, Volume 43, Issue 3, pp 99–102

Kashmir, 1990–2000: Reflections on individual voices in a dirty war

  • Sumantra Bose
Research Article

DOI: 10.1057/palgrave.development.1110179

Cite this article as:
Bose, S. Development (2000) 43: 99. doi:10.1057/palgrave.development.1110179


Sumantra Bose evaluates the potential of independent, people-oriented activism to develop non-military and non-sectarian approaches to tackle the violent conflict in Kashmir. He concludes that the prospects of such organized movements are dim, because at present Jammu & Kashmir's people are too traumatized and too internally divided to sustain such efforts. However, he highlights the heroic efforts made by several key individuals to defend human rights and democratic liberties. The author argues that in defying the climate of fear and transcending sectarian political cleavages, these individuals have put forward an alternative vision for resolving the Kashmir question.


civil liberties conflict resolution human rights India Kashmir Pakistan 

Copyright information

© Society for International Development 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sumantra Bose
    • 1
  1. 1.London School of EconomicsLondon

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