Journal of International Business Studies

, Volume 36, Issue 4, pp 357–378 | Cite as

Culture and international business: recent advances and their implications for future research

  • Kwok LeungEmail author
  • Rabi S Bhagat
  • Nancy R Buchan
  • Miriam Erez
  • Cristina B Gibson


The paper provides a state-of-the-art review of several innovative advances in culture and international business (IB) to stimulate new avenues for future research. We first review the issues surrounding cultural convergence and divergence, and the processes underlying cultural changes. We then examine novel constructs for characterizing cultures, and how to enhance the precision of cultural models by pinpointing when cultural effects are important. Finally, we examine the usefulness of experimental methods, which are rarely used by IB researchers. Implications of these path-breaking approaches for future research on culture and IB are discussed.


culture and international business convergence and divergence of cultures cultural change cultural dimensions cross-cultural experiments 



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Copyright information

© Academy of International Business 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kwok Leung
    • 1
    Email author
  • Rabi S Bhagat
    • 2
  • Nancy R Buchan
    • 3
  • Miriam Erez
    • 4
  • Cristina B Gibson
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of ManagementCity University of Hong KongKowloonHong Kong
  2. 2.University of MemphisMemphisUSA
  3. 3.University of WisconsinMadisonUSA
  4. 4.Technion-Israel Institute of TechnologyHaifaIsrael
  5. 5.University of CaliforniaIrvineUSA

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