Journal of International Business Studies

, Volume 38, Issue 1, pp 200–205 | Cite as

Liabilities of regional foreignness and the use of firm-level versus country-level data: a response to Dunning et al. (2007)

  • Alan M Rugman
  • Alain Verbeke


We are pleased that Dunning et al. have provided macro (country) level data demonstrating the increased internationalization of many nations over the past decade. We also appreciate their findings lending support to our perspective on the regional nature of world business. Our work was based solely on micro (firm) level data. Both country-level data and firm-level data have methodological problems, which we attempt to reconcile in this commentary. We also address the broader conceptual issues of how to interpret country-level vs firm-level data.


regional strategy home region bound firm-specific advantages liability of regional foreignness methodology 



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Copyright information

© Academy of International Business 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Kelley School of Business, Indiana UniversityBloomingtonUSA
  2. 2.Haskayne School of Business, University of CalgaryCanada

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