Journal of International Business Studies

, Volume 37, Issue 4, pp 484–498 | Cite as

Goal orientations and performance: role of temporal norms

  • Cynthia Lee
  • Chun HuiEmail author
  • Catherine H Tinsley
  • Xiongying Niu


We tested the relationships between Chinese employees' goal orientation and their performance, as well as the moderating effects of temporal norms (future planning and scheduling) on this relationship. Results from employees across seven different organizations in China demonstrated that the mastery goal orientation was positively related to job performance. The performance goal orientation was unrelated to employment outcomes. Further, results showed that a mastery goal orientation was most useful when future planning was emphasized and scheduling was de-emphasized.


temporal norms performance goals comparative management 



The work described in this paper was supported by a grant from the Research Grants Council of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China (Project CUHK4309/01H) awarded to Chun Hui and Jeanine Turner. We thank the two JIBS reviewers and the Departmental Editor, Professor Terri Scandura, for their invaluable input into improving this manuscript. We also thank John Slocum for his constructive comments on an earlier version of this manuscript.


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Copyright information

© Academy of International Business 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Cynthia Lee
    • 1
  • Chun Hui
    • 2
    Email author
  • Catherine H Tinsley
    • 3
  • Xiongying Niu
    • 4
  1. 1.College of Business Administration, Northeastern UniversityBostonUSA
  2. 2.Department of ManagementThe Chinese University of Hong KongHong Kong
  3. 3.School of Business, Georgetown UniversityWashingtonUSA
  4. 4.School of International Business Management, University of International Business and EconomicsBeijingChina

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