4(5): 21–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Kim, C.K. and Chung, J.Y. (1997) ‘Brand popularity, country image and market share: an empirical study’ Journal of International Business Studies 28(2): 361–387.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Klein, J.G. and Ettenson, R. (1999) ‘Consumer animosity and consumer ethnocentrism: an analysis of unique antecedents’ Journal of International Consumer Marketing 11(4): 5–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Klein, J.G., Ettenson, R. and Morris, M.D. (1998) ‘The animosity model of foreign product purchase: an empirical test in the People's Republic of China’ Journal of Marketing 62(1): 89–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Kleppe, I.A., Iversen, N.M. and Stensaker, I.G. (2002) ‘Country images in marketing strategies: conceptual issues and an empirical Asian illustration’ Journal of Brand Management 10(1): 61–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Lee, D.H. and Schaninger, C.M. (1996) ‘Country of Production/Assembly as a New Country Image Construct: A Conceptual Application to Global Transplant Decisions’ in S.T. Cavusgil (ed.) Advances in International Marketing, Vol. 7, JAI Press: Greenwich, CT, pp: 233–254.Google Scholar
  43. Liefeld, J.P., Heslop, L.A., Papadopoulos, N. and Wall, M. (1996) ‘Dutch consumer use of intrinsic, country-of-origin, and price cues in product evaluation and choice’ Journal of International Consumer Marketing 9(1): 57–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Luna, D., Lerman, D. and Peracchio, L.A. (2005) ‘Structural constraints in code-switched advertising’ Journal of Consumer Research 32(3): 416–423.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. MacKay, M.M. (2001) ‘Evaluation of brand equity measures: further empirical results’ Journal of Product and Brand Management 10(1): 38–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Martin, I.M. and Eroglu, S. (1993) ‘Measuring a multi-dimensional construct: country image’ Journal of Business Research 28(3): 191–210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. McCarthy, E.J., Perreault, W.D. and Quester, P.G. (2001) Basic Marketing: A Managerial Perspective, 3rd edn, McGraw-Hill: Roseville, NSW.Google Scholar
  48. Nagashima, A. (1970) ‘A comparison of Japanese and US attitudes toward foreign products’ Journal of Marketing 34(1): 68–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Nagashima, A. (1977) ‘A comparative “made in” product image survey among Japanese businessmen’ Journal of Marketing 41(2): 95–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Nebenzahl, I. D. and Jaffe, E. D. (1996) ‘Measuring the Joint effect of brand and country image in consumer evaluation of global products’ International Marketing Review 13(4): 5–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Netemeyer, R.G., Durvasula, S. and Lichtenstein, D.R. (1991) ‘A cross-national assessment of the reliability and validity of the CETSCALE’ Journal of Marketing Research 28(3): 320–327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Novemsky, N. and Dhar, R. (2005) ‘Goal fulfillment and goal targets in sequential choice’ Journal of Consumer Research 32(3): 396–404.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Oliver, R.L. (1997) A Behavioral Perspective on the Consumer, McGraw-Hill: New York.Google Scholar
  54. Oliver, R.L. (1999) ‘Whence consumer loyalty?’ Journal of Marketing 63(Special Issue): 33–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Onkvisit, S. and Shaw, J.J. (1989) ‘The international dimension of branding: strategic considerations and decisions’ International Marketing Review 6(3): 23–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Pappu, R., Quester, P.G. and Cooksey, R.W. (2005) ‘Consumer-based brand equity: improving the measurement — empirical evidence’ Journal of Product and Brand Management 14(3): 143–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Parameswaran, R. and Pisharodi, R.M. (2002) ‘Assimilation effects in country image research', International Marketing Review 19(3): 259–278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Paswan, A.K., Kulkarni, S. and Ganesh, G. (2003) ‘Loyalty towards the country, the state and the service brands’ Journal of Brand Management 10(3): 233–251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Priester, J.R., Nayakankuppam, D., Fleming, M.A. and Godek, J. (2004) ‘The A2SC2 model: the influence of attitudes and attitude strength on consideration and choice’ Journal of Consumer Research 30(4): 574–587.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Reierson, C.C. (1967) ‘Attitude changes toward foreign products’ Journal of Marketing Research 43(4): 385–387.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Roth, M. and Romeo, J.B. (1992) ‘Matching product category and country image perceptions: a framework for managing country-of-origin effects’ Journal of International Business Studies 23(3): 477–498.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Rummel, R.J. (1970) Applied Factor Analysis, Northwestern University Press: Evanston, IL.Google Scholar
  63. Schooler, R.D. (1965) ‘Product bias in the Central American Common Market’ Journal of Marketing Research 2(4): 394–397.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Shimp, T.A., Samiee, S. and Madden, T.J. (1993) ‘Countries and their products: a cognitive structure perspective’ Journal of Academy of Marketing Science 21(4): 323–330.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Shocker, A.D., Srivastava, R.K. and Ruekert, R.W. (1994) ‘Challenges and opportunities facing brand management: an introduction to the special issue’ Journal of Marketing Research 31(2): 149–158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Tellis, G.J. (1988) ‘Advertising exposure, loyalty, and brand purchase: a two-stage model of choice’ Journal of Marketing Research 25(2): 134–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Thakor, M.V. and Katsanis, L.P. (1997) ‘A model of brand and country effects on quality dimensions: issues and implications’ Journal of International Consumer Marketing 9(3): 79–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Tull, D.S. and Hawkins, D. I. (1990) Marketing Research: Measurement and Method, 5th edn, Macmillan Publishing: New York.Google Scholar
  69. Washburn,J.H. and Plank, R.E. (2002) ‘Measuring brand equity: an evaluation of a consumer-based brand equity scale’ Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice 10(1): 46–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Yoo, B. and Donthu, N. (2001) ‘Developing and validating a multidimensional consumer-based brand equity scale’ Journal of Business Research 52(1): 1–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Yoo, B., Donthu, N. and Lee, S. (2000) ‘An examination of selected marketing mix elements and brand equity’ Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science 28(2): 195–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Academy of International Business 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ravi Pappu
    • 1
  • Pascale G Quester
    • 2
  • Ray W Cooksey
    • 3
  1. 1.UQ Business School, Faculty of Business, Economics and lawUniversity of QueenslandBrisbaneAustralia
  2. 2.School of CommerceUniversity of AdelaideAdelaideAustralia
  3. 3.New England Business SchoolUniversity of New EnglandArmidaleAustralia

Personalised recommendations